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MEDICAL SCIENCE 

Abstracts & Reviews 



V^OLUiME IV 



APRIL— SEPTEx\[BER 1931 




Published for 

THE MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 

by 

HUMPHREY MILFOKD 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW COPENHAGEN 

NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN 

BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS SHANGHAI 



I 



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME IV 

[Key to initials given at end of each revieto and abstract) 

A E A. E. Quine, F.E.C.S. 

C d F " C. da Fano, M.D., L.D., F.R.M.S. 

Q Y M C. F. Marshall, F.R.C.S. 

C* G l' W. C. G. L. Wolf, M.D. 

Q L C. Lillingston, M.D. 

Q l' E. C- Lovatt Evans, D.Sc, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

y T) A E. J). Adrian, M.D. 

E* M W Eva Muriel White, M.R.C.S.. L.R.C.P., D.M.R.E. 

F M R W F. M. R. Walshe, M.D., F.R.C.P. 

Q j' ' G. Jefferson, M.S., F.R.C.S. 

g" T W. G- T. Western, M.D. 

Q ^^ ' Gordon Ward, M.D. 

H d' Haldin Davis, F.R.C.S., M.R.C.P 

h" e' R H. E. Roaf, M.D., D.Sc. 

h' W D H. W. Dudley, O.B.E., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

h! W. H. H. W. Hills, M.D., M.R.C.P., D.P.M.. B.Sc. 

J *p R ' J. D. Rolleston, M.D. 

J* R* p'. J. R. Perdrau, M.B., B.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

L H C L. H. Clark, B.Sc. 

N H M B Noel H. M. Burke, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

L V de W O. L. V. de Wesselow, M.B., B.Ch., M.R.C.P. 

P* F.' P. Fildes, O.B.E., M.B., B.C. 

p L -B P- Lazarus-Barlow, M.B., B.Ch. 

R* A p R- A. Peters, M.C., M.B., B.C. 

K S."W. R. S. Woods, M.D., M.R.C.P. 

S. R. Sidney Russ, D.Sc. 

S U L.-B. Sybil U. Lazarus-Barlow. 

T. A. R. T. A. Ross, M.D., F.R.C.P. 

T W P L T. W. P. Lawrence, F.R.C.S. 

W A M S W. A. M. Smart, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., B.Sc. 

W B W. Bulloch, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

W' C ' W. Cramer, Ph.D., D.Sc, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

w! G. S. W. G. Spencer, O.B.E., M.S., F.R.C.S. 

W. M. B. W. M. Bayliss, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

W. S. L.-B. ' W. S. Lazarus-Barlow, M.D., F.R.C.P. 

W. T. W. Trotter, M.S., F.R.C.S. 

W. W. W. W. W. W oods, M.R^ .S., L.R.C.P. 

-,UG2 3 1986 

10 1 7. i i 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Biochemistry, 8 J, 173, 273, 376, 4fi8, 573, 
Neurology, 53, )46, 242, 347, 441, 547. 
Pathology and bacteriology, 57, 152, 256, 

352, 450, 550. 
Radiology and electrology, 91, 181, 283, 

388, 481, 581. 
Surgery, 52, 239, 341,435. 
Acacia-glucose solutions, influence of intra- 
venous injections of, on urine secretion 
and blood-volume in rabbits, 277. 
Acanthosis nigricans with carcinoma of in- 
ternal organs, 114. 
Acetaldehyde, identification of aldehyde-like 
substance in diabetic urine as, 576. 
as intermediary substance in fermentation 

of sugar by B. ladis aerogvnes, 388. 
formation of, during decomposition of sugar 
by moulds, 388. 
Aceto-nitrite reaction, 578. 
Acidosi^in toxaemias of pregnancy, 537. 
Acriflavine, antiseptic potency of, 465. 
Acromegaly, radiotherapy of, 582. 
Actinomycetes, acid-fast, with report of case 
from which a new species was isolated, 
261. 
Actinotherapy of three cases of tumour of 

hypophj'sis, 486. 
Addison's disease, cause of skin colour in, 

231. 
Adrenalin, effects of, on respiratory exchange, 
274. 
glycaemia, 576. 

test for pancreatic insufficiency, 514. 
in treatment of erythromelalgia, 112. 
Adrenals, post-operative depletion of epine- 

phrin store of, 476. 
Agglutinating sera, action of continuous 

electric current on, 355. 
Agglutination, isoelectric point of red blood 
cells and its relation to, 176. 
and sedimentation of bacteria, 176. 
Albuminous substances and saline solutions, 

' intertraction ' between, 577. 
Alcohol, ethyl, influence of, on organism, 463. 
Alimentary diseases, 3. 

Alkali reserve of blood, relation of, to glyco- 
suria and hyperglycaemia in pancreatic 
diabetes, 173. 
Alopecia areata an abortive form of general 

syphilis, 113. 
Amino-acids, oxidation of, by blood charcoal, 

480. 
' Ammonia coefficient ' of pregnancy, 89. 
lY. 



Amoeba, parasitic, new species of, •ccurring 
in crypts of tonsils {Entamoeba macro- 
lixjalina), 457. 
Amoebic abscess (^f liver, treatment of, 403. 
Anaemia, acute experimental, blood phos- 
phates in lipaemia produced by, 174. 
acute, lipaemia in, 88. 
severe, carbon dioxide absorption curve and 

carbon dioxide tension in, 381. 
splenic, 119. 
Anaerobic flora of intestine in some morbid 
states, 159. 
germs, cultures of, in ordinary Petri dishes 
in presence of air, 354. 
Anaerobiosis, chemical criteria of, with 
special reference to methylene blue, 453. 
factors influencing. 454. 
Anaesthesia, spinal, regional, and local, 516. 
Analgesia, general, by cocaine injected into 

spinal theca, 522. 
Anaphylactic bronchial asthma, 310. 
food reactions and eczema, 110. 
shock, influence of spleen, kidney, and 

thyroid on, 169. 
— , simple and harmless method of pre- 
venting, 458. 
Anaphylaxis, blood picture in, 358. 

ocular reactions in, 164. 
Aneurysm, arteriovenous, between carotid 
artery and cavernous sinus, 424. 
of carotid and vertebral arteries, 322. 
Angina pectoris in diabetic patients, 499. 
Angioma, gastric, 10. 

Ankylostomiasis in coloured prisoners of war 
in Germany, 105. 
in Costa Rica, effects of treatment on, 106. 
in India, 106. 

in natives of Zaragoza, 107. 
in N. Queensland, 106. 
treatment of, 106, 107. 
Annular ligament, incision of, in treatment 

of acute suppuration of wrist, 236. 
Anoxaemia and cerebral activity, 430. 

eff'ects of, on spinal reflex mechanism, 428. 
lactic acid in blood in, 376. 
in production of symptoms in disease and 
injury of nervous system, 427. 
Anthelmintics, chemical composition and 

therapeutic value of, 106. 
Anthrax, haemorrhagic meningo-encephalitis 
in, 161. 
infection in rats, experiments on, 161. 
Antibodv formation, effect of mustard gas on, 
369." 



IV 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Antiseptics, variability in results of testing, 

465. 
Anxiety hysteria, 3411. 

'Aolan' and turpentine, intramuscular injec- 
tions of, in treatment of gonorrhoea, 214. 
Aortitis, congenital syphilitic, 410. 

syphilitic, gastro-intestinal haemorrhage 
in, 11. 
Appendix vcrmiforniis, haeniolytic strepto- 
cocci of, 257. 
oxyuriasis of, 105. 
Arsenic poisoning, magnesium sulphate in, 

282. 
Arsenical compounds in treatment of gono- 
rrhoea! salpingitis, 216. 
Arsphenamine, some factors relating to toxic 

action of, 580. 
Arteries, injury causing spasmodic contrac- 
tion of, 33. 
Arthritis, chi'onic, bacteriologic studies in, 
70. 
dysenteric, 400. 

gonorrhoeal, complicated by keratodermia 
blennorrhagica, 212. 
Ascariasis, tongue sign in, 108. 
Ascarides, intestinal obstruction caused by, 
104. 
invasion of pancreas by, 104. 
— of lungs by, 104. 
Aacaris lumbricoides causing haemolytic jaun- 
dice, 105. 
distribution and effects of. 104. 
Ascites, chylous, due to carcinoma of stomach, 
8. 
in connexion with duodenal ulcer, 5. 
Aspergillosis, pulmonary, 317. 
Aspergillus fumigafus, infection with, com- 
plicating influenza, 298. 
Asphyxia, action of, on spinal animal, 429. 
Asthma, bronchial, 310. 
— , treatment of, 312. 
vagotonia in, 312. 
Asthmatics, anaphylactic deaths in, 311. 
Auto-haemagglutination, 358. 
Autolysin, bacterial, transmissible, 62. 
Autolysis, effect of certain colloids upon, 86. 

, microbic, transmissible, 74. 
Auto-oxidizable constituent of the cell, 573. 
Auto-suggestion, 244. 



Badlli's acirhphilus, intestinal implantation 

of, 90, 178. 
anikracis, action in vitro of neosalvarsan on, 

458. 
bofuJini's, heat resistance of spores of, 352. 
Bacillus carrier state, mechanism of, with 

special reference to Friedlaender bacillus, 

467. 
Bacillus coli, amount of heat liberated by, 

when grown in presence of free amino- 

acids, 567. 

— in intestine of small herbivora, 76. 
influenzae, accidental inoculation of, on 

mucous membranes of healthy persons 
with development of infection in at 
least one, 267. 

— antigens, complement fixation in in- 
fluenza with, 155. 



Bacillus influemof., behaviour of, in mixed 
culture on haemoglobin-free media, 156. 

— , biology of, 58. 

— , grouping of, with special reference to 
permanence of type in carrier, 267. 

■ — , growth of, in haemoglobin-free media, 
562. 

— isolated from meningitis, 561. 

— , nature of effect of blood-pigment upon 
growth of, 156. 

— pneumonia in monkeys, 153. 

— , production in monkeys of disease re- 
sembling influenza by inoculation with, 
153. 

— , relation of different strains of, as shown 
by cross-agglutination and absorption 
tests, 155. 

— , serology of, 267. 

— , virulent, acute respiratory infection in 
man following inoculation with, 264. 

leprae, cultivation of, 558. 

proteus, biology and biochemistry of, 80. 

— , comparative studies on races of, with 
special reference to their capability to 
produce haeniotoxin, 272. 

— , sub-groups of. Cross-agglutination as 
a differential diagnostic means, 272. 

— of war wounds, 451. 

pyocyaneus, bactericidal action of radium 
on, 187. 
Bacillus of rabbit septicaemia, coexistence of 
individuals of different degrees of viru- 
lence in cultures of, 568. 
Bacillus spermoides, a new anaerobic soil 
bacillus, 160. 
typhosus, viability and growth of, in bile, 79. 
welchii infections in dogs suffering from 
experimental diabetes, 273. 
Bacilli, acid-resisting, changes shown by, on 

passing through animal organism, 452. 
Bacteria, agglutination and sedimentation of, 
176. 
communal activity of, 91. 
urowth accessory substances in nutrition 

of, 387. 
in vivo as in vitro, pass through walls of 

filters, 255. 
simple procedure for accurate enumeration 
of, without use of counting chamber, 364. 
Bacterial nutrition, studies on, 562. 
Bactericidal action of secondary rays from 

colloidal metals, 94. 
Bacteriology (^abstracts), 57, 152, 255, 352, 

450, 550. 
Bacteriophage, d'HerelleV, production and 
interpretation of, 62. 
presence of, in healthy intestine, in soil 
and in water, 74. 
Bacteriophagic microbe, 74. 
principle of d'Herelle, 74. 
Bacterium pneumositites, 5&1. 
Basal ganglia, mental disturbances in tumoui-s 

of, 447. 
Behriiig's toxin-antitoxin mixture, practical 
protective value of, against diphtheria, 
454. 
Benzidin peroxidase reaction, variations in, 
depending on fixative, physiological 
activity, and type of animal, 68. 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Benzyl benzoate in treatment of dvsenteiy, 
404. 

— in treatment of whooping cough, 203. 
Bile-duct, surgical union of, with duodenum, 
jejunum, or stomach, 131. 

cancer of, 129. 

kinkiniiof, 128. 
Bile-ducts, congenital obliteration of, 127. 
Bile eneinata in treatment of lonstipation, 15. 
Bill* salts, effects of, on lespiration, 383. 

inHuenee of, on gastric function, 465. 
Biliary obstruction not due to gall-stones, 127. 

surgery, 125. 
Biochemistry (abstracts), 84, 173, 273, 370, 

408, 673.. 
Blackwater fever, 457. 
Bladder, diverticula of, 184. 
Blood after administration of urea, 277. 

alkaline reserve of, in the insane, 277. 

, changes in, in experimental in- 
fections, 368. 

appearance and distribution of fats and 
lipoids in, after bleeding, 376. 

carbon dioxide carriers of, 379. 

coagulation of, role of calcium in, 558. 

— theories of, 550. 

concentration of lactic acid in, in anoxaemia 

and shock, 376, 
corpuscles, chemical composition of, 579. 

— and plasma, distribution of {)hosphates 
between, 469. 

— , permeability of, to sugar, 86. 

— , red, diurnal variation in size of, 366. 

— , — , influence of certain digitalis bodies 
on permeability to ions of, 174. 

— , — , isoelectric point of, and its relation 
to agglutination, 176. 

~ , — , and outer fluid, distribution of glucose 
between, 471. 

— , — , rate of sedimentation of, 175. 

— , — , rate of sedimentation of, during 
pregnancy, 543. 

— , — , structure of, 367. 

^, — , volume of, and ratio of tliis volume 
to haemoglobin and to number of cells, 
365. 

— , sedimentation of, 377. 

— , simple procedure for accurate enumera- 
tion of, without use of counting chamber, 
364. 

count of normal monkeys, 572. 

— , white, of glycosurics, effect of glucose 
on, 498. 

counts, Biirker's method for, 277. 

cultures, interpretation of, 458. 

diastases in, source of, 469. 

diastatic ferments of, 87. 

diseases, classification of, 118 

distribution of chlorides in, 88. 

of dogfish, sand-shark, frog, and pigeon, 
sugar in, 471-2. 

effect on the composition of, of maintain- 
ing an increased blood-volume by intra- 
venous injection of gum acacia in normal, 
asphyxiated, and shocked dogs, 273. 

— of sweating and diuretics on, with diet 
rich and poor in salt, 575. 

— of surgical anaesthesia on reaction of, 6,7. 
fat constituents of rabbit, variation of, 88. 



Blood, fate of India ink injected into, 171. 

ferment, studies of, in pregnancy, carci- 
noma, and pulmonary tuberculosis, 162. 

groups, distribution of, in patients suffer- 
ing fiom ' maliginint disease', 461. 

human, carbon dioxide dissociation curve 
and arterial and venous carbon dioxide 
tension of, in health and disease, 173. 

paradoxical hyperalbuminosis in, of cancer 
subjects, 466. 

l)hosphates in lipaemia produced by acute 
experimental anaemia in rabbits, 174. 

as a physico-chemical system, 469. 

picture in typhus, 196. 

— in wliooping-cough, 202. 

pressure estimation by indirect methods, 

378. 
— , action of irradiation on, 278. 
— , arterial, measurement of, in horses, 279. 
— , capillary, in man, measurement of, 160. 
sugar regulation and origin of hyper- 

glycaemias, 470. 

— in diabetes, 502. 
— , physiology of, 377. 

— tolerance in gastro-intestinal carcino- 
ma, 8. 

suspension stability of, in pulmonary tuber- 
culosis, 366. 
use of Komanowsky type of stain for, 364. 
vessels, experimental studies of properties 
of surviving, under treatment with 
chemical stimuli, 378. 
volume, influence of injections of acacia- 
glucose solutions on, 277. 
Body-weight, effect of sweating and diuretics 
on, with diet rich and poor in salt, 575. 
Bone- marrow of rats exposed to 7 radiations 
from radium, histological changes in, 93. 
Bones, experimental investigations on in- 
fluence of mechanical compression on, 
369. 
Bothriocephalus anaemia, 108. 
Bolhriocephalus, complement fixation by the 

hosts of, 163. 
Botulism from cheese, 353. 
Brachial plexus, anaesthesia of, 525. 
Brain, basal arteries of, and their functional 
significance, 348. 
blood supply to, 323. 
chemical composition of, in dementia prae- 

cox, 479. 
tumour, superficial, 446. 
volume, experimental production of altera- 
tions in, 535. 
Bronchitis, fibrinous, 312. 
Bulbo-pontine syndrome in typhi:s, 195. 
Biirker's method for blood counts, 277. 
Butter, effect of heat and oxygen on nutritive 
value of, 84. 

C. L. P. (malum coxae Calve-Legg-Perthes), 
40. 

Caecum, plication of, in treatment of consti- 
pation, 227. 

Calcium combination with animal tissues, 
478. 

Calomel, purgative action of, 180. 

Calorimetric investigations on inanition and 
deficiency disease, 167. 



VI 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Cancer, abdominal, size of spleen in, 120. 
of bile-duct, 129. 

of breast, treatment of, by excision supple- 
mented by radiation, statistics relating 
to, 418. 
of cervix, radium therapy of, 392, 584 
grafts, effect of cellular reaction induced 

by X-rays on, 488. 
inoculation, influence of, on lymphoid 
stimulation induced by small doses of 
X-rays, 489. 
melanotic, 229. 
— , structure of, '233. 

of oesophagus treated by direct application 
of tube of radium emanation to oeso- 
phageal wall through the transpleural 
channel, 284. 
patients, distribution of blood groups in, 

461. 
paradoxical hyperalbuminosis of blood in, 

466. 
primary, of lung, 317. 

relation between time and extent of lym- 
phoid stimulation induced by physical 
agents and degree of resistance to, in 
mice, 489. 
of stomach, 7. 

— , methods of diagnosis of, 92. 
transplanted, effect of small doses of X-rays 
of low penetration on the resistance of 
mice to, 489. 
see also names of particular forms of. 
Capillaries, functional activity of, 278. 
Capillary blood-pressure in man, measure- 
ment of, 166. 
Caramel in treatment of diabetes, 506. 
Carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes, 86. 

■ — of isolated amphibian muscle, 577. 
Carbolic acid, use of, for isolating pathogenic 
bacteria from material contaminated 
with B. proteus, 80. 
Carbon dioxide absorption curve and carbon 
dioxide tension in blood of normal rest- 
ing individuals, in cardiac dyspnoea, 
and in severe anaemia, 381. 
carriers of blood, 379. 

dissociation curve and arterial and venous 
carbon dioxide tension of human blood 
in health and in disease, 173. 
Carbon monoxide poisoning, 430. 
Carcinoma, blood ferment in, 162. 

of pancreas, 512. 
Cardia, Rontgen obsei-vations on anatomy 

and physiology of, 388. 
Cardiac dyspnoea, carbon dioxide absorption 
curve and carbon dioxide tension in, 
381. 
respiratory mechanism in, 382. 
Cardiospasm, impermeable, treatment of, 15. 
Carotid artery, 322. 

arteriovenous aneurysm between, and 
cavernous sinus, 424. 
Cataract, action of radium in, 285. 
Cavernous sinus, arteriovenous aneurysm 

between, and carotid, 424. 
Cell, auto-oxidizable constituent of, 573. 
new experiments on uptake of substances 
by, 478. 
Cerebral metabolism, 476. 



Cerebral softening from metallic embolus 

in left middle ceiebral artei-y, 261. 
thrombosis and embolism, 322. 
tumours, localization or elimination of, by 

ventriculography, 182. 
Cerebrospinal fluid, constitution of, deciding 

factor for prognosis and therapy in 

syphilis of nervous system, 59. 
in syphilis, 336. 
general colloid test in, and use of Congo- 

rubin, 479. 
pi-essure, experimental alterations in, 535. 
in typhus, 195. 
in whooping-cough, 202. 
Chancroid, 218. 
Chaulmoogra oil, influence of, on tubercle 

bacillus, 262. 
Chloral hydrate solution, gargling with, in 

treatment of influenza, 305. 
Chloroma, colouring matter in, 579. 
Cholecystectomy, mortality from, 126. 
Cholecystitis, 127, 128. 
Cholesterol content of serum, variation in, in 

pneumonia, 87. 
Choline, hormone of intestinal peristalsis, 

479. 
Chorionic ferments causing spirillolysis, 407. 
Cicatrices, deformities of hands since child- 
hood caused by, 482. 
Citrus fruit juices, fresh, determination of 

minimum doses of, which will protect a 

guinea-pig from scurvy, together with 

some observations on preservation of 

such juices, 386. 
Climatological studies : active factor in high 

altitudes, 278. 
Cobra venom, immunity to, 360. 
Cocaine injections, danger of, 519. 

into spinal theca, general analgesia bj', 522. 
Cod-liver oil, effect of, on experimental rickets 

in rats, 176. 
Codein derivatives, acclimatization to, 180. 
Colds, bacteriology of, 267. 
Colectomy, 223. 

Colitis, membranous, in influenza, 299. 
ulcerative, a sequel to bacillary dysentery, 

401. 
Colloidal metals, bactericidal action of 

secondary rays from, 94. 
nutrient solutions, importance of, for nor- 
mal, exhausted, and poisoned heart, 576. 
Colloids, influence of, on non-colloidal drugs, 

282. 
Colon, symptoms due to extreme elongation 

and dilatation of, 14. 
Complement fixation by the hosts of Bothrio- 

cephalus, 163. 
test for gonorrhoea, 212. 
Congo-rubin, use of, 479. 
Constipation treated by bile enemata, 15. 
Coolidge tube, danger of, for screen work, 394. 
Coxalgia, non-tuberculous juvenile, 38. 
Creatinin excretion, course of, in urine of 

man, with especial reference to effect of 

exercise, 180. 
Creatinuria of man, diet and sex as factors 

in, 469. 
Crj'otherapy, 114. 
Cylindromata of facial region, 467. 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



vn 



Cyst of common bile-duct, 128. 
Cystic pneumatosis of intestine, 6. 
Cystin, oxidation of, by blood charcoal, 480. 
Cystitis after typhus, VJ6. 
Cutaneous sensibility, semeiological impor- 
tance of electrical examination of, 490. 
Cutex vertieis gyrata, 114. 



Deafness due to congenital syphilis, 411. 
Decerebrate rigidity in man and occurrence 

of tonic fits, 55. 
Deficiency disease, calorimetric investiga- 
tions on; 167. 
Dementia praecox, chemical composition of 

brain in, 479. 
Dermatitis due to handling figs infected with 
the mite Carpoglyphus passulanim, 113. 
X-ray, followed by heat dermatitis, 391. 
Dermatosis, precancerous, 114. 
Diabetes, experimental, B. welchii infection 
in, 275. 
— , influence of cold in, 276. 
— , influence of extreme age on production 

of, 276, 
— , influence of fever and intoxication in, 

275. 
— , influence of pregnancy on, 281. 
— , studies in, 273. 
mellitus, 497. 
— , aetiology of, 497. 
blood-sugar in, 502. 
and carbohydrate metabolism, 86. 
frequency of, in U.S.A., 498. 
and hirsuties, 502. 
and leukaemia, 501. 
mortality from, 498. 

pancreatic, relation of alkali reserve of 
blood to glycosuria and hyperglycaeuiia 
in, 173, 
and pregnancy, 501. 
prophylaxis of, 503, 
renal, 502. 

surgical complications of, 500. 
symptomatology of, 498. 
treatment of, 504, 
and tuberculosis, 500. 
Diabetic urine, acetaldehyde in, 576. 
Diarrhoea, infantile, 12. 
Diastatic ferments of blood, 87. 
Diathermy in treatment of whooping-cough, 

203. 
Dicotyledonous plant, infection with, causing 
Recklinghausen's disease, adenoma seba- 
ceum, and tuberous sclerosis, 114. 
Diet and growth, 386, 387. 
Digestive tract, atonic syndrome of, in nervous 

persons, 389. 
Digitalis bodies, influence of certain, on per- 
meability to ions of human red blood 
corpuscles, 174. 
Diphtheria, 18. 
aetiology of, 18. 
carriers and their treatment with mercuro- 

chrome, 454. 
diagnosis of, 24. 
epidemiology of, 18. 
immunity from, 26, 



Diphtheria infections with particular reference 
to carriers and to wound infections with 
B. diphtheriae, 454. 

of middle ear, 19. 

of mouth, 19. 

in the new-born, 21. 

prophylaxis of, 25. 

symptomatology of, 19. 

treatment of, 27. 

of umbilicus, 20. 

of vulva, 20. 

wound, 23. 

— , bacteriology of, 162. 

— , chemotherapeutic experiments with a 
view to treatment of, 355. 
Diphtheritic paralysis, 24. 
Disodiumphosphate as a catalyst for quanti- 
tative oxidation of glucose to carbon 
dioxide with hydrogen peroxide, 178. 
Disseminated sclerosis, aetiology of, 149. 

experimental investigations on pathogene- 
sis of, 347. 

unusual motor symptoms in, with refer- 
ence to differential diagnosis from epi- 
demic encephalitis, 248. 
' Dopa' test for tyrosinase, 230. 
Drigalski-Conradi, influence of nutrose in 

culture medium of, 77. 
Drugs, acclimatization to. Acclimatization 
to codein derivatives (eucodal and para- 
codein), 180. 
Duodenal diverticula : their clinical and 
radiological aspects, 183, 

perforation treated by duodenal alimenta- 
tion, 15. 

ulcer, 4. 
Dupuytren's contraction, 52. 
Dysenteric arthritis, 400. 

forms, mixed, 456, 
Dysenteriform catarrh due to flagellata, 399. 
Dysentery, 399. 

aetiology of, 399. 

amoebic, 402, 

bacillary, studies on epidemic of, 456. 

— , aetiology of, 272. 

— , sero-diagnosis in, 456. 

— , in dog with simultaneous schistosomia- 
sis, ankylostomiasis, and filariasis, 79. 

bacilli, divisions of Flexner group of, 77. 

bacteriology of, 57. 

in children, 400. 

diagnosis of, 403, 

epidemiology of, 399, 

gastric and pancreatic secretions in, 401. 

historical, 399, 

prognosis of, 403. 

protozoan, epidemiological, and clinical 
notes on, 456. 

symptomatology of, 400, 

treatment of, 403. 

Eclampsia, biochemistry of, 537. 
Eczema, aetiology and treatment of, 110, 
Eichlofif-blue, use of, for isolating pathogenic 

bacteria from material contaminated 

with B. proteus, 80. 
Elbow, anterior dislocation at, 41. 
Electric currents, action of, on endocrine 

glands and other tissues, 99. 



Vlll 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Electric currents, higli-frequency, plethysmo- 
graphic investigations on effects of, 279. 
mode of death by, 587. 
Electro-diagnosis (abstracts), 490. 
Electromyogram in nervous diseases, 530. 
Electroradiology in neuritis of motor nerves, 

492. 
Electrotechnique (abstracts'!, 587. 
Electrotherapy (abstracts), 99, 492. 
Eisner's gastroscopy, practical value of, 439. 
Embolism, cerebral, 322. 
Emerods, 399. 

Empyema, experimental streptococcus, 69. 
Encephalitis, haemorrhagic, as complication 
of dysentery. 402. 
lethargica, differential diagnosis of, from 

disseminated sclerosis, 248. 
— , experimental study of, 148, 262. 
— , experimental, transmission of, 65. 
— , following typhus, 195. 
— , microscopic observations on brains from 

some cases of, 452. 
— , psychiatric aspects of, 447. 
— , special microscopic tinding in nervous 

tissue from cases of, 452. . 
— , treatment of medullary and radical 

after-efi'ects of, 493. 
— , winter incidence of, and seasonal re- 
currence of chronic forms, 57. 
neonatorum, 263. 

and polyomyelitis, immunological dis- 
tinctions of, 263. 
Endocrine glands, action of electric currents 

on, 99. 
Endothelial reactions in tuberculosis, 375. 
Endotheliomata of nasopharynx, 243. 
Entamoeba macrolujalina, 457. 
Enteritis, acute infectious, complicated by 

polyneuritis, 12. 
Enterococcus, properties and relations of, 

257. 
Enterostomy for post-operative intestinal 

obstruction, 440. 
Enzymes, proteoclastic, in normal and patho- 
logical urine, 385. 
Eosinophilia in sputum in asthma, 311. 
Epilepsy, diabetic, 499, 

following gun-shot wounds of skull, patho- 
logy of, 448. 
Epithelioma adenoides cysticum (Brooke) or 
trichoepithelioma papillosum multiplex 
(Jarisch), 464. 
of skin, 114. 
Erythrocytes : see blood corpuscles, red. 
Erythromelalgia, 113. 

Ether, intramuscular injection of, in treat- 
ment of whooping-cough, 202. 
Eustachian tube, intracranial extension of 

sarcomata of, 242. 
Evolution, neural, aspects of, 50. 
Exophthalmos, pulsating, treated by ligature 

of both common carotids, 426. 
Eye diseases due to congenital syphilis, 

melanoma and melanotic cancer of, 234. 
simplified technique for radiotherapy of, 
583. 
Eyes, tonic labvriiitliine and neck reflexes 
of, 151. 



Fat, animal, effect on kittens of a diet 

deficient in, 386. 
content of embryonic livers, 88. 
Fats, action of ozone on fat-soluble factor in, 

85. 
growth and nutrition on diets free from, 

177, 178. 
Fibrinolysis, 282. 

Fibroid, pregnancy after radiotherapy for, 95. 
Fibroids, uterine, radium therapy for, 285. 
Fibromyoma tissue, chemical analysis of, 280. 
Fibromyomata of uterus, intensive X-ray 

therapy versus hysterectomy for, 95. 
Flea-bites, liability of diabetics to, 500. 
Flexner group of dysentery bacilli, divisions 

of, 77. 
Flies, action of, in spread of dysentery, 399. 
Fontan's method of treating chancroidal 

buboes, 220. 
Foods, analyses and energy values of, 573. 
Friedberger-van-der-Reis skin reaction in 

diagnosis of typhus, 197. 
Friedmann's tortoise liacilli, antigenic action 

of, 261. 



Gall-bladder, anatomy and physiology of, 126. 

Gall-bladdei-s, pathological changes in 4,998 
removed, 126. 

Gall-stones, formation of, and detection by 
X-rays, 127. 
study of, by X-rays, 92. 

Galleiia mellonella, immunity, natural and 
acquired, in larva of, 82. 

Gangrenous infections of animals, aetiology 
of acute : a discussion of blackleg, braxy, 
malignant oedema, and whale septic- 
aemia, 160. 

Gas cysts of abdomen, 10. 

phlegmon following subcutaneous in- 
jections, 568. 

Gasoline vapour, anaesthetic and convulsant 
effects of, 280. 

Gastric analysis, 3, 474. 



angioma, 10. 

function, influence of bile salts on, 465. 

myomata, 10. 

polyposis, 9. 

and respiratory response to meals, 466. 

secretion and motility, effects of restricted 

(so-called ulcer) diets on, 15. 
secretions in bacillary dysentery, 401. 
— in starvation, 473. 
ulcer, 4. 

see also stomach. 
Gastrin, response of stomach glands to, before 

and shortly after birth, 474. 
Gastro-intestinal liaemorrhage, 11. 

tract, X-ray interpretation of, 389. 
Gastroscopy, Eisner's, 439. 
Gastrospasm, reflex, 129. 
Gaucher's disease, 119, 170. 
Gentian violet reaction, 91. 
Giant cells in cultures from human lymph 

nodes, 370. 
Gigantism, experimental production of, by 
feeding anterior lobe of hypophj-sis and 
jiituitary gland, 179. 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



IX 



Globin, antigenic properties cf, with a note 
on tlie indopciidence of properties of 
serum and tissue proteins as exemplitiod 
by absence of antibody from globin of 
an immunized animal, 1(55. 
Glycaemia, adrenalin, 576. 
Glycogenic infiltration of liver of laboratory 

rabbits, 67. 
Glycosuria, association of, with infections 

diseases, 497. 
Gonococcal infections of the heart, 211. 

septicaemia, 210. 
Gonococci, serological investigations on, 450. 
Gonococcus, growth of, in various gaseous en- 
vironments, 256. 
relative toxicity of different strains of, 

210. 
types of, 157, 257. 
Gonorrhoea, 210 
aetiology of, 210. 
chronic, in women, comparison of smear, 

culture and complement fixation, 157. 
diagnosis of, 212. 
in the female, 214. 
prostitution and alcoli'l in causation of, 

210. 
symptomatology of, 210. 
treatment of, 214. 
Gout, roentgenographic studies in, 484. 
Grafts of dead tendon, 527. 
Gram reaction, parallelism between, and 

gentian violet reaction, 91. 
Graves's disease, 341, 

use of radiotherapj' in, 390. 
thyroid lesions in, 247. 
Growth on diets poor in true fats, 177, 
Growth-promoting properties, comparison of, 
for guinea-pigs, of certain diets consisting 
of natural foodstuffs, 386. 
Gum acacia injections, temperature changes 
induced by, in normal and fevered 
animals, 90. 



Haemagglulination, its medico-legal bearing, 
with observations upon the theory of 
isoagglutinins, 163. 

Haematology, employment of complex stains 
based on Romanowsky principle in, 364, 

Haemato-respiratory functions. An irre- 
versible alteration of HXCj NaHCO. 
equilibrium of blood induced by tem- 
porary exposure to a low tension of CO^, 
174. 

Haemoglobin, reduced, light absorption of, 
876. 
variable acidity of. 88. 

Haemolysin, anti-human, production of, with 
special reference to immunization with 
erythrocytes sensitized with heated 
serum, 165. 

Haemolysis, 367. 

Haemolytic sensitizer and red blood cor- 
puscles, equilibrium between, in relation 
to H-ion concentration, 378. 

Haemophilic bacilli, biological study of, 154. 

Haemorrhage following acute septic infection, 
325. 
following removal of tonsils, 326. 



Haemorrhage from carotid and vertebral 
arteries following gunshot wounds, 328. 
reactions to, 470. 
Haemotoxin of streptococci, biological and 

physical properties of, 69. 
Hay fever, aetiology and treatment of, 309. 
Heart, effects of warming; and cooling sino- 
auricular node in, 472. 
failure in diphtheria, 23. 
fibrillation of, 472. 
gonococcal infections of, 211. 
isolated, frog's, effects of some chlorine 
derivatives of methane, ethane, and 
ethylene on, 472. 
perfused, researches on, 280. 
Heat regulation of mammals, chemical, 378. 
Hemiplegia following ligature of common 
carotid, 324. 
following tonsillectomy, 327. 
pleuritic, 319. 
Hepatic function in eclanijjsia, 539. 
'd'Herelle phenomenon,' some peculiarities 

of, 74. 
d'Herelle's bacteriophage, 74. 

bacteriophage, production and interpreta- 
tion of, 62. 
Hernia, superficial inguinal, 241. 
Hernias, large umbilical and ventral, treat- 
ment of, 239. 
Herpes, virus of, 451. 

zoster, 112. 
Hibernation, artifical, in mice, 378. 
Hirsuties in diabetics, 502. 
Histamin, action of, on man, 580. 
Honey, vitamine content of, 468. 
Hookworm infection : see ankylostomiasis. 
Hydatid cysts of kidney, pyelography in 

diagnosis of, 287. 
Hydrocephalus due to occlusion of foramina 
of Magendie and Luschka, diagnosis and 
treatment of, 549. 
Hydrogen electrode, probable error in deter- 
minations by means of, 255. 
Hydrogen-ion concentration of broth media, 
variations in, 566. 
equilibrium between haemolytic sensitizer 

and red blood cells in relation to, 378. 
relation of, to growth, viability, and 
fermentative activity of Streptococcus 
haemolyticus, 565. 
Hyperacidity, 4. 

Hyperglycaemia, difference between the 
mechanism of production of, by ether 
and chloroform, 274. 
Hyporglycaemias, origin of, 470. 
Hypertrichosis, electrolysis treatment of, 114. 
Hypophysis, anterior lobe of, experimental 
gigantism produced by leeding, 179. 
radiotherapy of tumours of, 582. 
treatment of tumours of, by actinotherapy, 
486. 
Hypopyon complicating typhus, 196. 
Hysteria, anxiety, 349. 

Icterus neonatorum, breaking down of ma- 
ternal blood as cause of, 580. 

Ileo-sigmoidostomy, 140. 

Immune bodies, specific, transmission of,from 
mother to young, 164. 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Immunity to cobra venom, natural and ac- 
quired, 3G0. 

natural and acquired, in lai-va of Galleria 
mellonella, 82. 
Inanition calorimetric investigations on, 

167. 
Induction coils, action of, 181. 
Infants' foods, digestion of, 387. 
Influenza, 295. 

aetiology of, 155, 296, 563. 

— : experiments in search of filter- 
passing virus, 66. 

association of with whooping-cough, 201. 

bacillus : see B. injluensae. 

bacteriology of, 267, 562. 

blood in, 296. 

in children, 303. 

chronic lung disease following, 297. 

and common colds, attempt to cultivate 
filterable viruses from, 264. 

disease resembling, produced in monkeys 
by inoculation with B. in/luejtsae, 153. 

epidemiology of, 295. 

immunity against, 303. 

nervous and mental complications of, 299. 

in old age, 303. 

pathology of, 264, 562. 

prophylaxis of, 304. 

renal complications of, 299. 

skin in, 300. 

studies of the nasopharyngeal secretions 
from patients, 266, 560. 

surgical complications of, 300. 

symptomatology of, 297. 

and syphilis, 302. 

transmitted through fleas, 296. 

treatment of, 305. 

and tuberculosis, 301. 

vaccination against, 564. 
Integrative action of nervous system, 144. 
' Intertraction ' between albuminous .sub- 
stances and saline solutions, 577. 
Intestinal exclusion, 137. 

infection, non-specific, 12. 

obstruction caused by ascarides, 104. 

— , post-operative, enterostomy for, 440. 

parasites, 103. 

— , frequency in young children, 103. 

stasis, chronic, surgical treatment of, 221. 
Intestine, the anaerobic flora in some morbid 
states of, 159. 

fate of micro-organisms introduced into 
isolated loops of, 79. 

large, results of operations for atony and 
prolapse of, 223. 

of small herbivora, flora of, 76. 
Intracranial tension, alteration of, by salt 

solution in alimentary canal, 178. 
Iodine, biochemistry of : comparative effects 
of thyroid and iodide feeding on growth 
in white rats and in rabbits, 179. 

compounds, specific, influence of, upon 
metamorphosis of frog's larvae and axo- 
lotl, 578. 
Ipecac, sensitization and bronchial asthma, 
310. 



von Jaksch syndrome, 119. 



Jaundice complicating gonococcal septi- 
caemia, 211. 
haemolytic, 122. 

— , caused by Ascaris lumhricoides, 105. 
in influenza, 299. 
occun'ing after re vaccination in adults, 209. 



Keratin, composition of, 110. 

Keratodermia blenorrhagica, complicating 

chronic gonorrhoeal arthritis, 212. 
a form of psoriasis, 110. 
Kidney, pyelography in diagnosis of hydatid 

cysts of, 287. 
Kidneys, radiological examination of, after 

intraperitoneal insufflation, 286. 
Knee-jerk, relation of form of, to muscle 

tonus, 54. 
Kiihler's disease, 483. 
with special reference to its aetiology, 345. 



Labyrinthine reflexes to progressive move- 
ments, 151. 

Lactation, influence of, on sexual cycle in rat 
and guinea-pig, 475. 

Lactic acid in blood in anoxaemia and shock, 
376. 

Lard, nutritive value of, 85. 

Larynx, treatment of cancer of, by local ap- 
plications of radium, 285. 

Lecithin of brain, 473. 

Leiomyoma of smooth muscle-cells of arrec- 
tores pili, 114. 

Leprosy, histopathology of, 372. 

Leuco-agglutinins, 461. 

Leucocytes, changes in, in experimental in- 
fections, 368. 

Leucocytic exudates and transmissible bac- 
terial autolysin, 62. 
formula, normal, 169. 

Leucocytolysis produced by rontgenization of 
spleen, treatment of infectious diseases 
by, 485. 
chemotactic effect of osmosis upon, 362. 

Leukaemia, action of X-rays in, 486. 
acute, in pregnancy, 64. 
and diabetes, 501. 

transmissible, new strain in fowls (strain 
H), 572. 

Leukoplacia treated with carbon dioxide 
snow, 114. 

Lice, importance of, in transmission of typhus, 
194. 

Lichen and lichenification. 111. 

Light baths, universal, in treatment of eye 
diseases, 346. 

Linitis, plastic, 4. 

Lipaemia in acute anaemia, 88. 
chemistry of, 376. 

Lipoid granules, special staining method for, 
in nerve-cells, 252. 

Liver, artificially perfused, experiments with 
antigens and antibodies upon surviving, 
388.^ 
composition of, in acute yellow atrophy, 
479. 

Luetin reaction, value of, in diagnosis of con- 
genital syphilis, 412, 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



XI 



Lumbago, origin and symptomatology of, 

349. 
Lumbar puncture, troubles due to, 521. 
Lung, congenital absence of, 309. 

chronic disease of, following influenza, 297. 

gangrene of, 316, 

infection, non-tuberculous, 313. 

new growths of, 317. 

see also pulmonary. 
Lupus erythematosus, 112. 

vulgaris, treatment of, witli liquid acid 
nitrate of mercury, 112. 
Lymphadenoma with pruritus, 114. 
Lymphocytes, fate of, 572. 

Malta fever, prophylactic vaccination against, 
256. 

Mammary gland, laetating, effect of suckling 
and castration on, in rat and guinea-pig, 
474. 
secretion, effect of diet on, 387. 

Manchester and district Radium Institute, 
report of, 283. 

Measles, experimental, symptomatology and 
pathology of, in monkeys, 354. 
susceptibility of monkeys to, 354. 

Media, influence of reaction of, and of pre- 
sence of buffer salts on metabolism of 
bacteria, G6. 
reaction of, 564. 

Melanin, 229. 

Melanoblastoma, 229. 

Melanogen in urine, 229, 

Melanoma, 229. 
structure of, 233. 

Memorial Hospital, New York, radium tech- 
nique at, 290. 

Meniere's disease, symptoms of, complicating 
influenza, 301. 

Meningitis, serous, post-traumatic, in chil- 
dren, 253. 

Meningococcal infection, certain problems 
concerning, 258. 

Meningococci, serological investigations on, 
450. 

Meningococcus : experimental studies of mode 
of action of antimeningococcal serum, 63. 
production of antimeningococcic serum, 
81, 82. 

Meningo-encephalitis, haemorrhagic, in 
anthrax, 161. 

Mercurochrome in treatment of diphtheria 
carriers, 454. 

Mesothelioma of pleura, 319. 

Metabolism, bacterial, 90. 

general water, secretion of water by kidney 
in relation to, 575. 

Methylene blue in treatment of gonorrhoea 
in women, 216. 

Microbic species, dissociation of, 568. 

Milk, condensed, full cream, sweetened, 
investigation of antiscorbutic value of, 
by experiments on monkeys, 387. 
deficiency of heat-treated, 85. 
dried, antiscorbutic value of, 387. 
influence of diet of cow upon nutritive and 

antiscorbutic properties of, 177. 
powders, antiscorbutic potency of, 468. 



Milk, vitamine content of, 84. 

Morgan's bacillus, 271. 

Motor system, extrapyramidal, organization 

of, 443. 
Multiple sclerosis and psycho-analysis, 441. 
Muscle, carbohydrate metabolism of isolated 

amphibian, 577. 
influence of subminimal stimuli npnn 

course of chemical changes in, 577. 
tune, nature of, 532. 
Mustard gas, effect of, on antibod , 

369. 
effect of, on experimental tuberculosis, 369. 
Myelitis in dysentery patient, 402. 
Myeloma of spine, 250. 
Myiasis cured by excision, 114. 
Myocardial involvement, post influenzal, 298. 
Myomata, gastric, 10. 



Naevus derived from branchial clefts, 114. 
warty, in lieredo-syphiliMc subject, 410. 
Necator americanns in India, 106. 
Neosalvarsan, splenomegaly following injec- 
tion of, 122. 
in treatment of congenital sypliilis, 414. 
Nerve-cells of parietal plexuses of gastro- 
enteric canal, lesions of, in consequence 
of surgical interventions, 371. 
lesions in early syphilis and their treat- 
ment, 61. 
and plasmodesma, 445. 
regeneration, 351. 

root fibres, posterior, intramedullary bifur- 
cation of, in man, 549. 
section in man, experimental, results of, 46. 
tissue, cultivation of, 351. 
Nervous diseases, electromyogram in, 530. 
system, dissolution of function in disease 

of, 141. 
— , elementary, physiology of, 141. 
— , insulation of, 48. 

and mental complications of influenza, 299. 
Neuritis of motor nerves, electroradiology in, 

492. 
Neuroglia fibres, quick process for staining, 

168. 
Neurology (abstracts), 53, 146, 242, 347, 441, 

547. 
Neurosyphilis, 335. 

constitution of cerebrospinal fluid in prog- 
nosis of, 59, 60. 
increased incidence of, 335. 
intraspinal treatment of, 338. 
prognosis and therapy of, 59, 60. 
relation of, to previous treatment, 335. 
Novarsenobenzol in treatment of congenital 
syphilis, 416. 
— of diabetes, 506, 
Novocaine and bicarbonate solution, toxic 
effects of injection of, into a vein, 518. 
as local anaesthetic, disadvantages of, 520. 
Nutrition, 468. 

in diets practically devoid of fat, 178. 
Nutrose, influence of, in culture medium of 
Drigalski-Conradi, 77. 



Obesity preceding diabetes, 503. 



XII 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Oculo-cardinc nliex (Daguini-Aschner phe- 
nonitiuon) — its use in medicine and 
psychology, 150. 

Oesophagus, treatment of cancer of, by local 
applications of radium, 285. 

Oils, hydrogenated, digestibility of. 282. 

Oleic acid and trioleins, haemolytic action of, 
in rabbits, 160. 

Onychodystropliy following typhus, 195. 

Opacity of liquids, methods of measuring, 
580. 

0|>hthalmia and diet, 574. 

Oj)lithalm(>l<igy, universal light baths in, 346. 

Orchilytic sera, sexual neutralization obtained 
by means of, 1()9. 

Oriental sore, treatment of, with X-rays, 
114, 

Osmosis, chemotactic effect of, on leucocyto- 
sis, 362. 
as factor in local accumulation of leuco- 
cytes in body, 90. 

Osteoarthropathy, hypertrophic pulmonary, 
following lung abscess, 315. 

Osteochondritis deformans juvenilis, 39. 
of upper epiphysis of femur, 39, 481. 

Osteolysis, 372. 

Osteomyelitis of hy<>id after influenza, 301. 

Otoliths, functions of, 152. 

Ovariolytic sera, sexual neutralization ob- 
tained by means of, 169, 

Oxalic acid, determination of, in urine and 
faeces, 473. 

Oxaluric acid, determination of, in urine and 
faeces, 473. 

Oxygen administration, effects of, in decere- 
brate cats, 383. 
low, effects during rebreathing, 382. 
subcutaneous injections of in treatment of 
influenzal broncho-pneumonia, 305. 

Oxyuriasis, tongue sign in, 103. 
of vermiform appendix, 105, 

Oxyuris vermicular is , prevalence of, due to war, 
105. 



Paget's disease, extra-mammary, 114. 
Pain, frequency of, 44, 

functional value of, 44. 

physiology of, 43. 

relation of, to bodily cause, 44. 

— , to other forms of sensation, 50. 

sensibility to, in skin, 45. 
Pancreas, annular, 509. 

atrophy of, 511. 

carcin>jnia of, 512. 

cirrhosis of, 511. 

diseases of, 509. 

— , diagnosis of, 514. 

necrosis of, 510. 

syphilis of, 511. 
Pancreatic achylia or hypochylia, 511. 

calculi, 513. 

secretions in bacillary dysentery, 401. 
Pancreatitis, chronic, 510. 
Pangenesis, 74. 
Paragglutination, 355, 
Paralyses of pyramidal origin, selective 

incidence of, 443. 
Paralysis, diphtheritic, 24. 



Para-nieningococci, serological investigations 

on, 450. 
Paraoxyphenylacetic acid, formation of, from 

laevo-tyrosin by bacteria, 473. 
Paraoxyphenylacrylic acid, formation of, 

from laevo-tyrosin by bacteria, 473. 
Parathyroid secretion, stability of nervous 

system as factor in resistance of albino 

rat to loss of, 475. 
tetany, relation between, and calcium 

deficit in blood, 278. 
Paratyphoid B bacillus related to rodent 

group, spontaneous epidemic among 

laboratory rabbits caivsed by, 80. 
Paravertebral injections, 523. 
Parosmia, 281. 

Parotid swelling due to denture, 3. 
Patellar clonus, relation of, to muscle tonus, 

54. 
Pathology (abstracts), 57, 152, 255, 352, 450, 

550. 
Pellagra, 113. 

sulphocvanate content of saliva and urine 

in, 283. 
Pericolitis membranacea, 226. 
Periodic breathing of decerebrate cats, 383. 
Periodicity of gastric ulcer, 6. 
Peripheral nerves, insulation of, 49, 
Perspiration, in.sensible, through cutaneous 

scars and skin of paretic limbs, 370, 
Petro-sphenoidal junction, syndrome of, 242, 
Phagedaena, development of, in vaccine 

pustule, 208, 
Phagocytes, mononuclear, of lung, experi- 
mental study of, 462, 
Phagocytosis, action of certain salts on, 361. 
experimental investigations on, iniiueuce 

of various fixing agents, fatigue and 

diluted solutions of HCl, 171, 
investigations on, 460, 
of solid particles, 478, 
Phenolic substances, estimation of, in urine, 

86. 
Phenolphthalein, purgative action of, 180, 
Phosgene poisoning, experimental pathology 

and therapy of, 384, 
Phosphates, distribution of, between blood- 
corpuscles and plasma in vivo and in vitro, 

469. 
Physical exertion, fitness, and breathing, 280, 
Pilomotor reflex, 246. 
Pituitary body, secretory activity of anterior 

lobe of, during pregnancy, 371, 
gland, experimental gigantism produced by 

feeding, 179, 
opotherapy of diabetes, 507. 
Plague, experimental investigations on im- 
munity of rats against, 459. 
complement fixation test for diagnosis of, 

361. 
means of importation of, into Italy and 

preventive measures, 459. 
Plasmodesma and nerve, 445. 
Pleura, new growths of, 319. 

removal of particulate matter from, 462. 
Pleural effusions, encapsuled, radiological 

appearances of, 581. 
Pleurisy, mediastinal, 318. 
parabronchial, 318. 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



xni 



Pleuritic hemiplegia, 319. 
Plumliisni cansiiij; jjastric ulcer, 5. 
Pneumatosis, intestinal, 10. 
Pneumobacillus causing pulmonary abscess, 

315. 
Pneumococt'i from the upper respiratory 
tract, serological relationships of, with 
special reference to common colds and 
influenzal conditions, 267. 
types of, 73. 
I'neumococcus, enzymes of, 71, 
Pneumonia, experimental, 153. 

influenzal, pathological-anatomical and 

bacteriological study of, 502. 
variation of cholesterol content of serum in, 
87. 
Pneumonomycosis a.speigillina after influ- 
enza, 298. 
Pneumothorax, experimeiilal and critical 
studies on. 570. 
determination of volume of pleural cavity 

in course of, 571. 
spontaneous, 319. 
Poliomyelitis, acute, 146. 

and encephalitis, immunological distinc- 
tions of, 263. 
transient, following influen/a, 300. 
Polj'cythaemia hypertonics, gastro-intestinal 
haemorrhage in, 11. 
radiotherapy of, 390. 
Polyposis, gastric, 9. 

Precipitin response in blood of rabbits fol- 
lowing subarachnoid injections of horse 
serum, 569. 
test for gonorrhoea, 213. 
Piegnancy after radiotherapy for fibroid, 95. 
ammonia coefficient of, 89. 
blood ferment in, 162. 
and diabetes, 501. 
toxaemias of, 537. 
Pressure, low, physiological effects of short 

exposures to, 174. 
Protein meal given to a man at end of 8-day 
fast, effect of, 86. 
non-specific, in treatment of gonorrhoea! 

arthritis, 214. 
production of fat from, 86. 
racemization, comparative investigation 
of corresponding proteins of cow and ox 
. serum, cow's colostrum and cow's milk 

by method of, 575. 
Proteinogenous amines, biological effect of, 

578. 
' Protopathic ' animal, 142. 
Pseudo-ascites in children, 13. 
Pseudo-coxalgia, 39. 
Psoriasis an infective disorder, 110. 

post vaccinal, 208. 
Psycho-analysis and multiple sclerosis, 441. 
Psychology and psychotherapy, 245. 

of special senses and their functional dis- 
orders, 53. 
Psychotherapy, 245. 
Pulmonary abscess, 314. 
aspergillosis, 317. 
congestion in typhus, 195. 
lesions, spontaneous and artificial, in 

guinea-pigs, rabbits, and mice, 154. 
radioscopy and radiography, 581. 



Pulmonary streptothricosis, 316. 

suppuration, circumscribed, clinical history 

of, 581. . 
See also lung. 
Pupil dilatation, paradoxical, following 

lesions of afferent paths, 550. 
Pyelitis larvata cystalgica, 240. 
Pvelofjrapliy in diagnosis of hyd.itid cysts of 

kidney, 287. 
Pyloric spasm , 6, 184. 
Pyrimidine metabolism, 89. 



Quartz lamp in treatment of rectal lesions 

following dysentery, 404. 
ultra-violet therapy and kinetic energy, 

391. 
Quinine salts, local anaesthesia by, 520. 



Radiations, some problems in biological 

action of, 185. 
Radiobiology (abstracts), 93, 185, 395, 487, 

585. 
Radiodiagnosis (abstracts), 92, 182, 286, 389, 

481,581. 
Radiology and electrology (abstracts), 92, 181, 

283, 388, 481, 581. 
Radiotechnique (abstracts), 181, 290. 
Radiotherapy (abstracts), 95, 287, 390, 485, 
582. 
deep, in internal medicine, 487. 
prolonged diffuse sclerosis of skin and of 
cellular tissue of neck following, 391. 
Radium, bactericidal action of, on B. piju- 
cyaneus, 187. 
emanation, disturbances in "'evelopment of 

mammalian embryos caused by, 90. 
— , effect of, on brains of animals, 585. 
— , response of animal organism, to re- 
peated injections of an active deposit of, 
185. 
histological changes in bone-marrow of rats 

exposed to y radiations Irom, 93. 
Institute, report of work carried out at, 

during 1919, 96. 
red cell content of those handling, for 

therapeutic purposes, 93. 
similarity of results produced by vitamines 

and, 466, 487. 
therapy (abstracts), 96. 283, 392, 583. 
Ramus communicans, first white thoracic, in 

man, 446. 
Rat plague, epidemiological and anatomo- 

pathological observations on, 459. 
Rat-bite fever, cases of, 271. 
Rays, ultra-violet, visible spectrum, infra-red, 
phenomena of antagonism between, 395. 
Reaction of biological media, 564. 
Recto-colitis, severe forms of, 12. 
Recurrent laryngeal nerve, paralysis of, 254. 
Reflex, jiilomotor, 246. 
Reflexes, ' conditional ', 428. 

labyrinthine, 151. 
Regression, numerical law of, of certain sex 

characters, 179. 
Renal complications of influenza, 299. 
function in eclampsia, 539. 



XIV 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Resorcin, intravfiious injections of, in treat- 
ment of influenza, 305. 
Respiration, forced, and tetany, 431. 

physiology of, 382, 383. 
Respiratory exchange of surviving mouse 
tissues, normal and neoplastic, 68. 

diseases, 309. 

infection, acute, microbial studies on, with 
especial consideration of immunological 
types, 267. 

quotient and its uncertainty, 883. 

tract, infections of, 267. 
Rotinitis, albuminuric, 500, 

diabetic, 499. 
Reviews. 

Active suppuration about tlie wrist treated 
by incision dividing the annular liga- 
ment, 236. 

Alimentary diseases, 3. 

Anterior dislocation at the elbow, 41. 

Biliary surgery, 125. 

Biochemistry of eclampsia, 537, 

Carotid and vertebral arteries : haemo- 
rrhage and aneurysm : cerebral throm- 
bosis and embolism, 322. 

Chancroid, 218. 

Congenital syphilis, 406. 

Congenital torticollis, 132. 

Diabetes mellitus, 497. 

Diphtheria, 18. 

Diseases of the pancreas, 509. 

Diseases of the respiratory system, 309. 

Diseases of the skin, 110. 

Disea.ses of the spleen, 118. 

Dysentery, 399. 

Electromyogram in nervous diseases, 530. 

Experimental production of alterations in 
brain volume, 535. 

Gonorrhoea, 210. 

Grafts of dead tendon, 527. 

Influenza, 295. 

Injury causing spasmodic contraction of 
segments of arteries of medium size, 33, 

Intestinal exclusion, 137, 

Intestinal parasites, 103. 

Melanin, melanoma, melanotic cancer, 229. 

Neurosyphilis, 335. 

Non-tuberculous juvenile coxalgia, 38. 

Physiology of elementary nervous system, 
141. 

Physiology of pain, 43. 

Post-mortem examination of a case of 
arteriovenous aneurysm between the in- 
ternal carotid artery and the cavernous 
sinus, 424. 

Role of anoxaemia in the production of 
symptoms in disease and injury of the 
nervous system, 427. 

Spinal, regional, and local anaesthesia, 
516. 

Statistics relating to the treatment of cancer 
of the breast by excision supplemented 
by radiation, 418. 

Surgical treatment of chronic intestinal 
stasis, 221, 

Typhus, 191. 

Vaccination, 205. 

Whooping-cough, 201. 
Rickets, aetiology of, 465, 574. 



Rickets, dietaries of infants in relation to 
development of, 176. 
experimental, production of, in rats by de- 
ficient diets, 176. 
— , in rats, effect of cod-liver oil on, 176. 
Rigor mortis in smooth muscle, 280. 
Ringworm, differential diagnosis between 
large- and small-spored, 112. 
X-ray therai^y of, precautions to be taken 
in, 112. 



Sachs-Georgi syphilis reaction, 361. 
Sacral anaesthesia, 625. 
Saliva in diabetic patients, 499. 
Salvarsan, sources of error in treatment by, 
158. 
in treatment of pulmonary gangrene, 316, 
Saphenous vein, internal, primary sarcoma 

of, 345. 
Saponin, effects of, on respiration, 383. 
Sarcoid of Boeck-Darier treated by intra- 
venous injection of salvarsan, 114. 
Sarcoma following radium treatment of 
epithelioma of tongue, 583. 
primary, of internal saphenous vein, 345, 
primary, of stomach, 9. 
of spleen, 120, 
Sarcomata of Eustachian tube, 242, 
Scabies, 113. 

Schmitz, bacteriology of bacillus of, 78. 
Sciatica, pathogenesis of. 254. 
Sclerodermia, affections o# joints in, 113. 
Scurvy, protection against, 386, 387. 
Secretin, supposed identity of, with water- 
soluble B vitamine, 468. 
Senses, special, psychology of, 53. 
Sepsis, chronic, of skin, treatment of. 111, 
Septicaemia, gonococcal, 210. 
Sera, concentrated, action of, 166. 
Serum treatment of chancroid, 220. 

treatment of gonorrhoea, 216. 
Sham feeding test, 4. 

Shick test for susceptibility to diphtheria, 25. 
Shock, experimental, basal metabolism in : 
oxygen content and chemical changes in 
blood in, 275. 
lactic acid in blood in, 376. 
Silver nitrate solution, use of, for painting 
throat in treatment of pertussis, 203. 
oligodynamic action of, 480. 
salvarsan in treatment of congenital syphi- 
lis, 416. 
Skin, diseases of, 110. 
in influenza, 300. 
pigmentation of. 111. 
sensibility to pain of, 45. 
Skull, pathological physiology of, 428. 
Smell, theory of, 281. 

Sodium bicarbonate, relationship between 
plasma bicarbonate and urinary acidity 
following the administration of, 173. 
— , solution, intraperitoneal administration 

of, 480. 
iodide, intravenous injections of, in treat- 
ment of gonorrhoeal arthritis, epididy- 
mitis, and prostatitis, 214. 
lactate in treatment of diabetes, 506. 
Soil bacteria, the size of spores of, 159, 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



XV 



Soil bacteria, a new anaerobic bacillus of 

(B. spertnoides), 160. 
Soy bean flour, nutritive value of, as a sup- 
plement to wheat flour, 468. 
Spasmodic contraction of arteries of medium 

size caused by injury, 33. 
Spastic gait, treatment of, by permanent 
flexion of great toe, 548. 
paralysis, condition of extensor muscles in, 
533. 
Spectrum, antagonistic properties in different 

regions of, 396. 
Spermatozoa, physical and chemical proper- 
ties of horse semen in relation to physi- 
ology of, 477. 
Spinal anaesthesia, 520. 

cord, posterior column of, myelinization 

of, 547. 
ganglion-cell, human, growth-curve of, 

371. 
reflex mechanism, effects of anoxaemia on, 
428. 
Spine, cervical, congenital anomalies of, 342. 

myeloma of, 250. 
Spirillolysis by chorionic ferments, 407. 
Spirocliaeta icterohacniorrhagiae, Sp. iderogenes, 

and Sp. hebdomadis, relations of, 455. 
Spirochaetes, buccal, beneficial effect of cer- 
tain bacteria in cultivation of, 270. 
in lymphatic glands, 58. 
Spirochaetosis, bronchial, 313. 

ictero-liaemorrhagica, dual histopathologi- 
cal character of, relation with acute 
yellow atrophy of liver, 374. 
spontaneous, of rabbit, 569. • 
Spironemata of pointed condylomata, 158. 
Splanchnic anaesthesia, 524. 
Spleen, abscess of, 119. 
diseases of, 118. 

size of, in abdominal cancer, 120. 
Splenectomy, indications for, 124. 
Splenomegaly, various forms of, 121. 
Spores, heat resistance of, 352. 
' Staphar ' in treatment of chronic sepsis of 

skin, 111. 
Staphylococci, activity of, in milk, 256. 
Steaton-hoea, congenital, 509. 
Stegomyia, period during which, can live at 

low temperatures, 477. 
Stomach, cancer of, 7. 

perforation of, in gastric cancer, 8. 
primary sarcoma of, 9. 
ulcer of smaller curvature of, 182. 
see also gastric. 
Streptococci, faecal, properties and relations 
of, 257. 
green producing, respiratory infections 

with, 267. 
haemolytic, of vermiform appendix, 257. 
haemotoxin of, biological and physical 

properties of, 69. 
virulence of, action of certain salts on, 361. 
Streptococcus empyema, experimental. II. 

Attempts at dye therapy, 69. 
Streptococcus haernolyticus, biochemistry of, 565. 
infection, effect of, on reaction of blood of 
rabbits, 69. 
Streptothricosis, pulmonary, 316. 
String test in diagnosis of peptic ulcers, 6. 



Suggestion, 244. 

Sulphur, purgative action of, 180. 

Supraronin solution, immediate death from 

injection of, 518. 
Surgery (abstracts), 52, 239, 341, 435. 
Swine erysipelas in man, bacteriology of, 352. 
Syphilis, antenatal, 406. 

behaviour of cerebrospinal fluid in, 336. 
congenital, 406. 
— , change of type in, 410. 
— , diagnosis of, 412. 
— , symptomatology of, 410. 
— , treatment of, 414. 
of eighth nerv<>, 447. 

experimental, superinfection in, following 
the administration of subcurative doses 
of arsphenamine or neoarsphenamine, 
570. 
and influenza, 302. 
of nei-vous system, 59, 60, 61. 
of pancreas, 511. 

results of antenatal treatment of, 413. 
Sachs-Georgi reaction in, 361. 
transmission of, to third generation, 412. 
value of gland puncture in early diagnosis 

of, 59. 
visceral, mistaken for duodenal ulcer, 6. 
Syphilitic infection, attenuation of virulence 
of, in pregnant women, 407. 
aortitis, gastro-inte.stinal haemorrhage in, 
11. 



Tabes, behaviour of cerebrospinal fluid in, 
337. 
essential lesion of, 547. 
histopathology of, 547. 
juvenile, 149, 411. 

mesenterica following influenza, 302. 
Taenia cucumerina in infants, 103. 
Tar cancer, 114. 
Tarsal scaphoid, inflammation of, in young 

children (Kohler's disease), 483. 
Temperature changes induced by gum acacia 
injections in normal and fevered animals, 
90. 
Tendon, dead, grafts of, 527. 

reflexes, function of, 531. 
Testicle, changes in inter.stitial tissue of, in 
consequence of deficiency of water-soluble 
accessory substance B, 168. 
Tetanus toxin, effects of, on artificially per- 
fused liver, 388. 
Tetany and forced respiration, 431. 
Thiodiglycol, poisonous effect of, upon urease, 

179. 
Thrombopenia, splenogenous, 124. 
Thrombosis, cerebral, 322. 
Thrush fungus, 262. 
Thyroid apparatus, 475. 

effect of small amounts of, on size and 
weiglit of certain organs in male white 
rat, 280. 
gland, distribution of iodine between cells 

and colloid in, 475. 
and iodide feeding, comparative effects of, 
on growth in white rats and rabbits, 179. 
lesions of, in Graves's disease, 247. 
Tobacco smoke as disinfectant of mouth, 357. 



XVI 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Tonic fits, 55. 

Tonsil, relation of, to blood-vessels, 324. 
Tonsils, methods of removing, 326. 
Torticollis, congenital, 132. 
Trachoma, exp«»riniental. 462. 
Trauma and diabetes, 497. 
Trichocephaliasis, 107, lOS. 
Trichophytic infection, production of anti- 
bodies in, 112. 
Trichophytosis complicating vaccination, 208. 
Tryptophane, colorimetric experiments on, 

579. 
Tubercle bacilli, attenuated, antigenic action 
of, 261. 
comparative value of methods of Herman 

and Ziehl-Neelsen for staining, 83. 
fat content of, 559. 

human and bovine, facultative acid fast- 
ness in, 260. 
search for, in cold abscesses, suppurative 
glands, and urines, 559. 
Tubercle bacillus, cultivation of, in glycerine- 
free media, 261. 
influence of chaulmoogra oil on, 262. 
Tuberculin hypersensitiveness in non-tuber- 
culous guinea-pigs induced by injections 
of bacillus-free filtrates, 558. 
use of, in lupus erythematosus. 112. 
Tuberculosis, active, diagnosis of, by Wild- 
bolz's auto-urine reaction, 559. 
articular, surgical treatment of, 438. 
in bones and joints, i"adiological diagnosis 

of, 481. 
of calcaneus in children, 482. 
cutis vegetans, 112, 
and diabetes, 500. 
endothelial reactions in, 375. 
experimental, effect of mustard gas on, 

369. 
— , mercury compounds in chemotherapy 

of, in guinea-pigs, 262. 
influence of exposure to X-rays on the 

gro%vth of, 395. 
and influenza, 301. 
osseous, surgical treatment of, 438. 
pulmonary, blood ferment in, 162. 
— , suspension stability of blood in, 366. 
of spleen, 120. 
spontaneous, in frog, 84. 
surgical, 435. 
— , actinotherapy of, 437. 
Tuberculous sputa, homogenization of, 559. 

guinea-pigs, weight curves of, 82. 
Tumours of basal ganglia, mental disturb- 
ances in, 447. 
of hypophysis, radiotherapy of, 582. 
malignant, clinically obscure, of naso- 
pharyngeal wall, 242. 
mixed, of facial region, development of so- 
called, 467. 
of scalp containing brain tissue, 114. 
superficial of brain, 446. 
Typhoid fever patients treated with a hetero- 
logous (anticholera) vaccine, haemato- 
losjical and serological investigations on, 
356. 
Typhus, 191. 

in association with other diseases, 196. 
aural and laryngeal complications of, 196. 



Typhus, Ijehaviour of body temperature in, 
in man and in animalsthatcan be experi- 
mentally infected, 455. 

blood in, 196. 

bnlbo-pontine syndrome in, 195. 

cerebrospinal fluid in, 195. 

diagnosis of, 197. 

epidemiology of, 191. 

inculiation period in, 194. 

projihylaxis of, 197. 

pulmonary congestion in, 195. 

relapse in, 194. 

serological studies on, 163, 170. 

symptomatology of, 194. 

treatment of, 198. 

without eruption, 194. 
Tyrosinase, 230. 



Ulcer, duodenal, treatment of, 14. 

Ulcei'S, gastric and duodenal, 4. 

Ulcus molle, 218. 

Ultra-violet rays, use of, in preparation of 
vaccines, 356. 

Urea, distribution of, in organism, 576. 

Urinary acidity, relationsliip between, and 
plasma bicarbonate following administra- 
tion of sodium bicarbonate, 173. 

Urine, estimation of phenolic substances in, 
86. 
normal human, experiments on source of 

variations in reaction of, 385. 
normal and pathological, proteoclastic 

enzymes in, 385. 
secretion, influence of acacia-glucose in- 
jections on, 277. 

Urochromogen, 282. 

Urticaria, 113. 

Uterine fibroids, radium therapy for, 285. 

Uterus, involution of, following labour, and 
influence of castration and sucking on 
process of involution, 474. 
radiotherapy of carcinoma of, at gynaeco- 
logical clinic at Erlangen, 288. 
radium treatment of sarcomata of, at 
gynaecological clinic at Erlangen, 286. 



Vaccination, 205. 

complications of, 208. 

prophj-Iactic, of 1,536 persons against acute 

respiratory diseases, 1919-20, 267. 
statistics, 205. 
technique of, 207. 
Vaccine treatment of dysentery, 404. 
treatment of typhus, 199. 
treatment of whooping-cough, 203. 
Vaccines, use of ultra-violet rays in prepara- 
tion of, 356. 
Vaccinia, generalized, in Burmese children, 

208. 
Vagotonia in asthma, 312. 
Vagus, irritation of, causing haemorrhagic 

erosions of stomach, 5. 
Vasomotor reactions, peripheral and pul- 
monary, parallelism between, 167. 
Vegetables, sun-dried, antiscorbutic and anti- 

beri-beri properties of certain, 574. 
Veins, functional activity of, 278. 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



xvii 



Ventriculograpliy, localization or elimination 

of cerebral tumours by, 182. 
Vertebral artery, 322. 
— , aneurysm of, 330. 
— , ligation of, 380. 
bodies, disappearance of, 372. 
column, rare malformation of cephalic end 

of, 370. 
Vibrio cholerae, serological races of, and relation 

to some other vibrios, 455, 
Vitamine content of milk, 84. 

fat-soluble, critique of experiments with 

diets free from, 177. 
— , differentiation of yellow plant pigments 

from , 84. 
— , effects of heat, aeration, and ozone on, 

84, 85. 
water-soluble B, changes in interstitial 

tissue of testicle in consequence of 

deficiency in, 168. 
— , and secretin, supposed identity of, 468. 
Vitamines, antiscorbutic and anti-beri-beri in 

certain sun-dried vegetables, 574. 
distribution of, 468. 
influence of diet of cow upon nutritive and 

antiscorbutic properties of cow's milk, 

in nutrition of bacteria, 387, 
similarity of effects produced by absence of, 
and by exposure to X-rays and radium, 
466, 487. 
Vitiligo, effects of light baths on, 111. 
Volatile substances, immediate action of, 477. 
Volvulus of sigmoid flexure, surgical treat- 
ment of, 227, 
Vulva, melanotic cancer of, 234. 
Vulvo-vaginitis, gonorrhoeal, in children, 
treatment of, 217. 



Wassermann reaction in chronic splenome- 
galy, 121. 
in diagnosis of congenital syphilis, 412. 



Wassermann reaction in patients affected with 
malaria in tropics, 357. 
relation of Sachs-Geoi gi reaction to, 362. 
value of, in pregnancy, 409. 
value of simultaneous testing for, with two 
different antigens and ' ice-box method ', 
58. 
Water content of human organism, regula- 
tion of, 476. 
Weil-Felix reaction in tj-phus, 197. 
Wertheim's hysterectomy for advanced 
carcinoma of cervix made possible by use 
of radium, 584. 
Whitefish sperm, chemistry of, 89. 
Wildbolz's auto-urine test for active tubercu- 
losis, 66, 559. 
Whooping-cough, 201. 
aetiology of. 201. 

association of, with influenza, 201. 
epidemiology of, 201. 
investigations at State Serum Institute in 

Copenhagen, 561. 
symptomatology of, 201. 
treatment of, 202. 
Wound diphtheria, 23. 
bacteriology of, 162. 
Wrist, treatment of acute suppuration of, 236. 

X-ray dosage, suggested new method of 
measuring, 182. 
epitheliomata, treatment of, with radium, 

114. 
therapy with new apparatus giving 200,000 
volts, 287. 
X-rays, similarity of effects produced by 
vitamines and, 466, 487, 
in treatment of oriental sore, 114. 
Xylose, fermentation of, by bacteria of 
aerogenes, paratyphoid B, and typhoid 
groups, 77. 

Yeast, nutritive value of, in bread, 468. 



V. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHOKS 



Aaser, E., heart failure in diphtheria, 23. 
Aaser, P., non-specific horse serum in tre'at- 

ment of diphtheria, 29. 
Abderhalden, E., rate of sedimentation of 

red cells during pregnancy, 543. 
rate of deposition of erythrocytes in plasma 

and its relation to protective ferments, 

176. 
Abelin, J., influence of specific iodine com- 
pounds upon metamorphosis of frog's 

larvae and of axolotl, 578. 
Abrahamsen, A., Kohler's disease, with 

special reference to its aetiology, 345. 
Abrami, P. : see Widal, P., Abrami, P., et 

lancoresco, N. 
Adams, F. D., carcinoma of pancreas, 513. 
Adams, J., antenatal treatment of syphilis, 

413. 
Adamson, H. G., treatment of lupus vulgaris 

with liquid acid nitrate of mercury, 112. 
keratodermia blennorrhagica a form of 

psoriasis, 110, 212. 
Adler, F. H., carcinoma of pancreas, 513. 
Adolph, E. F., regulation of water content of 

human organism, 476. 
Adrian, C, et Roederer, J., affections of 

joints in sclerodermia, 113. 
Agar, M., treatment of hay fever, 310. 
Agnew, F. F,, haemorrhage following re- 
moval of tonsils, 326. 
Agulhon et de Leobardy, J., employment in 

haematology of complex stains based on 

Romanowsky principle, 364. 
De Albertis. D., quick process for staining 

neuroglia fibres, 168. 
Albu, A., congenital predisposition to peptic 

ulcer, 5. 
prognosis of dysentery, 403. 
ulcerative colitis a sequel to bacillary 

dysentery, 401. 
Alexander, H., Wildbolz's auto-urine reaction 

in diagnosis of active tuberculosis, 559. 
Alexander, H.L., precipitin response in blood 

of rabbits following subarachnoid injec- 
tions of horse serum, 569. 
Alexander, M. E., and Macdonald, E. L., im- 
munity against influenza, 304. 
Alexander, W., ligation of vertebral artery, 

330. 
inquiry into distribution of blood groups 

in patients suffering from ' malignant 

disease', 461. 
Alezais et Peyron, development of so-called 

mixed tumours and cylindromata of 

facial region, 467. 



Alilaire, E., et Fernbach, E., cultivation of 
tubercle bacillus in glycerine-free media, 
261. 

Allen, F. M., dietetic treatment of diabetes, 
505. 
experimental studies in diabetes. Influ- 
ence of cold, 276. 
influence of extremes of age, 276. 
influence of fever and intoxication, 275. 
influence of pregnancy upon experimental 
diabetes, 281. 

Allen, F. M., Mitchell, J. W., and Sherrill, 
J. W., dietetic treatment of diabetes, 506. 

Allen, F. M., and Wishart, M. B., exercise in 
treatment of diabetes, 504. 

Alsberg, J., neosalvarsan in treatment of 
pulmonary gangrene, 316. 

Amoss, H. L., immunological distinctions of 
encephalitis and poliomyelitis, 263. 

Amoss, H. L., Gates, F. L., and Olitsky, 
P. K., simplified production of anti- 
meningococcic serum, 81. 

Amsden, H. H., haemorrhage following re- 
moval of tonsils, 826. 

Anderodias et Dubreuil, G., diabetes and 
glycosuria, 501. 

Anderson, J. F., improved method for pro- 
duction of antimeningococcic and other 
serums, 82. 

Anderson, R. A., and Schultz, 0. T., immuno- 
logic study of strains of Bacillus pfeifferi 
isolated from a case of meningitis, 561. 

Andre-Thomas, pilomotor reflex. 246. 

van Anrep, G., and Drummond, J. C, note 
on supposed identity of water-soluble 
vitamine B and secretin, 468. 

Antoine, E., severe forms of recto-colitis, 12. 

Aoki, K., u. lizuka, N., studies on sub- 
groups of Proteus. Cross-agglutination 
as differential-diagnostic means, 272. 

Apert, E., et Cambess6des, predominance of 
whooping-cough among f6males, 201. 

ApoUoni, G., pancreatic calculi, 514. 

Armand-Delille, P. F., intra-muscular route 
for injection of diphtheria antitoxin, 
28. 
prophylaxis of typhus in armies on active 
service, 197. 

Armand-Delille, P. F., et Marie, P. L., Schick 
test for susceptibility to diphtheria, 26. 

Aschenbeim, splenic anaemia of infancy, 119. 

Ascoli, M., e Fagiuoli, A., treatment of 
bronchial asthma by irradiation of 
hypophysis, 312. 

Asua, F. J., diseases of spleen, 118. 



11. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XIX 



Aszodi, Z., •hemical heat regulation of mam- 
mals. Artificial hibernating state in 
mice, 378. 

Aub, J. C, Cunningham, T. D.. and Wu, H., 
experimental tiaumatic shock. I. The 
basal metabolism. II. Oxygen content 
of blood. III. Chemical changes in 
blood, 275. 

Audrain, J., intramuscular injection of ether 
in treatment of whooping-cough, 202. 

Audry, C, tumours of scalp containing brain 
tissue, 114. 

Auguste, C. : see Legrand et Auguste, C. 

Avery, O. T., and Cullen, G. E., studies on 
enzymes of pneumococcus. I. Proteo- 
lytic enzymes. II. Lipolytic enzymes : 
esterase. III. Carbohydrate-splitting 
enzymes : invertase, amylase, and inu- 
lase, 71. 

Avery, O. T. : see ThJ0tta, T., and Avery, 
6. T. 

Azzi, A., parallelism between peripheral and 
pulmonary vasomotor reactions, 167. 



Bablet. J., bacteriophagic principle of 
d'Herelle, 74. 

Bach, F. W., comparative studies on races of 
Proteus, with special reference to their 
capability to produce haemotoxin, 272. 

Bacharach, A. L. : see Jcphcott, H., and 
Bacharach, A. L. 

Bacmeister, A., herpes zoster, infection in, 
112. 

Bagg, H. J., response of animal organism to 
repeated injections of an active deposit 
of radium emanation. Intravenous in- 
jections in dogs, 185. 
see Gudernatsch, J. F., and Bagg, H. J. 

Bags, H. J., Ewing, J., and Quick, D., experi- 
mental study of eflfects of radium emana- 
tion on brains of animals, 585. 

Balint, A.: see Hamburger, R., u. Balint, A. 

Ballance, C, and Edmunds, W., ligature of 
the large arteries in continuity, 329. 

Barbour, H. G., and Baretz, L. H., tempera- 
ture changes induced by gum acacia injec- 
tions in normal and fevered animals, 
90. 

Barclay, A. E., danger of Coolidge tube for 
screen work, 394. 

Barcroft, J., anoxaemia. 430. 

Bardet : see Dobreuilh et Bardet. 

Baretz, L. H.: see Barbour, H. G., and 
Baretz, L. H. 

Barnes, W. H., activity of staphylococci in 
milk, 256. 

Ban, D. P.: see Peters, .J. P. (Jr.), and 
Barr, D. P. 
see Peters, J. P., Barr, D. P., and Rule, 
F. D. 

Barsony, T., symptoms due to extreme elonga- 
tion and dilatation of colon, 14. 

Baruch, M., toxic complications following 
injections into spinal theca, 521. 
see Kiittner, H., u. Baruch, M. 

Basch, S., primary sarcoma of stomach, 9. 

Bassett-Smith, P. W., influenza epidemics in 
the navy, 1918-19, 296. 



Bastedo, W. A., surgdrj- in treatment of 

peptic ulcer, 14. 
Bau, A., determination of oxalic-acid and 

nxaluric acid in urine and faeces, 473. 
Baudoin, C, suggestion and auto-suggestion, 

244. 
Baudrimont, A., bilateral hygroma of pre 

patellar bursa after influenza, 301. 
Baudru, L. : see Nanta, A., et Baudru, L. 
Bauer, E. L., Shick test for susceptibility to 

diphtheria, 25. 
Bayliss, W. M., psychical disturbances due 

to oxvgen want, 427. 
Bazett, H. C: see Corbett, C. D. II., and 

Bazett, H. C. 
Becher, 11., oil of turpentine in olive oil in 

treatment of septic conditions of skin, 

111. 
Bechhold, W., structure of red blood cor- 
puscles and haemolysis, 367. 
Becker, G., complement fixation by hosts of 

Bothriocephahis, 163. 
Beckmann, K., haemolytie jaundice, 122. 
Beckwith, T. D., and Lyon, R. H., viability 

and growth of B. typhosus in bile, 79. 
B^clere, use of radiotherapy in Basedow's 

disease, 390. 
Beclfere, A., radium treatment of sarcomata 

of uterus at gynaecological clinic at 

Erlangen, 286. 
radiotherapy of carcinoma of uterus at 

gynaecological clinic at Erlangen, 288. 
Becl6re, H. : see Duval, P., Roux, et Becl6re, H. 
Behmer, W., biology and biochemistry of B. 

protens and attempts at the isolation of 

pathogenic bacteria from Proteus-con- 

taminated material by means of agar 

plates contain ing carbolic acid or Eichloif- 

blue, 80. 
Behrend, M., improved technique for removal 

of gall-bladder, 129. 
Bell, H. H., relation of different strains of 

influenza bacilli as shown by cross- 
agglutination and absorption tests, 155. 
Bellot, A.: see Degrais, P., et Bellot, A. 
Benedetti. U., annular pancreas, 509. 
Bennett, T. I., and Dodds, E. C, gastric and 

respiratory response to meals, 466. 
Bensaude, R., et Vicente, M., bile enemata 

in treatment of constipation, 15. 
Berge, A., et Hufnagel, L., skin eruptions in 

influenza, 300. 
Bergeim, O. : see Hawk, P. B., Smith, C. A., 

and Bergeim, 0. 
Bergonie, J., heat dermatitis following a 

chronic X-ray dermatitis, 391. 
Bcrthier : see Olmer, D., et Berthicr. 
Bertolotti, M., congenital anomalies of cer- 
vical spine, 342. 
see Mattirolo, G., e Bertolotti, M. 
Bertoye : see Mouriquand, G., et Bertoye. 
Besson, A., et de Lavergne, on Morgan's 

bacillus, 271. 
Bettmann, seasonal variations in skin 

diseases. 111. 
Beuttner, O., et Chapnis, R., radium therapy 

of cancer of cervix, 392. 
Bezancon, F., et de Jong, S. I., eosinophiiia 

in sputum in asthma, 311. 

b :> 



XX 



n. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Biberfel'i, J., acclimatizaticn to drugs. Ac- 
climatization to codein derivatives 
(eucodal and paracodein), 180. 

Bieber, W., diphtheria prophylaxis, 26. 
practical protective value of Behring's 
toxin-antitoxin mixture against diph- 
theria, 454. 

Bier, A., and Others, 45th conference of 
German Surgical Society (Surgical Tuber- 
culosis), 435. 

Biffis, P., familial haemolytic jaundice, 123. 

Bigger, J. W. : see Stokes, A., and Bigger, 
J. W. 

Bihlmeyer, G., rashes in diabetic children, 
500. 

Binet, L. : see Rathery, F., et Binet, L. 

Bingel, non-specific horse serum in treatment 
of diphtheria, 28. 

Birk, W., non-specific horse serum in treat- 
ment of diphtheria, 28. 

Birley, J. L., effects of flying at high altitudes, 
428. 

Bishop, W. A. : see Brosius, 0. T., and Bishop, 
W. A. 

Bittorf, A., influenza complicated bysymptonis 
of Menieres disease, 301, 

Blake, F. G. : see Cecil, R. L., and Blake, F. G. 

Blake, F. G., and Cecil, R. L., experimental 

pneumonia. IX. Production in monkeys 

of an acute respiratory disease resembling 

influenza by inoculation with Bacillus in- 

fliiemae, 152. 

Blake, F. G., and Trask, J. D., susceptibility 
of monkeys to virus of measles ; their 
symptomatology and pathology when 
experimentally infected, 354. 

Blanc, G., researches on the virus of herpes, 
451. 

Blanc, J., et Pozerski, E., reaction of bio- 
logical media, 564. 

Blanc, N. E. : .see Cooper, G. M., Mishulow, L., 
and Blanc, N. E. 

Blanchard, development of phagedaena in 
vaccine pustule, 208. 

Blau, A. I., Shick test for susceptibility to 
diphtheria, 25. 

Bloch, Br., u. Loffler, W., cause of skin colour 
in Addison's disease, 230, 231. 

Bloch, C. E., aetioloay of infantile diarrhoea, 
12. 

Bloomfield, A. L., mechanism of bacillus 
carrier state with special reference to 
Friedlaender's bacillus, 467. 

Bloor, W. R., blood phosphates in lipaemia 
produced by acute experimental anaemia 
in rabbits, 174. 
see Sundstroem, E. S., and Bloor, W. R. 

Blumenthal, F., results of treatment of cancer 
of breast by excision and radiation, 
420. 

Blumenthal, G., aetiology of bacillary 
dysentery, 272. 

Boas, E. P. : see Fishberg, M., and Boas, E. P. 

Boas, I,, cause of gastric ulcer, 5, 

de Boer, S., fibrillation of heart, 472. 

Bogendorfer, L., effect of sweating and diu- 
retics on blood and body- weight with diet 
rich and poor in salt, 575. 

Biihm, A., epidemiology of influenza, 295. 



Boidin, L., diphtheria with multiple and 
subintrant relapses, 23. 

Bolaffi, A., dual histopathological character 
of spirochaetosis ictero-haemorrhagica : 
relation with acute yellow atrophy of 
liver, 374. 

Bond, C. J., auto-haemagglutination, 358. 

Bonnet, E., et Sicard, J., meaning of term 
'emerods' used in Bible, 399. 

Bonnet, L. M , et Morenas, large doses of 
cacodylate of soda in treatment of lichen, 
111. 

Borchardt, L., u. Ladwig, B , intramuscular 
injections of milk in influenza, 305. 

Bordet, F.: see Ratherj', F., et Bordet, F. 

Bordet, J., theories of blood coagulation, 550. 

Bordet, J., et Ciuca, M,, leucocytic exudates 
and transmissible bacterial autolysin, 62. 
production and interpretation of d'Herelle's 
bacteriophage, 62. 

Borelli, E., superficial inguinal hernia, 241. 

Boring, E. G., results of experimental nerve 
section in man, 46. 

Bornstein, A., adrenalin glycaemia, 576. 

Bornstein : see Sanger u. Boi-nstein. 

Bory, M. L., aetiology of psoriasis, 110. 

Boss, W., results of treatment of cancer of 
breast by excision and radiation, 423. 

Boughton, T. H. , anaphylactic deaths in 
asthmatics, 311. 

Bourges, H., haemolytic jaundice caused by 
Ascaris lumbricoides, 105. 

Bourn, J. M. : see Stillman, E. G., and Bourn, 
J. M. 

Bradford, J. R., obs<3ure disease of spleen, 121. 

Bradley. H. C, and Felsher, H., studies of 
autolysis. VI. Effect of certain colloids 
upon autolysis, 86. 

Branham, S. E.. and Hall, I. C, attempts to 
cultivate filtrable viruses from cases of 
influenza and common colds, 264. 

Brattstrom, E., results of treatment of cancer 
of breast by excision and radiation, 423. 

Du Bray, E. S., gastric polyposis, 9. 

Du Bray, E. S., and Rosson, F. B., new 
growths of pleura, 319. 

Breinl, F., paragglutination, 355. 

Brewster, G. W. W., right colectomy, 224. 

Bridge, N., pulmonary streptothricosis, 317. 

Briggs, H., physical exertion, fitness, and 
breathing, 280. 

Brigham, F. G,, mortality from diabetes, 498 ; 
obesity and diabetes, 503, 

Brooks, M. M., effectsof bile salts and saponin 
on respiration, 383. 

Brosius, O. T., and Bishop, W. A., ankylo- 
stomiasis in natives of Zaragosa, 107. 

Brown, E. J., local anaesthesia by quinine 
salts, 520. 

Brown, W., psychology and psychotherapy, 
245. 

Brown, W. H., and Pearce, L., superinfection 
in experimental syphilis following the 
administration of subcurative doses of 
arsphenamine or neoarsphenamine, 570. 

Browning, C. H., and Gulbransen, R., anti- 
septic potency of acriflavine, with con- 
siderations on variability of results in 
testing antiseptics, 465. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XXI 



Browning, C, H., and Wilson, G. H. . anti- 
genic properties of globin, with a note 
on the independence of properties of 
serum and tissue proteins as exemplified 
by absence of antibody from globin of an 
immunized animal, 165. 

Brownlie, J. L., vaccine treatment of diph- 
theria, 30. 

Brun, R., origin and symptomatology of 
lumbago, 349. 

Briining, H., gastric analysis in children, .3. 

Brunn, F., Hitzenberger, K., u. SaxI, P., 
periodicity of gastric ulcer, G. 

Bruusgaard, E.j neurosyphilis, 00. 

Bumke, O., troubles due to lumbar puncture, 
520. 

Bunting, C. H., and Huston, J., fate of the 
lymphocyte, 572. 

Burns, A., relation of tonsil to adjacent 
arteries, 325. 

Burridge, W., researches on perfused heart, 
280. 

Burrows, A., report of Manchester and Dis- 
tiict Radium Institute, 283. 
see Shaw, W. F., and Burrows, A. 

Busacca, A., growth-curve of human spinal 
ganglion-cell, 371. 

Bussy, L. : see Japiot, P., et Bussy, L. 

Butler, E. F., hypertrophic pulmonary osteo- 
arthropathy following lung abscess, 315. 

Buttenwieser, S., haemorrhagic encephalitis 
as complication of dysentery, 402. 

Byrne, J., paradoxical pupil dilatation follow- 
ing lesions of afferent paths, 550. 

Caius, J. F., and Mhaskar, K. S., chemical 
composition and therapeutic value of 
anthelmintics, 106. 

Caldarola, P., serological investigations on 
meningococci, parameningococci, and 
gonococci, 450. 

Calderone, A., experimental investigation on 
phagocytosis. Influence of diluted 
.solutions of hydrochloric acid, 171. 

Calv6, J., non-tuberculous juvenile coxalgia, 

OJT, 

Cambess^des: see Apert, E., et Cambessed6s. 

Cameron, A. T., and Carmichael, J., bio- 
chemistry of iodine. III. comparative 
effects of thyroid and iodide feeding on 
growth in white rats and in rabbits, 
179. 

Campo, G., modern methods of diagnosis of 
cancer of stomach, 92. 

Cantacuz6ne, J., Roumanian epidemic of 
typhus in 1917-18, 191, 195. 

Canuyt, G., ulceration of larynx after in- 
fluenza, 301. 

Capelle, anaesthesia of brachial plexus, 525. 

Capone, G., studies on anaerobic flora of some 
morbid states of intestine, 159. 

Carini, A., bronchial spirochaetosis, 313. 

Carisi, G., primary sarcoma of lung, 318. 

Carmichael, J. : see Cameron, A. T., and 
Carmichael, J. 

Camot, P., plastic linitis, 4. 

Cartesegna, M., e Casassa, A., diphtheria 
bacilli in urine of cases, 19. 



Carulla, J. E. : see Udaondo, C. B., y Carulla 

J. E. 
Casassa, A. : see Cartesegna, M., e Casassa, A. 
Cassirer, R.. u. Lewy, F. H., two cases of 

superficial brain tumour, 446. 
Castigliola, O., treatment of amoebic abscess 

of liver, 404. 
Castronuovo, O., infectious diseases and 

diabetes, 497. 
Cathala, J. : see Lian, C, et Cathala, J. 
Catsaras, J., fatty embolism in lungs in cases 

dying of influenza, 298. 
Cattoretti, F., haematological and serological 

investigations on typhoid fever patients 

treated with heterologous (anticholora) 

vaccine, 356. 
Cauchoix, A., pulsating exophthalmos treated 

by ligature of both common carotids, 426. 
Cazeneuve, H. J., blood in typhus, 196. 
Cecil, R. L. : see Blake, F. G., and Cecil, R. L. 
Cecil, R. L., and Blake, F. G., studies on 

experimental pneumonia. X. Pathology 

of experimental influenza and of Bacillus 

injluemae pneumonia in monkeys, 153. 
Cecil, R. L., and Steffen, G. I., acute 

respiratory infection in man following 

inoculation with virulent B. injluemae, 

264. 
Celsus, old methods of removal of tonsils, 326. 
Cernezzi, A., treatment of large umbilical 

and ventral hernias, 239. 
Chapuis, R. : see Beuttner, O., et Chapuis, R. 
Chaput, treatment of acute suppuration of 

wrist, 236. 
Chartier, treatment of medullary and radical 

after-effects of epidemic encephalomye- 
litis, 493. 
Chatellier, L., erythromelalgia cured by single 

injection of adrenalin, 113. 
Chaton et Sauve, grafts of dead tendon, 529. 
Chauffard, immunity against influenza, 304. 
Chauveau, A., absence of internal carotids in 

sheep, 323. 
Cheinisse, treatment of chancroid, 219. 
Cheinisse, L., intramuscular injection of 

ether in treatment of whooping-cough, 

202. 
prophylaxis of influenza, 305. 
Cheplin, H. A., and Rettger, L. F., intestinal 

implantation of Bacillus acidophilus, 90, 178. 
Chesney, A. M. : see Rowntree, L., Chesney, 

A. M., and Marshall E. K. 
Chevrotier, J. : see Lumiere, A., et Chevro- 

tier, J. 
Chicandard, M., tuberculosis of calcaneus in 

children, 482. 
Chievitz, 0., Jenson, J., Reyn, A., and Collin, 

E., surgical treatment of osseous and 

articular tuberculosis, 438. 
Chiray, M., excretion of glycuronates in cases 

of vomiting of pregnancy, 541. 
Chotzen,T. : see SchaeSer, F., and Chotzen, T. 
Christiansen, M., gas phlegmon following 

subcutaneous injections, 568. 
Christensen, S. : see Thomsen, 0., and 

Christensen, S. 
Churchman, J. W., cause of parallelism 

between Gram reaction and gentian 

violet reiction. Isolation of gentian- 



xxu 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



positive individuals from a suspension 
of a gentian-negative organism. Relation 
of gentian violet reaction to dilution of 
implanted suspension. Effect of repeated 
re-inoculations of gentian violet agar with 
gentian-positive organisms. Selective 
action of gentian violet in relation to 
chemotherapy. Communal activity of 
bacteria, 91. 

Ciani, 6., cultures of anaerobic germs in 
ordinary Petri dishes in presence of air, 
354. 

Ciccarelli, F., transient polyomyelitis after 
influenzal broncho-pneumonia, 299. 

Oiuca, M. : see Bordet, J., et Ciuca, M. 

Civatte, A., et Vigne, P., treatment of sarcoid 
of Boeck-Darier by intravenous injection 
of salvarsan, 114. 

Clement, R. : see Ramond, F., et Clement, R. 

Clemow, F. G., typhus in Turkey, 193. 

Clendening, L., pulmonary abscess, 315. 

Cluzet, Rochaix.et Kofman, bactericidal action 
of radium on B. pyocyaneus, 187. 

Coca, A. F., and Kelley, M. F., serological 
study of bacillus of Pfeiffer, 267. 

Cockcroft, W. L., Loewi's adrenalin test for 
pancreatic insufficiency, 514. 

Cohen, C, on formation of acetaldehyde 
during decomposition of sugar by moulds, 
388. 

Cohen, M., and Levin, I., action of radium in 
cataract, 285. 

Cole, L. G., and Roberts, D., duodenal di- 
verticula : their clinical and radiological 
aspect, 183. 

CoUignon : see Monziols et CoUignon. 

Collin, E. : see Chievitz, 0., Jensen, J., Reyn, 
A., and Collin, E. 

Collip, J. B., eflect of surgical anaesthesia on 
reaction of blood, 67. 

Connell, A. A., Cyst of common bile-duct, 
128. 

Conseil, E. : see NicoUe, C, et Conseil, E.' 

Constantinesco, C. D., et Sloboziano, typhus 
without eruption, 194. 

Cooke, J. v., complement fixation in influenza 
with B. influenzae antigens, 155. 

Cooper, G. : see Park, W. H., and Cooper, G. 

Cooper, G. M., Mishulow, L., and Blanc, N. E., 
study of the serological relationships of 
pneumococci from the upper respiratory 
tract, with special reference to common 
colds and influenzal conditions, 267. 

Corbett, C. D. H., and Bazett, H. C, cerebral 
effects of oxygen want, 431. 

Corinaldesi, S., jaundice in influenza, 299. 

Corper, H. J. : see Hektoen, L., and Corper, 
H. J. 

Corper, H. J., and Rensch, O. B., effect of 
mustard gas on experimental tuberculosis, 
369. 

La Coste et Ferrier, injury causing spasmodic 
contraction of arteries, 33. 

Costiniu, A., aural and laryngeal complica- 
tions of typhus, 196. 

Cottin, E., Cramer, A., et Saloz, C, cancer of 
lung, 317. 

Couillaud, F., tongue sign in helminthiasis, 
103. 



Coulet, G., fatal tonsillar abscess after in- 
fluenza, 301. 

Coulter, C. B., equilibi'ium between haemo- 
lytic sensitizer and red blood cells in 
relation to hydrogen-ion concentration, 
378. 
isoelectric point of red blood cells and its 
relation to agglutination, 176. 

Courcoux: seeLegry, Courcoux,et Lermoyez, J. 

Coutela, C, retinitis in diabetics, 500. 

Cowan, M. L. : «ee Haitian d, H. B., Cowan, 
M. L., and Detweiler, H. K. 

Coward, K. II. : see Drummond, J. C, and 
Coward, K. H. 
se« Drummond, J. C.,Golding,J., Zilva,S. S., 
and Coward, K. H. 

Cramer, A. : see Cottin, E., Cramer, A., et 
Saloz, C. 

Ci'amer, W., and Mottram, J. C, similarity 
of effects produced by absence of vitamines 
and by exposure to X-rays and radium, 
466, 487. 

Cranston Low, R., Logan, W. R., and Ruther- 
ford, A., fatal case of lupus erythematosus, 
112. 

Cristol et Porte, gas cysts of abdomen, 11. 

Crohn, B. B., and Reiss, J., effects of restricted 
(so-called ulcer) diets upon gastric secre- 
tion and motility, 15. 

Cron, R. S., glycosuria and pregnancy, 501. 

Croutei-, C. Y. : see Hendrix, B. M., and 
Crouter, C. Y. 

Crowell, B. C, distribution and effects of 
Ascaris lumbricoides, 104. 

Cu^nod, A. : see Nicolle, C, et Cuenod, A. 

Cullen, G. E. : seeAvery,O.T., and Cullen,G.E. 

CuUis, W. C, and Hewer, E. E., 'ammonia 
coefificient ' of pregnancy, 89, 538. 

Culver, G. D. : see Montgomery, D. W., and 
Culver, G. D. 

Cunningham, T. D. : see Aub, J. C, Cunning- 
ham, T. D., and Wu, H. 

Curatolo, F., sodium lactate in treatment of 
diabetes, 506. 

Curschmann, H., defects of endocrine glands 
in causation of bronchial asthma, 310. 

Gushing, H., and Foley, F. E. B., alteration 
of intracranial tension by salt solution in 
alimentary canal, 178. 

Cutler, E. C, abscess of spleen following otitis 
media, 119. 



Dahle, C. H. : see Dutiker, R. A., Eckles, C. H., 
Dahle, C. H., Mead, S. W., and Schaefer, 
O. G. 

Daken, J., treatment of gonorrhoeal vulvo- 
vaginitis in children, 217. 

Dandy, W. E., diagnosis and treatment of 
hydrocephalus due to occlusion of fora- 
mina of Magendie and Luschka, 549. 
localization or elimination of cerebral 
tumours by ventriculography, 182. 

Daniels, A. L., and Loughlin, R., deficiency 
of heat-treated milks, 85. 

Danis, M., inflammation of cellular tissue of 
right orbit following influenzal pneu- 
monia, 301. 

Darier, J., myiasis c\ued by excision, 114. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XXlll 



Darier, J., pitcancerous deruiatosis, 114. 
Darier, J., et Hall6, J., naevus derived from 

bronchial clefts, 114. 
Darling, S. T., mass treatment of hookworm 

infection, 107. 
Daubit, polysulpliide of calcium in treatment 

of scabies, 113. 
Davey, A^ J., dutermination of minimum 

doses of some fresh citrus fruit juices 

which will protect a guinea-pig from 

scurvy, together with f-ome observations 

on preservation of such juices, 386. 
Davide, H. L., aetiology of influenza, 563. 
Davis, L. C. : ?ee Kolmer, J. A., Davis, L. C, 

and Jager, R. 
Davis, L. H. : see Ross, E. L., and Davis, L. H., 

274. 
Davis, L. H., and Ellison, L. R., source of 

diastases in blood, 469. 
Davis, T. K. : see Kirby, G. H., and Davis, T. K. 
Davison, W., divisions of so-called Flexner 

group of dysentery bacilli, 77. 
Davison, W. C, ileo-colitis in children in 

Maryland and Alabama due to B. dys- 

enteriae, 400. 
Dawson, P. R. : see Sullivan, M., and Dawson, 

P. R. 
Deaver, H. C, cholecystitis following typhoid, 

127. 
Deaver, J. B., McFarland, J., and Herman, 

J. L., statistics relating to treatment of 

cancer of breast by excision and radiation, 

419. 
Debre, R., et Haguonau, some peculiarities of 

' d'Herelle phenomenon ', 74. 
Degrais, P., et Bellot, A., treatment of X-ray 

epitheliomata with radium, 114. 
Deibert, O. : see Teague, O., and Deibert, 0. 
Delherm et Laquerri6re, electro-radiology in 

neuritis of motor nerves, 492. 
Delmas, P., general analgesia by cocaine 

injected into spinal theca, 522. 
Denk, W., general and local anaesthesia, 516. 

intestinal exclusion, 137. 
Denny, H. T. : see Povitsky, 0. R., and Denny, 

H. T. 
Dercum, F. X., intraspinal treatment of 

neurosyphilis with salvarsanized serum, 

338. 
Desderi, P.: see Volpino, G., e Desderi, P. 
Dessane ; see Gougerot et Dessane. 
Detweiler, H. K. : see Maitland, H. B., 

Cowan, M. L., and Detweiler, H. K. 
Deuel, jun., H. J. : see Holmes, A. D., and 

Deuel, jun., H. J. 
Dible, J. H., enterococcus and faecal strepto- 
cocci : their properties and relations, 257. 
Dickson, W. E. C. , congenital obliteration of 

bile-ducts, 127. 
Dide et Guiraud, special staining method for 

lipoid granules in nerve-cells, 252. 
Dienst, A., eclampsia due to thrombus forma- 
tion, 543. 
Diez, S., trauma and diabetes, 497. 
Di Macco, G., on influence of nutrose in 

culture medium of Drigalski-Conradi, 77. 
experimental investigations on phago- 
cytosis. Influence of fatigue, 171. 
see Mubumeci, G., e Di Macco, G. 



Dind, M., lichen and lichenification, HI. 
Dixon, W. E., and Ransom, F., immediate 

action of volatile substances, 477. 
Dobreuilli et Bardet, deformities of hands 
since childhood caused by cicatrices, 482. 
Dodds, E.G. : see Bennett, T. I., and Dodds, 

E. C. 
Doerr, R., oligodynamic action of silver, 480. 
Doerr, R., Schnabel, A., u. VOchting, K., 
behaviour of body temperature in typhus 
in man and in animals that can be 
experimentally infected, 455. 
Dold, H., und Fischer, W., a case of naturally 
acquired bacillary dysentery in dog with 
simultaneous schistosomiasis, ankylosto- 
miasis, and filariasis, 79. 
Dopter, C., immunity against influenza, 303. 
Doran, A. , melanotic cancer of vulva secondary 

to adrenal tumour of kidney, 234. 
Dorland, N., methylene blue in treatment of 

gonorrhoea in women, 216. 
Douglas, S. R., question of serological races 
of V. cholerae and relation of some other 
vibrios to this species, 455. 
Downey, H. : see Mandlebaum, P. S., and 

Downey, H. 
Dragstedt, L. R. , effect of Streptococcus haemo- 
lyticus infection on reaction of blood of 
rabbits, 69. 
Draper, G., acute poliomyelitis, 146. 
Dreyer, G., simple procedure for accurate 
enumeration of blood-cells and bacteria 
without the use of a counting chamber, 
364. 
Dreyfus, G. L., constitution of cerebrospinal 
fluid — deciding factor for prognosis and 
therapy in syphilis of nervous system, 
59, 336. 
Drummond, J. C, nutrition on diets 
practically devoid of fat, 178. 
see van Anrep, G., and Drummond, J. C. 
Drummond, J. C, and Coward, K. H., 
researches on fat-soluble accessory factor 
(Vitamine A.) VI. Effect of heat and 
oxygen on nutritive value of butter, 84. 
Drummond, J. C, Golding, J., Zilva, S. S., 
and Coward, K. H., nutritive value of 
lard, 85. 
Driiner, hemiplegia following ligature of 

common carotid, 324, 328. 

Dubourg et Guenard, F., mortality from 

diphtheria in children's hospital in 

Bordeaux from 1888 to 1917, 18. 

Dubreuil, G. : see Anderodias et Dubreuil, G. 

Dubreuilh, W., infective pruriginous eruption 

among Tonkinese and Annamites, 113. 
Ducceschi, V., influence of ethyl alcohol on 

organism, 463. 
Duchemin, B., sarcoma of spleen, 120. 
Dudgeon, L. S., blackwater-fever, 457. 
Dufour, H., Semelaigne, G., et Ravina, A., 
pulmonary gangrene cured by anti- 
gangrene serum, 316. 
Dufourt, A. : see Weill, E., et Dufourt, A. 
Dumas, J., on presence of bacteriophage in 
healthy intestine, in soil, and in water, 
74. 
Dumitresco-Mante, three forms of pulmonary 
congestion in typhus, 195. 



XXIV 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Duncan, A. G. B. : see Fraser, A. R., and 
Duncan, A. G. B. 

Dunham, J. H., visceral syphilis mistaken 
for duodenal ulcer, 6. 

Dup6rie, R,, treatment of congenital syphilis 
with subcutaneous injections of novar- 
senobenzol and novocains, 416. 

Dupuy, test of sham feeding, 4. 

Durand, M., grafts of dead tendon, 528. 

Duroeux, L. : seeLevy-Bing, A., etDuroeux, L. 

Dutiker, R. A., Eckles, C. H., Dahle, C. H., 
Mead, S. W., and Schaefer, O. G., 
Vitamine studies. VI. Influence of diet 
of the cow upon nutritive and anti- 
scorbutic properties of cow's milk, 177. 

Duval, P., Roux, et Bt^clfere, H., ulcer of 
smaller curvature of stomach, 182. 

Dwyer, H. L., malignant endocarditis due to 
GojiococcMS, 211. 

van Dyke, H. B., study of distribution of 
iodine between cells and colloid in 
thyroid gland. III. Effect of stimulation 
of vagosympathetic nerve on distribution 
and concentration of iodine in dog's 
thyroid gland, 475. 



Ebaugh, F. G., and Stevenson, G. S., measure- 
ment of intracranial pressure changes in 
an epileptic, and its experimental varia- 
tion, 536. 
Eberle, D., invasion of pancreas byascarides, 

104. 
Ebj', H. : see Howell, K. M., and Eby, H. 
Eckles, C. H.: see Dutiker, R. A., Eckles, 
C. H., Dahle, C. H., Mead, C. W., and 
Schaefer, 0. G. 
Edmunds, W. ; see Ballance, C, and Ed- 
munds, W. 
Ege, R., distribution of glucose between 
plasma and red blood corpuscles. Physio- 
logy of blood sugar, 377, 471. 
Einhorn, M., duodenal perforation treated 
by duodenal alimentation, 15. 
string test in diagnosis of peptic ulcers, 6. 
treatment of impermeable cardiospasm, 15. 
Eiskamp, E. H., and Park, L. K., fate of 
micro-organisms introduced into isolated 
loops of intestine, 79. 
Eitner, E., electrolysis treatment of hyper- 
trichosis, 114. 
EUermann, V., new strain of transmissible 

leukaemia in fowls (strain H), 572. 
Ellis, N. R. : see Hart, E. B., Steenbock, H., 

and Ellis, N. R. 
Ellison, L. R. : see Davis, L. H., and Ellison, 

L. R. 
Emge, L. A., acidosis in pregnancy, 537. 
Engelbreth, C, influenza transmitted through 

fleas, 296. 
Erlanger, J., blood-pressure estimation by in- 
direct methods. Movements in artery 
under compression during blood-pressure 
determinations, 378. 
see W^hite, H. L., and Erlanger, J., 273. 
Ernst, N, P., actinotherapy of surgical tuber- 
culosis, 437. 
Epstein, J. W., intraperitoneal administra- 
tion of sodium bicarbonate solution, 480. 



Evans, C. L., cyanide anoxaemia, 429. 

on probable error in determinations by 
means of hydrogen electrode, 255. 

Ewing, J. : see Bagg, H. J., Ewing, J., and 
Quick, D. 

Ewing, J., and Wolf, C. G. L., ammonia co- 
efficient in eclampsia, 339. 

Eyster, J. A. E. : see Meek, W. J.,andEyster, 
J. A. E. 



Fagiuoli, A. : see Ascoli, M., e Fagiuoli, A. 
Fahr, renal lesions in eclampsia, 540. 
Failla, G., radium technique at Memorial 

Hospital, New York, 290, 
Fairbank, H. A. T,, pseudo-coxalgia — osteo- 
chondritis deformans juvenilis, 39. 
Falcioni, D., immunity against influenza, 

304. 
Falta, W., u, Richter-Quittner, M., chemical 

composition of blood-corpuscles, 579. 
Farah, N., bronchial spirochaetosis, 313. 
Farnell, F. J., and Harrington, A. H., acute 
infectious enteritis with a polyneuritic 
syndrome, 12. 
Favrat : see Maisonneuve et Favrat. 
Feigl, J., appearance and distribution of fats 
and lipoids in blood after bleeding. 
Chemical contribution to knowledge of 
lipaemia, 376. 
composition of liver in acute yellow atrophy, 
479. 
Felsher, H. : see Bradley, H. C, and Felsher, 

H. 
Fenn, W. 0., phagocytosis of solid particles. 

I. Quartz. II. Carbon, 478. 
Fernbach, E. : see Alilaire, E., et Fernbach, 

E. 
Ferrier : see La Coste et Ferrier. 
Feucht, B., Biirker's method for blood counts, 

277. 
Feulgen, R, : tee Stepp, W., and Feulgen, R. 
Ficai, G., serological studies on typhus, 163. 
Field, C. G., non-tuberculous lung infection, 

313. 
Fildes, P., nature of effect of blood-pigment 

upon growth of 5. injluensae, 158. 
Le Filliatre, G., general analgesia by cocaine 

injected into spinal theca, 522. 
Findlay, L., treatment of congenital syphilis, 

414. 
Fineman, B. C, study of thrush parasite, 

262. 
Finks, A. J. : see Johns, C. O,, and Finks, 

A. J. 
Finochietto, R. : see Vaccarezza, R. F., y 

Finochietto, R. 
Finsterer, H., ascites in connexion with duo- 
denal ulcer, 5. 
general and local anaesthesia, 516. 
intestinal exclusion, 138. 
Fiolle, J., injury causing spasmodic contrac- 
tion of arteries, 33, 35. 
Fischer, A. W., death from injection of 

suprarenin solution, 518. 
Fischer, W. : see Dold, H , u. Fischer, W. 
Fishberg, M., and Boas, E. P., outbreak of 
influenza in tuberculosis pavilion of 
Montefiore Hospital, New York, 301. 



11. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XXV 



Fisher, A. G. T., absence of internal carotids 

in a man, 323. 
Fitz, R., diabetes and leukaemia, 501. 

surgical complications of diabetes, 500. 
Fletcher, H. M., change of type in congenital 

syphilis, 410. 
Flu, P. C. , period during wliich stegomyia 

can live at low temperatures, 477. 
Foges, A., treatment of rectal lesions follow- 
ing dysentery with quartz lamp, 404. 
Foldes, E., u. Hajos, K., treatment of in- 
fluenza by subcutaneous injections of 
normal horse serum, 305. 
Foley, F., fall in cerebrospinal fluid pressure 
produced by injections of hypertonic salt 
solutions, 536. 
Foley, F. E. B. : see Gushing, H., and Foley, 

F. E. B. 
Foley, F. E, B., and Putnam, T. J., experi- 
mental production of alterations in 
cerebrospinal fluid pressure and brain 
volume, 535. 
Folin, 0., level of blood area in normal 

pregnancy, 539. 
Fontaine, J., measurement of arterial blood- 
pressure in horses, 279. 
Fontana, A., e Sangiorgi, G., on spironemata 

of pointed condylomata, 158. 
Foot, N. C, endothelial reactions in tuber- 
culosis, 375. 
Forbes, A., and Rappleye, W. C, rhythm of 

human electromyogram, 531. 
Fordyce, J. A., and Rosen, I., intramuscular 
injections of neosalvarsan and an oily 
suspension of mercury in treatment of 
congenital syphilis, 414. 
Forestier, J. : see Loeper, M., Forestier, J., et 

Tonnet, J. 
Forestier, J., et Michon, L., pyelography in 
diagnosis of hydatid cysts of kidney, 287. 
Fiirssell, G., radiological diagnosis of tuber- 
culosis in bones and joints, 481. 
Foster, L. F., relation of hydrogen-ion con- 
centration to growth, viability, and fer- 
mentative activity of Streptococcus haemo- 
lijticics, 565. 
biochemistry of Streptococcus haetnolyticus, 
565. 
Foster, L. F., and Randall, S. B., study of 
variations in hydrogen-ion concentration 
of broth media, 566. 
Franz, L., chemotherapeutic experiments 
with a view to treatment of diplitheria 
of wounds, 355. 
Fraser, A. R., and Duncan, A. G. B., vaccine 

treatment of diphtheria, 30. 
Frassi, L., injury causing spasmodic contrac- 
tion of arteries, 37. 
Fred, E. B., and Peterson, W. H., fermenta- 
tion of xylose by bacteria of aerogenes, 
paratyphoid B, and typhoid groups, 77. 
Freeman, R. G., vaccine treatment of whoop- 
ing-cough, 203. 
Freudenberg, E., u. Gyorgy, P., calcium 

combination with animal tissues, 478. 
Freund, J. : see Rothfeld, J., Freund, J., u. 

Hornowski, J. 
V. Frey, M., contraction of muscle treated 
with veratrin, 532. 



Frieberg, F., actinotherapy in three cases of 
tumour of hypophysis, 486. 

Friedenwald, J., and Grove, G. H., blood- 
sugar tolerance in gastro-intestinal carci- 
noma, 8. 

Friedmann, J. C, non-specific intestinal in- 
fection, 12. 

Fries, J. A., respiratory quotient and its un- 
certainty, 383. 

Fritzsclie, R., primary paroncliymatous 
haemorrhage from stnmacb, 11. 

Frohlich, A., u. Meyer, H., electromyogram 
in tetanus, 533. 

Frouin, A., fat content of tubercle bacilli of 
human, bovine, and avian types respec- 
tively, 559. 

Friihwald, R., spirochaetes in lymphatic 
glands, 58. 

Fukuda, A., experiments on anthrax in rats, 
161. 

Fiirbringer, prevalence of Oxijuris vermicuUiris 
caused by war, 105. 

Furno, A., chronic lung disease following 
influenza, 297. 

Fiirth, on antigenic action of attenuated 
tubercle bacilli, tortoise and other acid- 
fast bacilli, 261. 

Fiirth, 0., u. Lieben, F., colorimetric experi- 
ments on tryptophane. IV. Formation 
of melanoidin in acid hydrolysis of pro- 
teins and its dependence upon trypto- 
phane complexes. V. Our knowledge of 
proteins of immune sera and their trypto- 
phane content, 579. 

Futcher, T. B., carcinoma of pancreas, 512. 



Gad Andresen, K. L., distribution of urea in 
organism, 576, 

Galambos, A., renal glycosuria, 503. 

Galdi, F., pulmonary aspergillosis, 317. 

Galewsky, E., eczema caused by leather sub- 
stitute in hat linings, 111. 
' staphar ' in treatment of chronic sepsis of 
skin, 111. 

Gallerand : see Ravaut, P., et Gallerand. 

Gamma, G., special microscopic finding in 
nervous tissue from cases of lethargic 
encephalitis, 452. 

Gammeltoft, S. A. : see Hasselbach, K. A., u. 
Gammeltoft, S. A. 

Gane, T., relapse in typhus, 194. 

Gardner, E. L. : see Henrici, A. T., and 
Gardner, E. L. 

Garrod, A. E., diagnosis of disease of pan- 
creas, 514. 

Gates, F. L. : see Amoss, H. L., Gates, F. L., 
and Olitsky, P. K. 

Gates, F. L. : see Olitsky, P. K., and Gates, 
F. L. 

Gates, F. L., and Olitsky, P. K., factors 
influencing anaerobiosis, with special 
reference to use of fresh tissues, 454. 

Gay, D. M. : see Putnam, J. J., and Gay, 
D. M. 

Gay, F.P., and Morrison, L. F., experimental 
streptococcus empyema. II. Attempts 
at dye therapy, 69. 



XXVI 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Gentili, A., secretory activity of anterior 
lobe of pituitary body during pregnancy, 
371. 

Genoese, G., cerebrospinal fluid in whooping- 
cough, 202. 

Gerber, I. : see Turretini, G., et Gerber, I. 

De Gery, C. P., gas cysts of abdomen, 10. 

Gessner, W., Baden statistics of eclampsia 
during the war, 543. 

Giese, G. : see Kossel, A. , u. Giese, G. 

Giffin, H. Z., persistent eosinophilia with 
hyperleucocytosis and splenomegaly, 122. 
tuberculosis of spleen, 120. 

Gilliatt, W., and Kennaway, E. L., ammonia 
coeificient in cases of pernicious vomit- 
ing in pregnancy, 538. 

GiosefS, M., skin eruptions in influenza, 300. 

Giuliani, R., sexual neutralization obtained 
by means of orchilytic and ovariolytio 
sei'a, 169. 

Glaessner, K., gastric and pancreatic secre- 
tions in bacillary dysentery, 401. 

Glass, E., mixed-celled sarcoma of lung, 318. 

Glatard, epidemic of typhus in Algeria, 197. 
treatment of typhus by intravenous injec- 
tions of urotropin, 198. 

Gleyvod, P., intramuscular injection of ether 
in treatment of whooping-cough, 202. 

Golay, M. J., Fontan's method of treating 
chancroidal buboes, 220. 

Goldberg, B., influenzal haematuria, 299. 

Goldberg, J. M. : see Strickler, A., and Gold- 
berg, J. M. 

Goldberger, I. H., use of inner and back 
sides of arm for vaccination, 207. 

Golding, J. : see Drummond, J. C, Golding, 
J., Zilva, S. S., and Coward, K. H. 

Goldman, A. : see Grant, S. B., and Goldman, 
A. 
see Williams, A. W., Unneberg, A., Gold- 
man, A., and Hussey, H. 

Goodall, E. W., typhus in Poland, 1916-19, 
191. 

Goodall, J. R., vaccination by subcutaneous 
injection, 207. 

Goppert, F., umbilical diphtheria, 22. 

Gougerot, complications of vaccination, 208. 

Gougerot et Dessane, treatment of warty 
naevus in heredo-syphilitic subject, 410. 

Gourbis, atonic syndrome of digestive tract 
in nervous persons, 389. 

Gracey, G. F., hemiplegia following tonsil- 
lectomy, 327. 

Graham, G., dysenteric arthritis at Malta, 
401. 

Graham, S. G. : see Imrie, C. G., and Graham, 
S. G. 

Graham Brown, T., scratch reflex in guinea- 
pigs, 429. 

Gram, H. C., volume of red blood corpuscles 
and ratio of this volume to haemoglobin 
and to number of cells, 365. 

Gramen, K., Wildbolz's auto-urine test for 
active tuberculosis, 66. 

Grant, S. B., and Goldman, A., tetany pro- 
duced by forced respiration, 432. 

Gray, G. A., and Meyer, B. I., diphtheria 
carriers and their treatment with mer- 
curochrome, 454, 



GriflSths, G. H. St. Geo., disadvantages of 

novocaine as local anaesthetic, 520. 
GroebeljW. : seeTrendelenburg,P.,u. Groebel, 

W. 
Groedel, F. M., radiological appearances of 

encapsuled pleural effusions, 581. 
Gronberg, J., blood ferment in pregnancy, 

carcinoma, and pulmonary tuberculosis, 

162. 
Gross, A. : see Korbsch, R., u. Gross, A. 
Gross, 0,, forms of pancreatitis, 510. 
Grossfeld, H., onychodystrophy following 

typhus, 195. 
Groth, A., results of vaccination in Bavaria. 

205. 
Grothusen, dysenteriform catarrh of large 

intestine due to flagellata, 399. 
Grove, G. H. : see Friedenwald, J., and 

Grove, G. H. 
Gudernatsch, J. F., and Bagg, H. J., distur- 
bances in development of mammalian 

embryos caused by radium emanation, 

90. 
Guenard, F, : see Dubourg et Guenard, F. 
Guillain, G., epileptic convulsions inpatient 

with diabetes and acetonuria, 499. 
Guimbellot, surgical treatment of volvulus of 

sigmoid flexure, 227. 
Guirard : see Dide et Guirard. 
Guisez, J., treatment of cancer of oesophagus 

and of larynx by local applications of 

radium, 285. 
Gulbransea, R. : see Browning, C. H., and 

Gulbransen, R. 
Gunn, J. A., and Heathcote, R. St. A., cellu- 
lar immunity : observations on natural 

and acquired immunity to cobra venom, 

360. 
Gurley, C. R. : see Williams, A. W., Nevin, 

M., Gurley, C. R. 
Gyorgy, P., sedimentation of blood corpuscles, 

377. 
see Freudenberg, E., Gyorgy, P. 



Habermann, R., u. Mauelshagen, F., value of 
gland puncture in early diagnosis of 
syphilis, 59. 

Halfner, R., relation of placental infarcts and 
albuminuria, 544. 

Haggard, H. W., anaesthetic and convulsant 
effects of gasoline vapour, 280. 

Haggard, H. W., and Henderson, Y., haemato- 
respiratory functions. IX. An irrever- 
sible alteration of HjCOj/NaHCOa equi- 
librium of blood induced by temporary 
exposure to a low tension of COj, 174. 

Haggard, W. D., primary sarcoma of 
stomach, 9. 

Haguenau: see Debre, R., et Haguenau. 

Hahn, M., u. Skramlik, E., expex'iments with 
antigens and antilaodies upon surviving 
artificially perfused liver. Tetanus 
toxin, 388. 

Hajos, K. : see Foldes, E., u. Hajos, K. 

Haldane, J. S., Kellas, A. M., and Kennaway, 
E. L., efiects of oxygen want, 431. 

Haldane, J. S., and Poulton, E. P., effects of 
oxygen want, 431. 



11. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XXVll 



J., and 



Hall, I. C, chemical criteria of anaerobiosis 
with special reference to methylene blue, 
453. 
see Branham, S. E., and Hall, I. C. 
Hall6, J. : see Darier, J., et Halle, J. 
d'Halluiu, M., electric currents which kill. 
The mode of death. How life may be 
saved, 587. 
Hamburger, K., u. Balint, A., influenza in 

children, 303. 
Hamburger, W. W., post-influenzal myocar- 
dial involvement, 298. 
Hammett, F. S., studies of the thyroid appa- 
ratus. I. -Stal»ility of nervous system as 
factor in resistance of albino rat to loss of 
parathyroid secretion, 475. 
Handley, S., tre.itment of cancer of breast by 

excision combined with radiation, 419. 
Hanganut, M., intravenous injections of re- 

sorcin in treatment of influenza, 305. 
Hansen, 0. S., magnesium sulphate in arsenic 

poisoning, 282. 
Harbitz, F., encephalitis neonatorum, 253. 
Hari, P., light absorption of reduced haemo- 
globin, 376. 
Harman, B. , blindness due to congenital 

syphilis, 411. 
Harrington, A. H. : see Farnell, F. 

Harrington, A. H. 
Harry, F., blood in influenza, 296. 
Hart, E. B., Steeubock, H., and Ellis, N. K., 
antiscorbutic potency of milk powders, 
468. 
Hartwell, G. A., effect of diet on mammary 

secretion, 387. 
Harvier, P. : see Levaditi, C, Harvier, P. 
Hasselbach, K. A,, u. Gammeltoft, S. A., 

acidosis in normal pregnancy, 537. 
Haughwout, F. G., and Lantin, P. T., treat- 
ment of dysentery with benzyl benzoate, 
404. 
Haugseth, K., Dakin's solution in treatment 

of wound diphtheria, 30. 
Hawk, P. B. : see Rehfuss, M. E., and Hawk, 

P. B. 
Hawk, P. B., Smith, C. A., and Bergeim, 0., 
nutritive value of yeast in bread, 468. 
vitamine content of honey, 468. 
Head, H., protopathic sensibility, 142. 
Head, H., Rivers, W. H. R., and Sherren, J., 
results of experimental nerve section in 
man, 46. 
Heathcote, R. St. A. : see Gunn, J. A., and 

Heathcote, R. St. A. 
Hedblom, C. A., pulmonary abscess, 314. 
Hedenius, J. : see Strandberg, J., et Hede- 

nius, J. 
Hedin, S. G.,proteoclastic enzymes in normal 

and pathological urines, 385. 
Heermann, treatment of hay fever, 310. 
Hehewerth, F. H., and Kop, W. A., Wasser- 
mann test in patients affected with ma- 
laria in the tropics, 357. 
Heissen, F., hereditary factor in bronchial 

asthma, 310. 
Heitz, J. : see Leriche, R,, et Heitz, J. 
Hektoen, L., and Corper, H. J., effect of 
mustard gas on antibody formation, 
369. 



Helferich, treatment of acute suppuration of 

wrist, 237. 
Heller, H. H., aetiology of acute gangrenous 

infections of animals : a discussion of 

blackleg, braxy, malignant oedema, and 

whale septicaemia, 160. 
Ht-nderson, L. J., blood as a physico-chemi- 
cal system, 469. 
see McLean, F. C, Murray, H. A., jun., and 

Henderson, L. J. 
Henderson, Y., apnoea after forced respira- 
tion, 432. 
see Haggard, H. W., and Henderson, Y. 
Hendricks, H. V., chylous ascites due to 

carcinoma of stomach, 8. 
Hendrix, B. M., and Crouter, C. Y,, relation 

of alkali reserve of blood to glycosuria 

and hyperglycaemia in pancreatic dia- 
betes, 173. 
Hendry, R. A., antenatal syphilis, 406. 
Henestenberg, W., acanthosis nigricans witli 

carcinoma of internal organs, 114. 
Henkel, M., umbilical diphtheria, 22. 
Hennebert, C, deafness due to congenital 

syphilis, 411. 
Henrici, A. T., and Gardner, E. L., acid-fost 

actinomycetes, with report of case from 

which a new species was isolated, 261. 
Henriksen, P. B., cultivation of nerve-tissue 

and nerve regeneration, 351. 
Heppner, M. : see Stevens, W. E., and Hepp- 

ner, M. 
d'Herelle, F., on nature of bacteriophagic 

principle, 74. 
on bacteriophagic microbe, 74. 
Hering, F., toxic effects of injection of novo- 

caine and bicarbonate solution into a 

vein, 519. 
Herman, J. L. : see Deaver, J. B., McFarland, 

J., and Herman, J. L. 
Hermanies, J., gonococcus types, 257. 
Herring, weight of organs in pregnancy, 540. 
Hertz, R., value of Wassermann reaction in 

diagnosis of congenital syphilis, 412. 
Herzfeld, E., non-specific horse serum in 

treatment of diphtheria, 28. 
Herzog, F., bothriocephalus anaemia, 108. 
Herzog, F., u. Zeller, H., uromelanin and 

uromelanogen, 229. 
Hess, A. F., and Unger, L. J., dietaries of 

infants in relation to development of 

rickets, 176. 
Hess, R., blood picture in whooping-cough, 

202. 
Hesse, E. , u. M., frequency of gall-stones, 

127. 
Hesse, W., auscultatory sign for diagnosis of 

laryngeal diphtheria, 24. ' 
Hewer, E. E. : see Cullis, W. C, and Hewer, 

E. E. 
Hewer, R. : see Cullis, W. C, and Hewer, R. 
Hewitt, J. A., effect of administration of small 

amounts of thyroid gland on size and 
weight of certain organs in male white 
rat, 280. 
Heymans, J. Y., in vivo as in vitro bacteria 

pass through the walls of filters, 255. 
Hildebrandt, W., chronic lung disease fol- 
lowing influenza, 297. 



xxvm 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Hill, A. v., tetanic nature of voluntary con- 
traction of human muscle, 530. 
Hill, L., and McQueen, J. M., measurement 

of capillary blood-pressure in man, 166. 
Hinman, F., diverticula of bladder, 184. 
Hirai, K., formation of paraoxyphenylacetic 
acid and paraoxyphenylacrylic acid from 
laevo-tyrosin by bacteria, 473. 
Hlrsch, E. F., changes in leucocytes and 
alkali reserve of blood in experimental 
infections, 368. 
Hirsch, E. F., rigor mortis in smooth muscle 
and a chemical analysis of fibromyoma 
tissue, 280. 
Hitzenberger, K. : see Brunn, F., Hitzenber- 

ger, K., u. Saxl, P. 
Hober, R., electromyogram in hemiplegia, 

533. 
Hoffmann, E., urticaria produced by flea- 
bites, 113. 
Hoffmann, P., electromyogram in, and func- 
tion of, tendon reflexes, 531. 
Hoffmann, V., results of treatment of cancer 
of breast by excision and radiation, 422. 
Hoffmann, W.. intestinal obstruction due to 

ascarides, 104. 
Hofmann, F. B., theory of smell : parosmia, 

281. 
Holker, J., methods of measuring opacity of 

liquids, 580. 
Holland, neurosyphilis, 60. 
Holland, E., melanotic cancer of vulva, 233. 
HoUande, A. Ch., formation of melanin in the 

blood of some insects, 230. 
Hollo, J., experiments on source of variations 
in reaction of normal human urine, 385. 
Holmes, A. D., and Deuel, H. J., jun., diges- 
tibility of some hydrogenated oils, 282. 
Holmes, J. B., congenital obliteration of bile- 
ducts, 128. 
Honeywell, H. E. : see Scott, E. L., and 

Honeywell, H. E. 
Hooker, D. R., functional activity of capil- 
laries and veins, 278. 
Hopkins, F. G., auto-oxidizable constituent of 
cell, 573. 
effect of heat and aeration upon fat-soluble 

vitamine, 84. 
vitamine content of milk, 84. 
Hoppe, E. : see Maltaner, F., and Hoppe, E. 
Horiuchi, Y., studies on blood-fat. I. Varia- 
tion of blood-fat constituents of rabbits 
under normal conditions. II. Lipaemia 
in acute anaemia, 88. 
Hornowski, J. : see Rothfeld, J., Freund, J., 

u. Hornowski, J. 
Hornus, P., amoebic dysentery in Morocco, 

402. 
Horsley, V. : see Spencer, W. G., and Hors- 

ley, V. 
House, S. J., haemorrhagic meningo-encepha- 
litis in anthrax : a report of three cases, 
161. 
Houzel et Sevestre, pulmonary gangrene 

cured by anti-gangrene serum. 316. 
Howell, K. M., and Eby, H., tramission of 
specific immune bodies from mother to 
young, 164. 
Hufnagel. L. : see Berg6, A., et Hufnagel,L. 



Hume, E. M., comparison of growth-promo- 
ting properties for guinea-pigs of certain 
diets consisting of natural foodstuffs, 
386. 
investigation of antiscorbutic value of full 
cream sweetened condensed milk by ex- 
periments on monkeys, 387. 
Hunt, Reid, some factors relating to toxic 

action of arsphenamine, 580. 
Huntemiiller, epidemic of diphtheria in 19th 

Bavarian Infantry Regt., 18. 
Hunter. W., Serbian epidemics of typhus in 

1915, 191, 198. 
Hurst, A. F., gastric and duodenal ulcers, 5. 
psychology of special senses and their func- 
tional disorders, 53. 
treatment of constipation, 221. 
treatment of duodenal ulcer, 14. 
Hussey, H. : see Williams, A. W., Unneberg, 

A., Goldman, A., and Hussey, H. 
Hussey, R. G. : see Murphy, J. B., Nakahara, 

W., Hussey, R. G., and Sturm, E. 
Huston, J.: see Bunting, C. H., and Huston, J. 
Hutinel, J. : see Labbe, M., et Hutinel, J. 



lancoresco, N. : see Widal, P., Abrami, P., et 

lancoresco, N. 
lizuka, N. : see Aoki, K., u. lizuka, N. 
Imrie, C. G., and Graham, S. G., fat-content 

of embryonic livers, 88. 
Irala, J., investigations on phagocytosis, 460. 
Isaac, C. L., keratodermia blennorrhagica, 

110. 
Isaicu : see Levaditi, C, Marie, A., et Isaicu. 
Ivens, F., serum treatment of gonorrhoea, 216. 
Iversen, P., experiments upon distribution of 

phosphates between blood corpuscles and 

plasma in vivo and in vitro, 469. 
Iyer, S. R., generalized vaccinia in Burmese 

children, 208. 
Izar, G., acetone and diacetic acid in urine in 

pneumonia, 299. 

Jacki, E., epidemic of Shiga bacillusdysentery 

in Heidelberg Children's Clinic, 400. 
Jackson, H. : see Palmer, W. W.,Salvesen,H., 

and Jackson, H. 
Jackson, J. H., evolution and dissolution of 

nervous system, 141. 
Jacobi, W., mental disturbances in tumours 

of the basal ganglia, 447. 
Jacoby, A., treatment of gonorrhoea in women, 

215. 
Jacod, M., intracranial extension of sarcomata 

of Eustachian tube : syndrome of petro- 

sphenoidal junction, 242. 
Jacquelin, A. : see De Jong, S. I., et Jacquelin, 

A. 
Jager, R. : see Kolmer, J. A., Davis, L. C, 

and Jager, R. 
Jagic, N., u. Schiflfner, 0., gonococcal infection 

of the heart, 211. 
Jaksch-Wartenhorst, R., immunity against 

influenza, 304. 
Jamin, F., u. Stettner, E., influenza in chil- 
dren, 303. 
Janney, N. W., treatment of diabetes, 504. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XXIX 



Janney, N. W,, and Newell, R, R., diabetes 
and tuberculosis, 500. 

Janssen. H., diphtheria of mouth, 19. 

Japiot, P., et Bussy, L., simplified technique 
for radiotherapy of eye, 683. 

Jardet, parotid swelling due to denture, 3. 

Jeans, P. C, treatment of congenital syphilis, 
416. 

Jeliflfe, S. E., multiple sclerosis and psycho- 
analysis, 441. 

Jennicke, E., dysentery epidemic in Thiirin- 
gen, 399. 

Jensen, J. : see Cliievitz, 0., Jensen, J., Royn, 
A., and Collin, E. 

Jephcott, H., and Bacliarach, A. L., anti- 
scorbutic value of dried milk, 387. 

Joerdens, G., spontaneous pneumothorax, 319. 

Johns, C. 0., and Finks, A. J., studies in 
nutrition. V. Nutritive value of soy 
bean flour as supplement to wheat flour, 
468. 

Johnson, S. E., and Mason, M. L., first 
thoracic white ramus communicans in 
man, 446. 

Joltrain, E., complement-fixation test for 
diagnosis of plague, 361. 

de Jong, S. I. : see Bezan9on, F., et de Jong, 
S. I. 

De Jong, S. I., ct Jacquelin, A., pleuritic 
hemiplegia. 319. 

Jordan, E. O., and Sharp, W. B., effect of 
vaccination against influenza and some 
other respiratory infections, 564. 

Jores, L., experimental investigations on in- 
fluence of mechanical compression on 
bones, 369. 

Jorge, R., typhus in Portugal, 193. 

Joslin, E. P., frequency of diabetes in U.S.A., 
498. 
obesity preceding diabetes, 503. 

Josse, M. H., pulmonary radioscopy and 
radiography, 581. 

Jotten, K. W., relative toxicity of different 
strains of Gonococcxis, 210. 



Kahn, M., angina pectoris in diabetic patients, 

499. 
Kalberlah, F., aetiology and disseminated 

sclerosis, 149. 
Kaneko, R., u. Morihana, S., researches on 

identity of Spirochaeia iderohaetnotrhagiae 

(Inado and Ito) and Sp. iderogem.es (Uhlen- 

huth and Fromme) and the relation of 

Sp. hcbdomadis, the cause of seven-day 

fever (Nanukayami), to Sp. iderogenes, 

455. 
Kantor, J. L., intra-intestinal treatment of 

hookworm infection, 107. 
Karsner, H. T., and Swanbeck, C. E., removal 

of particulate matter from pleura, 462. 
Kastner H., results of treatment of cancer of 

breast by excision and radiation, 422. 
Kaufman, I., myelinization of posterior 

column of cord, 547. 
Kausch, W., aneurysm of vertebral artery, 

333. 
Kaya, A., and Starling. E. H., effects of 

asphyxia on spinal animal, 429. 



Kayser-Petersen : see Trcupel u. Kayser- 

Petersen. 
Kehrer, E., calcium content of blood in 

toxaemias of pregnancy, 543. 
Keidel, A., and Moore, J. E., intraspinal 

treatment of neurosyphilis with salvar- 

sanized serum, 339. 
Keisman, M., splcnogenous thrombopenia, 

124. 
Keith, A., function of large intestine, 222. 

see Spencer, W. G., and Keith, A. 
Kellas, A. M. : see Haldane, J. S., Kellas, 

A. M., and Kennawav, E. L. 
Kelley, M.F.: seeCoca, A.'F.,andKpIIey, M.F. 
Kennaway, E. L. : see Qilliatt, W., and 

Ken n away, E. L. 
see Haldane, J. S., Kellas, A. M., and 

Kennaway, E. L. 
Kepinow, L. : see Weinberg, M., et Kepinow, 

Xj. 

Ker, C. B.. intra-muscular route for injection 
of diphtheria antitoxin, 28. 

Kersten, H. E., treatment of typhus by in- 
travenous injections of collargol or 'ful- 
margin ', 198. 

Kestner, O., action of irradiation on blood- 
pressure, 278. 
active factor in high altitudes, 278. 

Kieffer, O., pulmonary disease and influenza, 
302. 

Kiendl, W., use of tuberculin and quinine in 
lupus erythematosus, 112. 

Kiessling, W., comparative experiments upon 
the effect of some chlorine derivatives of 
methane, ethane, and ethylene upon 
isolated frog's heart, 472. 

King, W. G., vaccination in the tropics, 207, 
208. 

Kipp, H. A., variation in cholesterol content 
of serum in pneumonia, 87. 

Kirby, G. H., and Davis, T. K., psychiatric 
aspects of epidemic encephalitis, 447. 

Kirch, A., enlarged mediastinal glands in 
influenza, 298. 

Kirmisson, E., anterior dislocation at elbow, 
42. 

Kissmeyer, A. , effects of light baths on vitiligo, 
111. 

Kleberger, K., pneumonomycosis aspergillina 
after influenza, 298. 

Kleeblatt, F., indications for splenectomy, 
124. 

de Kloijn, A., tonic labyrinthine and nock 
reflexes of eyes, 151. 

de Kleijn, A., u. Magnus, R., functions of the 
otoliths. I. The place <>f otoliths in tonic 
labyrinth reflexes. II. Separate removal 
of otoliths in the guinea-pig, 152. 
labyrinthine reflexes to progressive move- 
ments, 151. 

Kleinsclimidt, K. , diathermy in treatment of 
whooping-cough, 203. 

Kleitmann, N. : see Scott, E. L., and Kleit- 
mann, N. 

Klemperer, G., influenzal nephrosis, 299. 

Koch, H., rashes in diabetic children, 500. 

Kocher, A., anterior dislocation at elbow, 41. 

Kodama, R. , ocular reactions in anaphylaxis, 
164. 



XXX 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Koettlitz, H., primary sarcoma of stomach, 9. 

Kofman : see Cluzet, Rochaix, et Kofman. 

Kohda, K., cultivation of B. leprae, 558. 

Kolmer, J. A., Davis, L. C, and Jager, R., 
influence of chaulmoogra oil on tubercle 
bacillus, 262. 

Kongsted, E., comparative value of methods 
of Herman and Ziehl-Neelsen for stain- 
ing tuberole bacilli, 83. 

Kop, W. A. : see Hehewerth, F. H., and Kop, 
W. A. 

Korbsch, R., u. Gross, A., vaccine treatment 
of dysentery, 404. 

Kossel, A., u. Giese, G., colouring matter in 
chloroma, 579. 

Kowallek, A., plethysmographic investiga- 
tions on effects of high-frequency 
currents, 279. 

Kraft, A., haemolytic streptococci of appendix 
vermiformis, 257. 

de Kraft, F., action of electric currents on 
endocrine glands and other tissues, 99. 

Kramer, P. H., importance of lice in trans- 
mission of typhus, 194. 
epidemic of typhus in Rotterdam, 1919, 

192. 
incubation period of typhus, 192. 

Kreuter, E., osteochondritis deformans 
juvenilis coxae, 39. 

Krogius, A., studies in genesis of Dupuytren's 
contraction, 52. 

Kroh, F., injury causing spasmodic contrac- 
tion of arteries, 35. 

Kromayer, E., diphtheria of vulva, 20. 

de Kruif, P. H., dissociation of microbic 
species. I. Coexistence of individuals of 
different deg:rees of virulence in cultures 
of bacillus of rabbit septicaemia, 568. 

Krumbhaar, E. B., and Masser, J. H., jun., 
studies of the blood of normal monkeys, 
572. 

Krumwiede, C. : see Park, W. H., Williams, 
A. W., and Krumwiede, C. 

Kunstmann, erythromelalgia, 113. 

Kiintzel, 0., tar cancer, 114. 

Kuramitsu, C, and Loeb, L., involution of 
uterus following labour, and influence of 
castration and suckling on process of in- 
volution, 474. 
effect of suckling and castration on lacta- 
ting mammary gland in rat and guinea- 
pig, 474. 

Kiittner, H., gunshot wound of vertebral 
artery, 330. 

Kiittner, H., u. Baruch, M., injury causing 
spasmodic contraction of arteries, 33, 36. 



Labbe, M., diabetic epilepsy, 499. 

Labbe. M.. et Hutinel, J., two cases of typhus 

in Paris, 193. 
Laboure, J., injury to external carotid during 

removal of tonsils, 327. 
Ladwig, B. : see Borchardt, L., u. Ladwig, B. 
Lafaye, A., treatment of infantile syphilis 

with intravenous injections of neo- 

salvarsan, 415. 
value of luetin reaction in diagnosis of 

congenital syphilis, 412. 



Lakaye, neurosjrphilis after regular and 
sufficient arsenical treatment in primary 
stage, 336. 

Lane, C, ankylostomiasis in Darjeeling dis- 
trict, 106. 

Lane, W. A., surgical treatment of intestinal 
stasis, 221. 

Langeiaan, J. W., muscle tonus, 532. 

Langfeldt, G., blood-sugar regulation and 
origin of hyperglycaemias. I. Glycogen 
formation and glycogenolysis. II. Con- 
ditions of action of liver diastases. III. 
Theory, 470. 

Lantin, P. T. : see Haughwout, F. G., and 
Lantin, P. T. 

Lanzilotta, R., use of ultra-violet rays in the 
preparation of vaccines, 356. 

Lambert, diphtheria of middle ear, 19. 

Lapin, J., et Senevet, G., Weil-Felix reaction 
in typhus, 197. 

Laquerriere : see Delherm et Laquerriere. 

Laqueur, E., and Magnus, R., experimental 
pathology and therapy of phosgene poison- 
ing, 384. 

Laska-Mintz, E. : see Parnas, J. K., u. Laska- 
Mintz, E. 

Lauenstein, R., treatment of injuries to 
vertebral artery, 332. 

de Laulerie : see Ribadeau- Dumas, Mallet, et 
de Laulerie. 

Laura, C. L., serum treatment of diabetes, 
507. 

Lauritzen, M., treatment of diabetes, 504, 
506. 

De Lavergne, diphtheritic paralysis, 24. 
see Besson, A., et de Lavergne. 

De Lavergne et Zoeller, Shick test of suscepti- 
bility to diphtheria, 26. 

Liiwen, A., u. Reinhardt, A., oxyuriasis of 
appendix, 105. 

Le Bon, G., certain antagonistic properties 
in different regions of spectrum, 396. 

Lecene, P., et Lhermitte, J., cerebral soften- 
ing from metallic embolus in left middle 
cerebral artery, 251, 

Lederer, K., pseudo-membranous oesophagitis, 
299. 

Lederer, R. . painting throat with solution of 
silver nitrate in treatment of pertussis, 
203. 

Leendertz, G., diphtheria of vagina and skin 
of intragluteal folds, 20. 

Leete, H. M., Shick test for susceptibility to 
diphtheria, 26. 

Lefeuvre : see Marquis et Lefeuvre. 

Legs, A. T., non-tuberculous juvenile coxal- 
gia, 38. 

Legrand, H., multiple amoebic abscesses, 
403. 

Legrand et Auguste, C, seropurulent effusion 
in pleura in influenzal pneumonia, 298. 

Legry, Courcoux, et Lermoyez, J., outbreak 
of mild typhus in a home for foreign 
workmen in Paris, 193. 

Lehmann u. Scheven, results of treatment of 
cancer of breast by excision and radiation, 
422. 

Leimdiirfer, A., skin eruptions in influenza, 
300. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XXXI 



Lemann, 1,1,, case of Shiga bacillus dysentery 
with pseudo-membrane in vagina, and 
oedema of abdominal wall, 402. 

Lemon, W. S., angioma of stomach, 10. 

Lenhardt, C. H. : see Marine, D., and Len- 
hardt, C. H. 

Lennhoff, C, inoculation for psoriasis, 110. 

Lenorm.ant, C, cutex verticis gyrata, 114. 
diffuse sclerosis of skin and of cellular 
tissue of neck following prolonged radio- 
therapy : cicatricial torticollis, marked 
oedema of face, laryngotracheal com- 
pression, 391. 
gas cysts of intestine, 11. 

de L^obardy, J. : see Agulhon et do Leo- 
bard y, J. 
see Ribierre, P., et de Leobardj-, .T. 

Leriche, K., et Heitz, J., injury causing 
spasmodic contraction of arteries, 33. 

Lermoyez, J. : Legry, see Courcoux, et Ler- 
moyez, J. 

Levaditi, C., et Harvier, P., experimental 
study of lethargic encephalitis, 148, 262. 

Levaditi, C, Marie, A., et Isaicu, researches 
on spontaneous spirochaetosis of rabbit, 
569. 

Levene, P. A., and Rolf, I. P., lecithin of 
brain, 473. 

Levin, I.: see Cohen, M., and Levin, I. 

Levy, C. S., congenital absence of a lung, 309. 

Levy, P. P., interpretation of blood-cultures, 
458. 

L4vy-Bing, A., et Duroeux, L., arsenical com- 
pounds in treatment of gonorrhoeal 
salpingitis, 216. 

Levy-Franckel, A., splenomegaly following 
injection of neosalvarsan, 122. 

Lewis, D. S., and Mason, E. H. , diastatic 
ferments of blood, 87. 

Lewis, H. B. : see Stearns, G. , and Lewis, H. B. 

Lewis, W. H., and Webster, L. T., giant cells 
in cultures from human lymph nodes, 
370. 

Lewy, F. H.: see Cassirer, R., u. Lewy, F. H. 

Lhermitte, J. : see Lecene, P., et Lhermitte, J. 

Lian, C, et Cathala, J., vagotonia in asthma, 
312. 

Lichtenstein, A., pyloric spasm, 7. 

Lichtenstein, S., case of spontaneous tuber- 
culosis in frog, 84. 

Lieben, F. : see Fiirth, 0., u. Lieben, F. 

Liebhardt, E., demonstration of active tuber- 
culosis by Wildbolz's auto-urine reaction, 
559. 

Liljestrand, G., u. Magnus, R., physiology of 
muscular spasm in tetanus, 533. 

Lilly, T. E., Schick test for susceptibility to 
diphtheria, 25. 

Lindburg, G., post-traumatic serous menin- 
gitis in children, 253. 

Lindstedt, F., contribution to pathogenesis of 
sciatica, 254. 

Linzenmeier, G., investigations on rate of 
sedimentation of red blood corpuscles, 
175, 543. 

Litch, V. M., and Meyer, K. F., spontaneous 
epidemic among laboratory rabbits caused 
by paratyphoid B bacillus related to 
rodent group, 80. 



Lloyd, J. H., syphilis of eighth nerve, 447, 

Loeb, L. : see Kummitsu, C, and Loeb, L. 

Loeb, L., and Kuramitsu, C, influence of 
lactation on sexual cycle in rat and 
guinea-pig. 475. 

Loeper, M., Forestier, J., et Tonnet, .T., 
paradoxical hyperalbuminosis in blood 
of cmncer subjects, 466. 

Loeweimardt, F. E. R., aetiology of influenza, 
1.55. 

Liiffler, \V., liver function under experimental 
patholo'.^ical conditions, 542. 
see Bloch, Br,, u. Loffler, W. 

Logan, W. R. : see Cranston Low, R., Logan, 
W. R., and Rutherford, A. 

Loiseleur, .J., pulmonary gangrene cured by 
artificial pneumothorax, 316. 

Lomholt, S., prostitution and alcohol in 
causation of gonorrhoea, 210. 

Looft, C, diphtheria in the new-born, 21. 
umbilical diphtheria, 22, 

Lord, F. T., pulmonary abscess, 315. 

Lortat- Jacob, ciyocautery, 114. 
influenza in old pleuritics, 302. 

Losee, J. R., and van Slyke, D., toxaemias of 
pregnancy, 537 et seq. 

Losio, L., haemolytic jaundice with spleno- 
megaly, 123. 

Lotsch, F., osteo-myelitis of hyoid after in- 
fluenza, 301. 

Loughlin, R. : see Daniels, A. L., and Lough- 
lin, R. 

Low, G. C. , diagnosis of dysentery, 403. 

Lowe, E. C, membranous colitis in influenza, 
299. 

LiJwy, R., a typical typhus, 194, 

Liiain, M., reflex gastrospasm, 129, 

Lubarsch, 0., melanotic cancer in animals, 
233. 

Lubinski, H., bacteriology of wound diph- 
theria, 162. 

Luccarelli, V., war splenomegaly, 121. 

Liiers, N,, general colloid test in cerebro- 
spinal fluid and use of Congorubin, 479. 
Lumiere, A., et Chevrotier, J., simple and 
harmless method of preventing anaphy- 
lactic shock, 458. 

Lundegaard, K. K. K., universal light baths 
in ophthalmology, 346. 

Lusk, G., production of fat from protein, 86. 

Lynch, V., chemistry of whitefish sperm, 89. 

Lyon, R. H. : see Beckwith, T. D., and Lyon, 

R. H. 
Lyter, J. C, non-tuberculous lung infection, 
314. 



Maaltic, C. U., practical value of Eisner's 
gastroscopy, 439. 

McCann, W. S., observation of effect of pro- 
tein meal given to a man at end of 8-day 
fast, 86. 

McCarty, E. D. : see McClure, C. W., and 
McCarty, E. D. 

Maccarty, W. C, pathological changes in 
4,998 removed gall-bladders, 126, 128. 

McCaskey, D., quartz ultra-violet therapy 
and kinetic energy, 391. 

Macchi, A. : see Zenoni, C, e Macchi, A. 



XXXll 



11. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



McClure, C. W., and McCarty, E. D., roent- 
genographic studies in gout, 484. 

McCoUum, E. V., Simmonds, N., Parsons, 
H. T., Shipley, P. G., and Park, E. A. 

I. Production of racliitis and similar 
diseases in the rat bj' deficient diets. 

II. Effect of cod-liver oil administered 
to rats with experimental rickets, 176. 

McConnell, A. A., fatal case of sphnectomy 
for cirrhosis of liver, 124. 

McDonagh, J. E. R., varieties of ulcus moUe, 
218. 
tieatment of ulcus molle, 220. 

Macdonald, E. L. : see Alexander, M. E., and 
Macdonald, E. L. 

McFarland, J. : see Deaver, J. B., McFarland, 
J., and Herman, J. L. 

Macht, D. I., benzyl benzoate in treatment 
of whooping-cough, 203. 

Mcintosh, J., transmission of experimental 
encephalitis lethargica in series in mon- 
keys and rabbits, with notes on sponta- 
neous infection in monkey, 65. 

McJunkin, F. A., tuberculin hypersensitive- 
ness in non-tuberculous guinea-pigs in- 
duced by injections of bacillus-free 
filtrates, 558. 

Mackay, H. M. M., effect on kittens of a diet 
deficient in animal fat, 386. 

Mackenzie Wallis, R. L., toxaemias of preg- 
nancy, 540. 

McKhann, C. F. : see Rockwell, G. E., and 
McKhann. C. F. 

McKibben, P. : see Weed, L., and McKibben. 
P. 

Mackie, T. J., and Rowland, C. C, value of 
simultaneous testing for Wassermann 
reaction with two different antigens and 
' ice-box method ', 58. 

McLean, F. C, Murray, H. A., jun., and 
Henderson, L. J., variable acidity ot 
haemoglobin and distribution of chlorides 
in blood, 88. 

McLean, S., intestinal parasites in young 
children in New York, 103. 

MacLeod, C. : see RoUeston, J. D., and 
MacLeod, C. 

MacLeod, J. J. R. , concentration of lactic 
acid in blood in anoxaemia and shock. 
376. 
periodic breathing and effects of oxygen 
administration in decei'ebrate cats, 383. 

McMurray, T. E., benzyl benzoate in treat- 
ment of whooping-cough, 203. 

McQueen, J. M. : see Hill, L., and McQueen, 
J. M. 

Magner, W. , complement- fixation test for 
gonorrhoea, 212. 

Magnus, R., choline, hormone of intestinal 
peristalsis, 479. 
see de Kleijn, A., u. Magnus, R. 
see Laqueur, E., and Magnus, R. 
see Liljestrand, G., u. Magnus, R. 

Maisonneuve et Favrat, ligation of vertebral 
artery, 330. 

Maitland, H. B., Cowan, M. L., and Det- 
weiler, H. K., aetiology of epidemic 
influenza: experiments in search of 
filter-passing virus, 67. 



Maitland, H. B., Cowan, M. L., and Det- 
weiler, H. K., spontaneous and artificial 
pulmonary lesions in guinea-pigs, i*abbits, 
and mice, 154. 
Makins, G. H., aneurysm and cerebral em- 
bolism following gunshot injury, 328. 
arteriovenous aneurysm, 322. 

Mallet : see Ribadeau-Dumas, Mallet, et de 
Laulerie. 

Mallory, W. J., amoebic dysentery, 402. 

Malone, J. Y. : see Sachs, E., and Malone, .T. Y. 

Maltaner, F., and Hoppe, E., chemotactic 
effect of osmosis upon leucocytosis, 362. 
osmosis as factor in local accumulation of 
leucocytes in body, 90. 

Mandlebaum, F. S., and Downey, H., histo- 
pathology of Gaucher's disease, 120. 

Manini, L., treatment of amoebic abscess of 
liver, 404. 

Manoukhin, I. I., ti-eatment of Infectious 
diseases by leucocytolysis produced by 
rontgenization uf spleen, 485. 

Manson-Babr, P., monartliritis or poly- 
arthritis as complication of bacillary 
dysentery in Egypt and Palestine, 400. 

Marfan, A. B., asthma in children, 311. 

Marie, A. : sec Levaditi, C, Marie, A., et 
Isaicu. 

Marie, P. L. : see Armand-Delille, P. F., et 
Marie, P. L. 

Marine, D., and Lenhart, C. H., effects of 
adrenalin on respiratory exchange, 274. 

Marquis et Lefeuvre, anastomosing current 
after ligature of common carotid, 329. 

Marriott, W. M., post-diphtheritic paralysis 
of respiratory muscles, 24. 

Marsh, P. L. : see Newburgh, L. H., and Marsh, 
P. L. 

Marshall, E. K. : see Rowntree, L., Chesney, 
A. M., and Marshall, E. K. 

Martin, L., antitoxin treatment of diphtheria, 
27. 

Martindale, L., intensive X-ray therapy versus 
hysterectomy for fibromyomata of uterus, 
95. 

Mason, E. H. : see Lewis, D. S., and Mason, 
E. H. 

Mason, F. R. .ipecac sensitization and bron- 
chial asthma, 310. 
treatment of bronchial asthma with benzyl 
benzoate, 312. 

Mason, M. L. : see Johnson, S. E , and Mason, 
M. L. 

Mason, V. R., bronchial spirochaetosis, 313. 

Masser, J. H., jun. : see Krumbhaar, E. B., 
and Masser, J. H., jun. 

Mas V Magro, F.,blood picture in anaphylaxis, 
358. 

Matas, R., aneurysm of vertebral artery, 330. 

Mathieu, P., cholecystogastrotomy, 131. 

Mathison, G. C, action of asphyxia on spinal 
animal, 429. 

Matsumoto, M., experiments upon the pro- 
duction of antihuman haemoljsin with 
special reference to immunization with 
erythrocytes sensitized with heated 
serum, 165. 

Matsunaga, T., diffuse pigmentation in mela- 
notic cancer, 233. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



xxxm 



Matthew, D. : see Rixon, C. H. L., and 
Matthew, D. 

Matthiasson, S., influenza epidemic in Ice- 
land, 296. 

Mattill, P. M., Mayer, K., and Sauer, L. W., 
influence of intravenous injections of 
acacia-glucose solutions on urine excretion 
and blood-volume in rabbits, 277. 

Mattirolo, G., e Bertololti, M., rare malforma- 
tion of cephalic end of vertebral column, 
370. 

Mauelshagen, F. : see Habermann, R., u. 
Mauelshagen, F. 

May, E. : see Widal, F., et May. E. 

Mayer, K. : see Mattill, P. M., Mayer, K.,and 
Sauer, L. W, 

Mayer, L., acute haematorrhagic pancreatitis 
with necrosis, 510. 

Mayer, M., examination of blood and stools 
of coloured prisoners of war, 105. 

Mayo, C. H., union of hepatic duct with duo- 
denum, 131. 
mortality from cholecystectomy, 126. 

Mayo, W. J., splenic anaemia, 119. 

Mead, S. W. : see Dutiker, R. A., Eckles, 
C. H., Dahle, C. H., Mead, S. W., and 
Schaefer. 0. G. 

Meader, P. D. : see Robinson, G. H., and 
Meader. P. D. 

Meader, P. D., and Robinson, G. H., biological 
and physical properties of haematoxin 
of streptococci, 69. 

Meek, W. J., and Eyster, J. A. E., reactions to 
haemorrhage, 470. 

Megaw, J. W. D., hookworm infection in 
United Provinces of India, 106. 

Meier, K. : see Straub, H., u. Meier, K. 

Melman, R. J., tabes mesenteria following 
influenza, 302. 

Menard, pregnancy after radiotherapy for 
fibroid, 95. 

Mendel, L. B. : see Osborne, T. B., and 
Mendel, L. B. 

Mengert, E., silver-salvarsan in treatment of 
congenital syphilis, 416. 

Menninger, K. A., influenza and hypophrenia, 
300. 

Mensching, H., results of vaccination of 684 
infants in Obstetrical Institute at Ham- 
burg, 206. 

Menten, M. L., variations in benzidin per- 
oxidase reaction depending on fixative, 
physiological activity, and type of animal, 
68. 

Mercade, S., end to end ileo-sigmoidostomy, 

140. 
Mark, L., Recklinghausen's disease, adenoma 
sebaceum, and tuberous sclerosis caused 
by infection with some dicotyledonous 
plant, 114. 
Metalnikow, S. , on natural and acquired 
immunity in larva of Galleria mellonella, 
82. 
Metchnikoff, E., function of large intestine, 

222. 
Meyer, A. H., report of whooping-cough in- 
vestigations at State Serum Institute at 
Copenhagen, 561. 
diphtheria prophylaxis, 26. 
IV. 



Meyer, A. \V., toxic effects of injection of 

novocaine and bicarbonate solution into 

a vein, 518. 
Meyer, B. I. : see Gray, G. A., and Meyer, 

B.I. 
Meyer, H., non-specific horse serum in treat- 
ment of diphtheria, 28. 
see Frohlich, A., u, Meyer, H. 
Meyer, K. F. : see Litch, V. M., and Meyer, 

K. F. 
Mhaskar, K.S., hookworm infection in Tanjore, 

Trichinopoly, Madura, and Ramnad, 106. 
sec Caius, J. F., and Mhaskar, K. S. 
Michon, L. : see Forestier, J., et Michon, L. 
Miescher, G., malignant melanoma of skin, 

234. 
Mignot, R. : see Renon, L., et Mignot, R. 
Milani, E., bactericidal action of secondary 

rays from colloidal metals, 94. 
Milio, G., blood in influenza, 297. 
Miller, D. A. : see Young, J., and Miller, 

B. A. 
Miller, R., and Perkins, H., congenital 

steatorrhoea, 509. 
Ministry of Health, report on influenza 

pandemic of 1918-19, 296. 
Mishulow, L. : see Cooper, G. M., Mishulow, 

L., and Blanc, N. E. 
Mitchell. J. W. : see Allen, F. M., Mitchell, 

J. W., andSherrill, J. W. 
Montgomery, D. W., and Culver, G. D., eczema 

of vermilion border of lips, 111. 
Moog, 0., u. Worner, E.,Trichocephalustrichiurus 

in soldiers, 107. 
Moore, J. E. : see Keidel, A., and Moore, J. E. 
Moore, R. F,, melanoma and melanotic cancer 

of eye, 235. 
Moorhead.T. G., myelitis in dysentery patient, 

402. 
Montel, L. R., local application of anti- 
streptococcic serum in treatment of 

chronic sepsis of skin. 111. 
Monziols et Collignon, treatment of typhus 

with iodized Proteus X 19 vaccine, 199. 
Morenas: see Bonnet, L. M., et Morenas. 
Morihana, S. : see Kaneko, R., u. Morihana, 

S. 
Moro, E., sudden death in eczema, 111. 
Morrison, L. F. : see Gay, F. P.,and Morrison, 

L. F. 
Morriston Davies, H. : see Trotter, W., and 

Moriston Davies, H. 
Mosenthal, H. O., and Wiener, H. J., dietetic 

treatment of diabetes, 505. 
Moszeik, lethargic encephalitis following 

typhus, 195. 
Mott, F., CO poisoning, 430. 
Mott, F. W., symptoms of syphilis in cases of 

juvenile general paralysis and tabes, 

412. 
Mottram, J. C, red cell content of those 

handling radium for therapeutic pur- 
poses, 93. 
histological changes in bone-marrow of rats 

exposed to 7-radiations from radium, 93. 
see Cramer, W., and Mottram, J. C. 
Mouchet, A., inflammation of tarsal scaphoid 

in young children (Kohler's disease), 

483. 

C 



XXXIV 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Mouchet, A., infantile osteo-chondritis de- 
formans of upper epiphysis of femur, 
481. 

Mouriquand, G., et Bertoyo, trichocephaliasis 
with severe anaemia and diarrhoea, 108. 

Mueller, J. H., bacterial metabolism, 90. 

Miiller, E. F., fatal cases of influenza com- 
plicated by infection with Aspergillus 
fumigatus, 298. 

Miilier, H.. treatment of gonorrhoea by intra- 
muscular injections of turpentine and 
' aolan ', 214. 

Miilier, S., enterostomy for post-operative 
intestinal obstruction, 440. 

Muraud, J., treatment of acute suppuration 
of wrist, 237. 

Murphy, J. B. : see Nakahara, W., and 
Murphy, J. B. 

Murphy, J. B., Hussey, R. G., Sturm, E., 
Nakahara, W., effect of induced cellular 
reaction on fate of cancer grafts, 488. 

Murphy, J. B., Nakahara, W., Sturm, E., 
relation between time and extent of 
lymphoidstimulation induced by physical 
agents and degree of resistance to cancer 
in mice, 489. 

Murphy, J. B., Nakahara, W., Hussey, R. G., 
Sturm, E., effect of cellular reaction in- 
duced by X-rays on cancer grafts, 488. 

Murray, H. A., jun. : see McLean, F. C, 
Murray, H. A., jun., and Henderson, 
L.J. 

Murstad, E., Sachs-Georgi syphilis reaction, 
361. 

Musumeci, G., e Di Macco, G., insensible 
perspiration through cutaneous scars and 
skin of paretic limbs. 370. 



Naccarati, S., oculo-cardiac reflex (Dagnini- 
Aschner phenomenon) — its use in 
medicine and psychology, 150. 

Naessens, subcutaneous injections of oxygen 
in treatment of influenzal broncho- 
pneumonia, 305. 

Nagao, K., fate of india ink injected into 
blood, 171, 

Nageotte, J., et Sencert, L., grafts of dead 
tendon, 527. 

Nakahara, W. : see Murphy, J. B., Nakahara, 
W., Hussey, R. G., Sturm, E. 

Nakahara, W., and Murphy J. B., influence 
of cancer inoculation on lymphoid stimu- 
lation induced by small doses of X-rays, 
489. 
effect of small doses of X-rays of low 
penetration on resistance of mice to 
transplanted cancer, 489. 

Nanta, A., et Baudru, L., lymphadenoma with 
pruritus, 114. 

Nasso, I., spasmodic sneezing in whooping- 
cough, 201. 

Nathan, E., production of antibodies in tricho- 
phytic infection, 112. 

Naunyn, B., relation of jaundice to revaccina- 
tion, 209. 

Neal, H. V., nerve and plasmodesma, 445. 

Neame, H., treatment of interstitial keratitis 
due to congenital syphilis, 411. 



Negelein, E. : see Warburg, 0., u. Negelein, E. 
Neher, R., results of treatment of cancer of 

breast by excision and radiation, 422. 
Neilson, I. L. : see Waite, .J. H., and Neilson, 

I. L. 
Neri, V., semeiologicalimportanceof electrical 
examination of cutaneous sensibility, 
490. 
Netter, A., et Salanier, M., case of typhus 

contracted in Poland, 193. 
Neugebaur, volvulus of sigmoid flexure, 

227 
Neuberg, C, Nord, F. P., u. Wolff, E., 
acetaldehyde as intermediary substance 
in fermentation of sugar by B. lactis 
aerogen^e, 388. 
Neuber, E., gastric myomata, 10. 
Neubiirger, K., post-mortem pigmentation of 

skin, 112, 
Neuda, P., syphilis and influenza, 302. 
Neudorfer, A., treatment of volvulus of 

sigmoid flexure, 227. 
Neumann, J., u. Zoepffel, H., diaphragmatic 
pleurisy in influenza simulating perfora- 
tive peritonitis, 301. 
Neumann, M., helminthiasis in infants, 

103. 
Nevin, Mary, botulism from ch^'ese, 353. 
Nevin, M. : see Williams, A. W., Nevin, M., 

Gurley, C. R. 
Newburgh, L. H., and Marsh, P. L., dietetic 

treatment of diabetes, 506. 
Newell, R. R. : see Janney, N. W., and Newell, 

R. R. 
Nicolaysen, K., irritation of vagus and haemo- 

rrhagic erosions of stomach, 5. 
Nicolaysen, N. A., case of rat-bite fever, 

271. 
Nicoll, J. H., chronic pancreatitis. 510. 
Nicolle, C, et Conseil, E., use of serum of 
typhus convalescents in prophylaxis of 
typhus, 197. 
prophylactic vaccination against Malta 
fever, 256. 
Nicolle, C., et Cuenod, A., experimental 

trachoma, 462. 
Ninni, C, a new anaerobic soil bacillus 
{B. spermoides), 160. 
size of spores of soil bacteria, 159. 
on flora of small intestine of small herbivora, 
with special reference to presence in it 
of B. coH, 76. 
Nitch, C. A. R., and Shattock, S. G., diffuse 

emphysema of intestinal wall, 10. 
Nogier, T., radium therapy for uterine 

fibroids, 285. 
Noire, H., precautions to be taken in X-ray 

therapy of ringworm, 112, 
Nonne, M., myeloma of spine, 250. 
Nonnenbruch, blood after administration of 

urea, 277. 
Nord, F. F. : see Neuberg, C, Nord, F. F., u. 

Wolff', E. 
Novak, E., polypoid adenoma of stomach, 10. 
Novaro, P., calorimetrie investigations on 
inanition and deficiency disease, 167. 
changes in the interstitial tissue of testicle 
in consequence of deficiency in water- 
soluble accessory substance B, 168. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XXXV 



O'Donovan, W. J., dermatitis due to Carpo- 
glyphits passidarum in persons handling 
figs, 113. 
tar cancer, 113. 

Oehme, C, secretion of water by kidney in 
relation to general water metabolism, 
575. 

Offenbacher, R., investigations into the 
activity of pulmonary tuberculosis by 
Wildbolz's method, .>59. 

Okinczye, J., volvulus of sigmoid flexure, 
227. 

Olitsky, P. K., and Gates, F. L., experimental 
studies of nasopharyngeal secretions from 
influenza patients. I. Transmission 
experiments with nasopharyngeal wash- 
ings. II. Filterability and resistance to 
glycerol. III. Studies in concurrent 
infections, 266. IV. Anaerobic cultiva- 
tion, 560. 

Olitsky, P. K. : see Amoss, H. L., Gates, F. L., 
and Olitsky, P. K. 

Olitsky, P. K. : see Gates, F. L., and Olitsky, 
P. K. 

Olnier, D., et Berthier, determination of 
volume of pleural cavity in course of 
pneumothorax, 571. 

Olsen, 0., action of blood in growth of 
influenza bacillus, 156. 

Ornstein, M., bacteriology of bacillus of 
Schmitz, 78. 

Osborne, T. B., and Mendel, L. B., critique 
of experiments with diets free from fat- 
soluble vitamine, 177. 
growth of diets poor in true fats, 177. 
ophthalmia and diet, 574. 

Osgood, H. A., X-ray interpretation of gastro- 
intestinal tract, 389. 

Otelesco, I. : see Weinberg, II., et Otelesco, I. 

Otsubo, T., action of certain salts on phago- 
cytosis and virulence of streptococci, 3C1. 



Pallin, G., anatomical variation of bile-ducts, 
126. 
malignant disease involving bile-ducts, 129. 

Palmen, A. J., case of rat-bite fever in Hel- 
singfors, 271. 

Palmer, W. W,, Salvesen, H., and Jackson, 
H., relationbhip between plasma bicar- 
bonate and urinary acidity following the 
administration of sodium bicarbonate, 
173, 539. 

Palmer, W., and van Slyke, D., relation be- 
tween alkali retention and alkali reserve, 
539. 

Palugyay, J., Rontgen observations on ana- 
tomy and physiology of cardia, 388. 

Panayotatou, A., treatment of amoebic ab- 
scess of liver, 404. 

Pannett, C. A., and Wilson, C. M., influence 
of bile salts on gastric function, 465. 

Paraf, J., transmission of dysentery by flies, 
399. 

Pardi, U., action of concentrated sera, 166. 

Park, E. A. : see McCollum, E. V., Parsons, 
H. T., Shipley, P. G., and Park, E. A. 

Park, L. K. : see Eiskamp, E. H., and Park, 
L. K. 



Park, W. H., duration of immunity from 
diphtheria, 26. 
see von Shelly, A. I., and Park, W. H. 

Park, W. H., and Cooper, G., accidental in- 
oculation of influenza bacilli on mucous 
membranes of healthy persons with 
development of infection in at least one. 
Persistence of type characteristics of 
bacilli. 267. 

Park, W. H., Williams, A. W., Krumwiede, 
C, microbial studies on acute respiratory 
infection, with especial consideration of 
immunological types, 267. 

Parker, G. H., elementary nervous system, 
141, 144. 

Parker, H. L., juvenile tabes, 149, 411. 

Parnas, J. K., carbohydrate metaViolism of 
isolated amphibian muscle, 577. 

Parnas, J. K., u. L;iska-Mintz, E., influence 
of subminimal stimuli upon the course of 
chemical changes in muscle, 577. 

Parrino, G., experimental investigations on 
phagocytosis. Influence of various fixing 
agents. 171. 

Parsons, H. T. : see McCollum, E. V., Sim- 
monds, N., Parsons, H. T., Shipley, P. G., 
and Park, E. A. 

Paterson, D. H., transmission of syphilis to 
third generation, 412. 

Paton, D. N., and Watson, A., aetiology of 
rickets, 465, 574. 

Patzschke, W., treatment of gonorrhoea! 
vulvo-vaginitis in children, 217. 

Paul, E., splanchnic anaesthesia for gastric 
operations, 524. 

Paulian, D. E., Marinesco's technique for 
intra-spinal treatment of neurosyphilis 
with salvarsanized serum, 337. 

Paullin, J. E., renal glycosuria, 502. 

Pawlow, I., 'conditional' reflexes, 428. 

Payr, E., constipation and its surgical treat- 
ment, 222. 

Pearce, L. : see Brown, W. H., and Pearce, L. 

Pech, phenomena of antagonism between 
diiierent rays (ultra-violet, visible spec- 
trum, infra-red), 395. 

Peiper, diphtheria of penis and umbilicus in 
new-born infant, 23. 
vulvar and cutaneous diphtheria, 20. 

Perkins, H. : see Miller, R., and Perkins, H. 

Permar, H. H., experimental study of mono- 
nuclear phagocytes of lung, 462. 

Pernet, G., post- vaccinal psoriasis, 208. 

Perrin-Marechal, A., pulmonary abscess due 
to pneumobacillus, 315. 

Perthes, G., arteriovenous aneurysm, 331. 
arthritis deformans juvenilis, 39. 
ligature of arteries, 329. 
results of treatment of cancer of breast by 
excision and radiation, 422. 

Peshkin, M. M., ipecac sensitization and 
bronchial asthma, 310. 

Peters, J. P., jun., and Barr, D. P., carbon 
dioxide dissociation curve and arterial 
and venous carbon dioxide tension of 
human blood in health and in disease, 
173. 
respiratory mechanism in cardiac dyspnoea, 
382. 

c 2 



XXXVl 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Peters, J. P., Barr, D. P., and Rule, F. D., 
carbon dioxide absorption curve and car- 
bon dioxide tension of blood of normal 
resting individuals, in cardiac dyspnoea, 
and in severe anaemia, 381. 

Peters, V.J. W., pulmonary abscess, 314, 815. 

Peterson, W. H. : see Fred, E. B., and Peter- 
son, W, H. 

Petow, H. : see Rona, P., u. Petow, H. 

Petren, K., mortality from 1918 epidemic of 
influenza in Sweden, 296, 
renal affection in influenzal pneumonia, 
299. 

Pette, H., relation of neurosyphilis to pre- 
vious treatment, 335. 

Petzetakis, D., parabronchial pleurisy, 318. 

Peyron : see Alezais et Peyron. 

P^zard, A., numerical law of regression of 
certain sex characters, 179. 

Pfeiffer, R., right hemiplegia in typhus, 195. 

Phillips, C. E. S., suggested new method of 
measuring X-ray dosage, 182. 

Piccininni, F., epidemiological and anatomo- 
pathological observations on rat plague. 
Experimental investigations on immu- 
nity of rats against plague, 459. 
means of importation of plague into Italy 
and preventive measures, 459. 

Pickering, D. V., blood-sugar in diabetes, 
502. 

Pighini, G., chemical composition of brain in 
dementia praecox, 479, 

Pinch, A. E. H., report of work carried out 
at Radium Institute, London, from Jan. 
1, 1919, to Dec. 31, 1919, 96. 

Pinol, E. L., bronchial spirochaetosis, 313. 

Piper, I. H., nature of electroniyogram, 530. 

Pirondini, E., pyelitis larvata cystalgica, 240. 

Pistoechi, G., on influence of spleen, kidney, 
and thyroid on anaphylactic shock, 169. 

Plaut, H. C., salvarsan in treatment of pul- 
monary gangrene, 316. 

Plesch, J., inhalations of iodine vapour in 
prophylaxis of influenza, 304. 

Plichet : see Weil, P. E., et Plichet. 

Plimmer, R. H. A., analyses and energy 
values of foods, 673. 

Pontano, T., treatment of amoebic abscess of 
liver, 403. 

Ponticaccia, L., experimental investigations 
on haemolytic action of oleic acid and 
trioleins in rabbits, 166. 

Porte : see Cristol et Porte. 

Poulton, E. P. : see Haldane, J. S., and Poul- 
ton, E. P. 

Povitsky, 0. R., and Denny, H. T., further 
studies on grouping of influenzal bacilli, 
with special reference to permanence of 
type in carrier, 267. 

Pozerski, E. : see Blanc, J., et Pozerski, E. 

Pozzo, A., ' Norwegian scabies,' 113. 

Prausnitz, C, bacteriology of swine eiy- 
sipelas in man, 352. 

Prausnitz, P. G., umbilical diphtheria, 22. 

Preisendorf, F., function of tendon reflexes, 
531. 

Preiss, G. A., action of paravertebral injec- 
tions in producing spinal anaesthesia, 
523. 



Price-Jones, C, diurnal variation in sizes of 

red blood cells, 366. 
Pritchett, T. W. : seeWishart, M. B., andPrit- 

chett, T. W. 
Probizer, G., pellagra in the Trentino, 113. 
Proust, R., et Ramond, L., empyema caused 

by rupture of amoebic abscess of liver, 

403. 
Prym, 0., liability of diabetics to flea-bites, 

500. 
Pulido, A., recent outbreaks of typhus in 

Spain, 192. 
Puntoni, V., tobacco smoke as disinfectant of 

the mouth, 357. 
Putnam, T. J. : see Foley, F. E. B., and Put- 
nam, T. J. 
Putnam, J. J., and Gay, D. M., behaviour of 

influenza bacillus in mixed culture on 

haemoglobin-free media, 156. 



Quick, D., results of treatment of cancer of 
breast with X-rays and radium after 
excision, 420. 
see Bagg, H. J., Ewing, J., and Quick, D. 



Radin, M. J., chronic lung disease following 

influenza, 297. 
Ragoff, J. M. : see Stewart, G. N., and Ragoff, 

J. M. 
Rahnenfuhrer, C, clinical history of circum- 
scribed pulmonary suppuration (abscess 

gangrene), 581. 
Ramirez, M. A., hoi-se asthma following blood 

transfusion, 311. 
protein sensitization in eczema, 111. 
Ramond, F., pyloric spasm, 6, 184. 
Ramond, F., et Clement, R., pylorospasm, 6. 
Ramond, L. : see Proust, R., et Ramond, L. 
Randall, S. B. : see Foster, L. F., and Randall, 

S. B. 
Ransohoff, J., aneurysm of internal carotid 

due to peritonsillar abscess, 325. 
Ransom, B. H., Ascaris lumbricoides causing 

pulmonary disease, 104. 
Ransom, F. : see Dixon, W. E., and Ransom, 

F. 
Rappleye, W. C. : see Forbes, A., and Rap- 

pleye, W. C. 
Rathery, F., et Binet, L., saliva in diabetic 

patients, 499. 
Rathery, F., et Bordet, F., pulmonary gan- 
grene cured by anti-gangrene serum, 316. 
Ravaut, P., et Gallerand, leucoplacia treated 

by carbon dioxide snow, 114. 
Ravina, A. : see Dufour, H., Semelaigne, G., 

et Ravina, A. 
Rawlins, M., ti-eatment of gonorrhoea in 

women, 215. 
Ray, C. B. : see Shorten, J. A., and Ray, C. B. 
Razzaboni, G., primary sarcoma of internal 

saphenous vein, 345. 
Redlich, E., pathology of epilepsy following 

gunshot wounds of the skull, 448. 
Reece, R. J., percentage of children vaccin- 
ated, 205. 
Reenstierna, J.,se rum treatment of chancroid, 

220. 



11. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XXXVll 



Rehberg, mediastinal pleurisy, 318. 

Kehfuss, M. E., and Hawk, P. B., gastric 
analysis. I. Fundamental principles. 
II. Interdigestive phase or principles 
governing phenomena of resting stomach , 
474. 
hyperacidity, 4. 

Rehn, E., ligation of internal carotid, 329. 

Eeiche, F., association of whooping-cough 
and influenza, 201. 
immunity against influenza, 304. 
jaundice in influenza, 299. 
mortality in whooping-cough, 201. 
urticaria tuberosa, 113. 
whooping-cough complicated with con- 
vulsions, 202. 

Reichle, splanchnic anaesthesia, 524. 

Reimer, G., caramel in treatment of diabetes, 
506. 

Reinhardt, A. : see L"twen, A., u. Reinhardt, 
A. 

van der Reis, diagnosis of typhus by Fried- 
berger-van der Reis, skin reaction, 197. 

Reiss, J. : see Crohn, B. B., and Reiss, J. 

Renaud, M., atypical primary epithelioma of 
lung, 317. 

Renauld-Capart, H., cerebral metabolism. 
3. Nature of substances secreted by liver 
which are essential for nervous centres, 
476. 

Renault, J., Schick teat for susceptibility to 
diphtheria, 26. 

Renaux, E., homogenization of tuberculous 
sputa and search for T.B. in cold ab- 
scesses, suppurative glands, and urines, 
559. 

Renon, L., et Mignot, R., epidemiology of in- 
fluenza, 295. 

Rensch, 0. B. : see Corper, H. J.,andRensch, 
0. B. 

Rettger, L. F. : see Cheplin, H. A., and 
Rettger, L. F. 

Rey, J. F., dysentery due to Morgan's No. 1 or 
No. 14 bacillus, 402. 

Reyn, A. : see Chievitz, 0., Jensen, J., Reyn, 
A., and Collin, E. 

7{ibadeau-Dumas, Mallet, et de Laulerie, 
radiological examination of kidneys after 
intraperitoneal insufflation, 286. 

Ribierre, P., et L^obardy, J. de, gonococcal 
septicaemia, 211. 

Richard, L., size of spleen in abdominal 
cancer, 120. 

Richards, J. H., bacteriologic studies in 
chronic arthritis and chorea. Part I. 
Arthritis, 70. 

Riche, general analgesia by intrathecal in- 
jections of novocaine, 523. 

Richter, H., essential lesion of tabes, 547. 

Richter, S., analysis of 601 cases of lumbar 

anaesthesia, 521. 
Richter-Quittner, M. : see Falta, W., u. 

Richter-Quittner, M. 
Rick, F., paravertebral injections in gynaeco- 
logical cases, 523. 
Riemschneider, G. , diphtheritic paralysis of 

central origin, 24. 
Rieux et Zoller, Shick test of susceptibility to 
diphtheria, 26. 



Rist, E., et Strohl, A., experimental and 
critical studies on pneumothorax, 570. 

Ritter, I. S. : see Stern, M., and Ritter, I. S. 

Rivers, T. M., ligation of common carotid for 
haemorrhage into a post-scarlatinal 
abscess, 325. 

Rivers, W. H. R., protopathic sensibility, 
142. 
see Head, H., Rivers, W. H. R., and 
Sherren, J. 

Rixon, C. H. L., and Matthew, D., anxiety 
hysteria, 349. 

Roberts, D. : see Cole, L. G., and Roberts, D. 

Robinson, G. H. : see Meader, P. D., and 
Robinson, G. H. 

Robinson, G. H., and Meader, P. D., pre- 
cipitin test for gonorrhoea, 213. 

Rocci, X-ray therapv with now apparatus 
giving 200,000 volts, 287. 

Rochaix : see Cluzet, Rochaix, et Kofman. 

Rockwell, G. E., and McKhann, C. F., growth 
of gonococcus in various gaseous environ- 
ments, 256. 

Roederer, J. : see Adrian, C, et Roederer, J. 

Roger, H., winter incidence of epidemic 
encephalitis and seasonal recurrence of 
chronic forms, 57. 

Rohde, K., pancreatic necrosis, 510. 

Rolf, I. P. : see Levene, P. A., and Rolf, I. P. 

Rolleston, H., change of type in congenital 
syphilis, 410. 

Rolleston, J. D.," diphtheritic hemiplegia, 
24. 

Rolleston, J. D., and Macleod, C, intra- 
muscular route for injection of diph- 
theria antitoxin, 28. 

Rona, P., u. Petow, H., poisonous effect of 
thiodiglycol upon urease, 179. 

Rosen, I. : see Fordyce, J. A., and Rosen, I. 

Rosenbloom, J., occupation and bronchial 
asthma, 310. 

Rosenmann, M., on fibrinolysis, 282. 

Rosier, 0. A., gastric ulcer due to plumbism, 
5. 

Ross, E. L., and Davis, L. H., difference 
between the mechanism of hyper- 
glycaemia production by ether and by 
chloroform, 274, 

Rosson, F. B. : see Du Bray, E. S., andRosson, 
F. B. 

Rothfeld, J., Freund, J., u. Hornowski, J., 
experimental investigations on patho- 
genesis and disseminated sclerosis, 347. 

Rothlin, E., experimental studies of properties 
of surviving vessels under treatment with 
chemical stimuli, 378. 

Roussy, G., thyroid lesions in Graves's 
disease, 247. 

Routh, A., spirillolysis caused by chronic 
ferments, 407. 

Roux : see Duval, P., Roux, et Beclere, H. 

Rowland, C. C. : see Mackie, T. J., and Row- 
land, C. C. 

Rowntree, L. , Chesney, A. M., and Marshall, 
E. K., functional capacity of liver, 542. 

Roy, M. P. L. J., radium treatment of cancer 

of cei-vix uteri, 584. 
Rule, F. D. : see Peters, J. P., Barr, D. P., 
and Rule, F. D. 



XXXVIU 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Bundle, G. W., results of antenatal treatment 
of syphilis, 413. 

Rusca, C. L., Gaucher's disease, 170. 

Russ, S., some problems in biological action 
of radiations, 185. 

Russell, B. R. G., and Wogiom, W. H., 
respiratory exchange of surviving mou^e 
tissues, normal and neoplastic, 68. 

Russell, T. H., abdominal symptoms in in- 
fluenza simulating an acute surgical 
lesion, 300. 

Rutherford, A. : see Cranston Low, R., Logan, 
W. R., and Rutherford, A. 

Ruysch, W. P., typhus in Holland, 192. 



V. Saar, G. F., u. Schamberger, R., treatment 
of acute suppuration of wrist, 236. 

Sabouraud, R., alopecia areata an abortive 
form of congenital syphilis, 113. 

Sachs, B., intraspinal treatment of neuro- 
syphilis with salvarsanized serum, 338. 

Sachs, E., and Malone, J. Y., alterations in 
brain volume of human subject by in- 
jections of hypei-tonic salt solutions, 
536. 

Salanier, M. : see Natter, A., et Salanier, M. 

Salimbeni, d'Herelle's bacteriophage, 74. 

Saloz, C. : see Cottin, E., Cramer, A., et 
Saloz, C. 

Salvesen, H. : see Palmer, W. W., Salvesen, 
H., and Jackson, H. 

Salvioli, G., histopathology of leprosy, 372. 

Sampietro, G., sero-diagnostic studies on 
typhus, 170. 

Sanborn, G. P., treatment of influenza by 
serum of convalescents, 305. 

Sanfelice, F., changes shown by acid-resisting 
bacilli on passing through animal organ- 
ism, 452. 

Sanger u. Bornstein, electromyogram in 
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 533. 

Sangiorgi, G. : see Fontana, A., e Sangiorgi, G. 

Sappington, S. W., Gaucher's disease, 119. 

Satani, Y,, extra-mammary Paget's disease 
treated surgically, 114. 

Sauer, L. W. : see Mattill, P. M., Mayer, K., 
and Sauer L. W. 

Sauve : see Chaton et Sauve. 

Savatard, L., early diagnosis of epithelioma 
of skin, 114. 
leiomyoma of smooth muscle-cells of 
arrectores pill, 114. 

Saxl, P. : see Brunn, F., Hitzenberger, K., u. 
Saxl, P. 

Saxtorph, S. M., influenza and tuberculosis, 
302. 

Schaefer, 0. G. : see Dutiker, R. A., Eckles, 
C. H., Dahle, C. H., Mead, S. W., and 
Schaefer, 0. G. 

Schaeffer, F., and Chotzen, T., radiotherapy 
of tumours of hypophysis and of acro- 
megaly, 582. 

Schaffer, K., intramedullary bifurcation of 
posterior root fibres in man, 549. 
histopathology of tabes, 547. 

Schamberger, R. : see v. Saar, G. F., u. 
Schamberger, R. 



Schapiro, L., effects of treatment of ankylo- 
stomiasis in N. Queensland, 106. 

Schaps, Th., danger of cocaine injections, 
519. 

Schemmel, E., treatment of injuries to 
vertebral artery, 332. 

Schenk, P., action of histamin on man, 580. 
pituitary opotherapy of diabetes, 507. 

Scheven : see Lehmann u. Scheven. 

Schiassi, B., Graves's disease, 341. 

Schick, B,, breaking down of maternal blood 
as cause of icterus neonatorum, 580. 

Schiffner, O. : see Jagic, N., u. Schiffner, 0. 

Schlagenhaufer, F., disappearance of vertebral 
bodies (osteolysis), 372. 

Schlecht, deep radiotherapy in internal 
medicine, 487. 

Schmerz, H., sacral anaesthesia, 525. 

Schlomovitz, B. H., further experiments on 
effects of warming and cooling sino- 
auricular node in mammalian heart. 
Depth of anaesthesia, tachyonrdia, flutter, 
sino-auricular heart-block. (B) Experi- 
mental production of ventricular fibrilla- 
tion by localized warming of cardiac 
tissue, 472. 

Schmidt, v., sarcoma following radium treat- 
ment of epithelioma of tongue, 583. 
100 cases of paralysis of recurrent laryngeal 
nerve, 254. 

Schmidtmann, M. : seeBrahn,B., u. Schmidt- 
mann, M. 

Schmieden, V., kinking of bile-duct, 128. 

Schmiegelow, E., fatal haemorrhage following 
removal of adenoids, 328. 

Schmiesing, T., digestion of infants' foods, 
387. 

Schmilinsky, gastric operations under 
splanchnic anaesthesia, 524. 

Schnabel, A. : see Doerr, R., Schnabel, A., u. 
Vochting, K. 

Schneider, K C, and Truesdell, D., study of 
low oxygen effects during rebreathing, 
382. 

Schoemaker, J., pericolitis membranacea, 
226. 

Schonfelder, T., diphtheria of umbilicus, 20. 

Schou, H. J., nerve lesions in early syphilis 
and tlieir treatment, 61. 

Schultz, 0. T. : see Anderson, R. A., and 
Schultz, O. T. 

Schulz, W., course of creatinin excretion in 
urine in man, with especial reference to 
effect of exercise, 180. 
Schiitze, H., haemagglutination and its 
medico-legal bearing, with observations 
upon the theory of isoagglutinins, 163. 

Schwalbach, G., aneurysm of vertebral artery, 
333. 

Schwarz, H. : seeWessler,H., and Schwarz, H. 

Schweinburg, E., epidemic of typhus among 
German prisoners in Orenburg (Russia) 
in 1915, 193. 

Scott, E. L., sugar in blood of dog-fish and 
sand-shark, 471. 

Scott, E. L., and Honeywell, H. E., study of 
sugar in blood of normal pigeons, 472. 

Scott, E. L., and Kleitmann, N., sugar in 
blood of common frog, 471. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



XXXIX 



Scruton. W. A., hemiplegia occurring im- 
mediately after tonsillectomy, 327. 
Sebilleau, P., death caused by removal of 

tonsils, 327. 
Seelig, M. G., cholecystectomy, 129. 
Segagni, S., pseudo-a^cites in children, 13. 
SC'guin, P., beneficial effect of certain bacteria 

in cultivation of buccal spirochaetes, 

270. 
Semelaigne, G. : see Dufour, H., Semelaigne, 

G., et Ravina. A. 
Sencert, L. : see Nageotte, J., et Sencert, L. 
Senevet, G. : see Lapin, J., et Senevet, G. 
Sessa, P., study of gall-stones by X-rays, 92. 
Sevestre : see Houzel et Sevestre. 
Seyfarth, C, arteriovenous aneurysm between 

carotid artery and cavernous sinus, 

425. 
Sharp, W. B. : see Jordan, E. 0., and Sharp, 

W. B. 
Shattock, S. G. : see Nitch, C. A. K., and 

Shattock, S. G. 
Shaw, W. F., and Burrows, A., Wertheim's 

hysterectomy for advanced carcinoma of 

cervix made possible by use of radium, 

5S4. 
Shearer, C, amount of heat liberated by 

Bacillus coli when grown in presence of 

free amino-acids, 567. 
Shellshear, J. L., basal arteries of forebrain, 

and their functional significance, 348. 
Sherren, J. : see Head, H., Rivers, W. H. R., 

and Sherren, J. 
Sherrill. J. W. : see Allen, F. M., Mitchell, 

J. W., and Sherrill, J. W. 
Sherrington, C. S., integrative action of 

nervous system, 145. 
nature of tonic contraction of muscle, 

532. 
scratch reflex in spinal cat, 429. 
Shiplev. P. G. : see McCollum. E. V., Parsons, 

H.' T., Shipley, P. G., and Park, E. A. 
von Sholly, A. I., and Park, W. H., report on 

prophylactic vaccination of 1,536 persons 

against acute respiratory diseases, 1919- 

20, 267. 
Shorten, J. A., and Ray, C. B., antiscorbutic 

and anti-beri-beri properties of certain 

sun-dried vegetables, 574. 
Sicard, J. : see Bonnet, E., et Sicard, J. 
Simmonds, N. : see McCollum, E. V., Sim- 

monds, N., Parsons, H. T., Shipley, P. G., 

and Park, E. A. 
Simmons, J. S., diphtheria caught from cat, 

18. 
Simmons, J. S., Wearn, J. T., and Williams, 

0. B., diphtheria infections with particu- 
lar reference to carriers and to wound 

infections with B. diphlhet-iae, 454. 
Singer, G., gastro- intestinal haemorrhage in 

polycythaemia hypertonica and syphilitic 

aortitis, 11. 
Sippel, P., congenital torticollis, 132. 
Skajaa, K., pathological-anatomical and 

bacteriological study of influenza and 

influenzal pneumonia, 562. 
Skramlik, E. : see Hahn, M., u. Skramlik, E. 
Slemons, J. M., analysis of blood in eclampsia, 

538, 540. 



Sloboziano : see Constantinesco, C. D., et 

Sloboziano. 
van Slyke, D. D., carbon dioxide carriers of 

the blood, 379. 
see Palmer, W. , and van Slyke, D. 
see Losee, J. R., and van Slyke, D. 
Smillie, W. G., beta naphthol in treatment 

of hookworm infection, 107. 
Smith, C. A. : see Hawk, P. B , Smith, C. A., 

and Bergeim, 0. 
Smith, E. B., splenectomy for splenomegalic 

cirrhosis, 124. 
Smith, J. D., and Wilson, M. A., comparison 

of smear, culture and complement fixa- 
tion in chronic gonorrhoea in women, 

157. 
Smith, J. W., results of operations for atony 

and prolapse of large intestine, 223. 
Snell, M. , umbilical diphtheria, 22. 
von Sohlern, gastro-intestinal haemorrhage, 

11. 
Sorensen, microscopic examination of organs 

from cases of influenza, 264. 
Sorrel, Etienne, infantile deforming osteo- 
chondritis of upper epiphysis of femur, 

39. 
Soucek, A., vaccination in Bavaria, 205. 
Speed, K. , carcinoma of pancreas, 512. 
Spencer, W. G., arterial haemorrhage from 

ear and its control by ligature of common 

carotid, 326. 
injury to vertebral artery, 332. 
Spencer, W. G., and Horsley, V., connexions 

of internal carotid in monkeys, 323. 
Spencer, W. G., and Keith, A., melanin 

chromatophores in submucous tissue of 

caecum and colon, 228. 
Spiethoff, B,, sources of error in treatment 

by salvarsan, 158. 
Spiller, W. G., treatment of spastic gait by 

permanent flexion of great toe, 548. 
Spolverini, L., vaccine treatment of whoop- 
ing-cough, 204. 
Spriggs, E. I., duodenal diverticula, 183. 
Stark, H. S., obesity and diabetes, 504. 
Starling, E. H. : see Kaya, A., and Starling, 

E. H. 
Starlinger, rate of sedimentation of red cells 

during pregnancy, 543. 
Stearns, G., and Lewis, H. B., diet and 

sex as factors in creatinuria of man, 

469. • 

Steenbock, H. : see Hart, E. B., Steenbock, H., 

and Ellis, N. R. 
Steffen, G. I. : see Cecil, R. L., and Steffen, 

G.I. 
Stein, R. 0., differential diagnosis between 

large- and small-spored ringworm, 112. 
Stengel, A., association of glycosuria with 

infectious diseases, 497. 
Stephenson, M., differentiation of yellow 

plant pigments from fat-soluble vitamine, 

84. 
Stepp, W., and Feulgen, R., identification of 

aldehyde-like substance in diabetic urine 

as acetaldehyde, 576. 
Stern, A., herpes febrilis, 112. 
Stern, M., and Ritter, I. S., intravenous in- 
jections of sodium iodide in treatment of 



xl 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



gonorrhoea! arthritis, epididymitis, and 

prostatitis, 214. 
Stertz, G., organization of extrapyramidal 

motor system and selective incidence of 

paralyses of pyi-amidal origin, 443. 
Stettner, E. : see Jamin, F., u. Stettner, E. 
Stevens, W. E., and Heppner, M., occurrence 

and treatment of chronic gonorrhoea in 

women, 214. 
Stevenson, G. S. : see Ebaugh, F. G., and 

Stevenson, G. S. 
Stewart, G. N., and Ragoff, J. M., post-opera- 
tive depletion and epinephrin store of 

adrenals, 476. 
Stillman, E. G., and Bourn, J. M., biological 

study of haemophilic bacilli, 154. 
Stoichitia, I., blood in influenza, 297. 
Stokes, A., and Bigger, J. W., dysentery 

epidemic in Dublin, 1919, 399. 
Stolkind, E. J., congenital syphilitic aortitis, 

410. 
Storm van Leeuwen, W., and Zeijdner, J., 

influence of colloids on action of non- 
colloidal drugs, 282. 
Stoyanovitch, M. D., gas cysts of intestine, 

11. 
Strandberg, J., et Hedenius, J., chronic 

gonorrhoeal arthritis complicated by 

keratodermia blenorrhagica. 212. 
Strassberg, M., influenza in syphilitic women, 

303. 
Straub, H., u. Meier, K., blood gas studies. 

VIII. Influence of certain digitalis bodies 

on permeability to ions of human red 

blood corpuscles, 174. 
Strauss, E., composition of keratin, 110. 
Strauss, H., diagnosis of duodenal ulcer, 6. 
Strauss, 0., radiotherapy and polycythaemia, 

390. 
Strauss, R., gastric cancer, 7. 
Strickler, A., and Goldberg, J. M., anaphy- 
lactic food reactions and eczema, 110. 
Stroe, A., cerebrospinal fluid in typhus, 

195. 
Strohl, A. : see Rist, E., et Strohl, A. 
Strominger, L., cystitis after typhus, 196. 
Strouse, S., renal glycosuria, 503. 
Sturm, E. : see Murphy, J. B., Nakahara, W., 

Sturm, E. 
see Murphy, J. B., Nakahara, W., Hussey, 

R. G., Sturm, E. 
Suitsu, N., alkaline reserve of blood of insane, 

277. 
Sullivan, M., and Dawson, P. R.,sulphocyan- 

ate content of saliva and urine in pellagra, 

283. 
Sundstroem, E. S., and Bloor, W. R., 

physiological effects of short exposures to 

low pressure, 174. 
Sundt, H., malum coxae Calve-Legg-Perthes, 

39. 



gastric secretions 



Sutherland, G. F. 

starvation, 473. 
response of stomach glands to gastrin before 

and shortly after birth, 474. 
Swanbeck, C. E. : see Karsner, H. T., and 

Swanbeck, C. E. 
Symes, J. 0., pancreatic calculi, 513. 



Tallo, F., aotion in vitro of neosalvarsan on 
B. anthracis from cultures (without cap- 
sule) and from the animal organism 
(with capsule), 458. 

Taniguchi, T., Sachs-Georgi syphilis reaction 
and its relation to Wassermann reaction, 
362. 

Taylor, J., colectomy, 223. 

Taylor- Jones, E., action of induction coils, 
181. 

Teague, 0., and Deibert, 0., diagnosis of 
chancroid, 219. 

Ten Horn, plication of caecum in treatment 
of constipation, 227. 

Tewksbury, W. D., pulmonary abscess, 314, 
315. 

Thewlis, M. W., gargling with chloral hy- 
drate solution in treatment of influenza, 
305. 
influenza in old age, 303. 

Thibierge, G., lichen planus distinct from 
lichen simplex, 111. 

ThJ0tta, Th., studies on bacterial nutrition. 
I. Growth of Bacillus influenzae, in haemo- 
globin-free media, 502. 

Thjt»tta, T., and Avery, 0. T., growth accessory 
substances in nutrition of bacteria, 
387. 

Thomson, 0., and Christensen, S., types of 
pneumococci, 73. 

Thomsen, O., and Vollmond, E., an attempt 
to classify gonococci according to type, 
157. 

Thomsen, 0., u. Wulfif, F., certain problems 
concerning meningococcal infection, 
258. 
experimental studies of mode of action 
of antimeningococcal serum, 63. 

Thormiilen, J., melanogen in urine of woman 
suffering from melanotic cancer, 229. 

Tibaldi, E., on a new species of parasitic 
amoeba occurring in crypts of tonsils 
{Entamoeba macrohyaUna), 457. 

Tichy, H., results of treatment of cancer of 
breast by excision and radiation, 421. 

Tisdall, F. F., estimation of phenolic sub- 
stances in urine, 86. 

Tocunaga, H., biology of influenza bacillus, 
58. 

Tomkinson, J. G., X-rays in treatment of 
oriental sore, 114. 

Tonnet, J. : see Loeper, M., Forestier, J., et 
Tonne t, J. 

Torraca, L., lesions of nerve-cells of parietal 
plexuses of gastro-enteric canal in conse- 
quence of surgical interventions, 371. 

Torraca, T., on epithelioma adenoides cysti- 
cum(Brooke)ortricho-epithelioma papil- 
losum multiplex (Jarisch), 464. 

Trask, J. D. : see Blake, F. G., and Trask, 
J. D. 
in Trendelenburg, P., u. Groebel, W., relation 



between parathyroid tetany and calcium 
deficit in blood, 278. 
Trenkel, H., value of Wildbolz's auto-urine 
reaction in demonstration of active tuber- 



culosis, 559. 



Treupel, G., chronic lung disease following 
influenza, 297. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



xli 



Treupc'l u. Kayser-Peter.sen, inimuuityagainst 
influenza, 304. 

Trcindle, A., new experiments on uptake of 
substances by cell, 478. 

Trotter. W., on certain clinically obscure ma- 
lignant tumours of nasopharyngeal wall, 
242. 
pathological physiology of the skull, 428. 

Trotter, W., and Morriston Davies, H., 
results of experimental nerve section in 
man, 4G. 

Truesdell, D. : see Schneider, E. C, and 
Truesdell, D. 

Tuffier, cancer of oesophagus treated by direct 
application of tube of radium emanation 
to oesophageal wall through transpleural 
channel, 284. 

Tuohy, E. L., splenomegaly with polymor- 
phonuclear neutrophil hvperleucocytosis, 
121. 

TurnbuU, H. M., glycogenic jnfilti-ation of 
liver of laboratory rabbits, 67. 

Turner, C. G., discoloration of abdominal 
wall as sign of acute pancreatitis, 514. 

Turretini, G., et Gerber, I., gastric cancer, 8. 

Twort, F. W., researches on dysentery, 57. 



Udaondo, C. B., y Carulla, J. E., syphilis of 

pancreas, 512. 
Uhlenhuth, E., experimental production of 

gigantism by feeding anterior lobe of 

hypophysis and pituitary gland, 179. 
V. Uji, S., intestinal obstruction caused by 

ascarides, 104. 
Umber, F., diabetes and pregnane}-, 501. 
Unger, L. J. : see Hess, A. F., and Unger, 

L. J. 
Unneberg, A. : see Williams, A. W., Unne- 

berg, A., Goldman, A., and Hussey, H. 
Urbantschitsch, E., case ' of influenza with 

bilateral choked disc and unilateral 

paralysis of 6th nerve, 300. 



Vaccarezza, R. F., y Finochietto, R., case of 
acute amoebic dysenterj', 402. 

Vallardi, C, epidemiological and clinical 
notes on protozoan dysenteiy, 456. 
dysentery epidemic in Macedonia, 1918, 

399, 456. 
mixed dysenteric forms, 456. 
sero-diagnosis in bacillary dysenteric in- 
fections, 456. 

Vandenbosche, instant death during removal 
of tonsils, 327. 

Varo, B., effect of the war on incidence and 
mortality of eclampsia, 542. 

Vaudremer, hypopyon complicating typhus, 
196. 
treatment of typhus, 198. 

Vaudremer, A., facultative acid fastness in 
tubercle bacilli, human and bovine, 
260. 

Vaurs, R., perforation of stomach in gastric 
cancer, 8. 

Vernon, H. M., apnoea after forced respira- 
tion, 432. 



Viannay, C, injui\v causing spasmodic con- 
traction of arteries, 33, 34. 

Vicente, M., bile enemata in treatment of 
constipation, 15. 
see Bensaude, R., et Vicente, M. 

Viets, H., relation of form of knee-jerk and 
patellar clonus to muscle tonus, 54. 

Vigevani , G., pituitary opotherapy of diabetes, 
507. 

Vigno, P. : see Civatte, A., et Vigne, P. 

Vines, H. W. C., role of calcium in coagula- 
tion of blood, 558. 

Vochting, K. : see Doerr, R., Schnabel, A., u. 
Viichting, K. 

Vogel, C, tuberculosis cutis vegetans, 112. 

Vogt, H., dysentery in children during epi- 
demic at Barmen, 1899-1901, 400. 

Vollmond, E. : see Thomson, 0., and VoU- 
mond. E. 

Volpino, G., e Desderi, P., microscopic ob- 
servations on brains from some cases of 
epidemic encephalitis, 452. 

Vorschiitz, J., investigation on agglutination 
and sedimentation of bacteria, 176. 



Wagener, H. P., and Wilder, R. M., retinitis 

in diabetics, 499. 
Wagner, K., complications of vaccination, 

208. 
Waite, J. H., and Neilson, I. L., ankj'losto- 

miasis in N. Queensland, 106. 
Walker, I. C, hay fever, 309. 

fibrinous bronchitis, 312. 
Wallgren, A., acute leukaemia in pregnancy: 

an argument against theory of infectious 

origin of disease, 64. 
Wallis, R. L. M., tests for functional activity 

of pancreas, 514. 
Walshe, F. M. R., conditions of extensor 

muscles in spastic paralysis, 533. 
relationship between muscle tone and 

tendon reflexes, 532. 
Walterhofer, G. , action of X-rays in leukaemia, 

486. 
Warburg, , u. Negelein, E., oxidation of 

cystin and other amino-acids by blood 

charcoal, 480. 
Ward, E., urticaria following acute fevers, 

113. 
Wassermann, S., skin pigmentation in 

soldiers, 112. 
Watson, A. : see Paton. D. N., and Watson, A., 

574. 
Waugh, G. E., surgical treatment of mobile 

caecum and ascending colon, 227. 
Wearn, J. T. : see Simmons, J. S., Wearn, 

J. T., and Williams, 0. B. 
Webster, L. T, : see Lewis, W. H., and Webster, 

L. T. 
Weed, L. , and McKibben, P., experimental 

production of alterations in cerebrospinal 

fluid pressure and brain volume, 535. 
Weichbrodt, R., intraspinal treatment of 

neurosyphilis, 339. 
Weil, M. P., cystic pneumatosis of intestine, 

11. 
Weil, P. E., Wassermann reaction in chronic 

splenomegaly, 121. 



xlii 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Weil, P. E., et Plichet, diabetes and hirsuties, 
502. 

"Weill, E., et Dufourt, A., intramuscular 
injection of ether in treatment of whoop- 
ing-cough, 202. 

Weill-Halle, B., intramuscular route for 
injection of diphtheria antitoxin, 28. 

Weinberg, J. A., influence of exposure to 
X-rays on growth of tuberculosis, 395. 

Weinberg, M., et Kepinow, L., leuco- 
agglutinins, 461. 

Weinberg, M., et Otelesco, I., B. proieus of war 
wounds, 451. 

Weiss, H., heat resistance of spores, with 
special reference to spores of B. botulinus, 
352. 

Weiss, M., analysis of colouring substances of 
urine. II. Urochromogen, 282. 

Weiss, W., salvarsan in treatment of pul- 
monary gangrene, 316. 

Wertheim Salomonson, J. K. A., electro- 
myogram in tendon reflexes, 531, 
electromyogram in nervous diseases, 533. 

Wessler, H., pulmonary abscess, 314. 

Wessler, H., and Schwarz, H., pulmonary 
abscess, 315. 

Westergren, A., suspension stability of blood 
in pulmonary tuberculosis, 366. 

Westphal, A., unusual motor symptoms in 
disseminated sclerosis, with reference to 
differential diagnosis from epidemic 
encephalitis, 248. 

White, C, sodium bicarbonate tolerance in 
normal and toxaemic pregnancies, 539. 

White, C. J., anaphylactic food reactions and 
eczema, 111. 

White, H. L., and Erlanger, J., effect on 
composition of blood of maintaining an 
increased blood-volume by intravenous 
injection of gum acacia in normal, 
asphyxiated, and shocked dogs, 273. 

Widal, F., et May, E., gonococcal septicaemia 
complicated with icterus, 211. 

Widal, P., Abrami, P., et lancoresco, N., 
effect of glucose on white blood count of 
diabetics, 498. 

Wiener, H. J. : see Mosenthal, H. 0., and 
Wiener, H. J. 

Wieting, wound diphtheria, 23. 

Wilder, R. M. : see Wagener, H. P., and 
Wilder, R. M. 

Wildhagen, K., primary round-celled sarcoma 
of lung, 317. 

Wile, U. J., syphilis of pancreas, 511. 

Williams, A. W. : see Park, W. H., Williams, 
A. W., and Krumwiede, C. 

Williams, A. W., Kevin, M., Gurley, C. R., 
methods of demonstrating micro- 
organisms including ' filtrable viruses ' 
from upper respiratory tract in ' health ' 
in 'common colds', and in 'influenza', 
with the object of discovering ' common 
strains', 267. 

Williams, A. W., Unneberg, A., Goldman, A., 
and Hussey, H. , relationship to upper 
respiratory infections of streptococci 
producing a green zone on standard 
blood-agar plates (Smith and Brown's 
alpha type), 267. 



Williams, J, W,, causation of foetal deaths, 
407, 
value of Wassermann reaction in pregnancy, 
409. 

Williams, 0. B. : see Simmons, J. S., Wearn, 
J. T., and Williams, 0. B. 

Williamson, R. T., dietetic treatment of 
diabetes, 505. 

van der Willigeu, A. M. M., purgative action 
of sulphur — of calomel — of phenol- 
phthalein, 180. 

Wilson, C. M. : see Pannett, C. A., and 
Wilson, C. M. 

Wilson, D, W., pyrimidine metabolism, 89, 

Wilson, G. H. : see Browning, C. H., and 
Wilson, G. H. 

Wilson, M. A. : see Smith, J. D., and Wilson, 
M. A. 

Wilson, S. A, K., on decerebrate rigiditj' in 
man and occurrence of tonic fits, 55. 

Wishart, M. B., experiments on carbohydrate 
metabolism and diabetes. III. Per- 
meability of blood corpuscles to sugar, 
86. 
see Allen, F. M., and Wishart, M. B. 

Wishart, M. B., and Pritchett, I. W., experi- 
mental studies in diabetes : gas bacillus 
infections in diabetic dogs, 273, 275. 

With, C, effects of light baths on vitiligo, 
111. 

De Witt, L, M., mercury compounds in 
chemotherapy of experimental tuber- 
culosis in guinea-pigs, 262. 
weight curves of tuberculous guinea-pigs, 
82. 

Witzemann, E. J., disodiumphosphate as 
a catalyst for quantitative oxidation of 
glucose to carbon dioxide with hydrogen 
peroxide, 178. 

Woglom, W. H. : see Russell, B. R. G., and 
Woglom, W. H. 

Wolf, C. G. L., influence of reaction of media 
and of presence of buffer salts on meta- 
bolism of bacteria, 66. 
see Ewing, J., and Wolf, C. G. L. 

Wolff, E. : see Neuberg, C, Nord, F. F., u. 
Wolff, E. 

Wollman, E., d'Herelle's phenomenon, trans- 
missible microbic autolysis of Bordet 
and Ciuca, and Darwin's theory of pan- 
genesis, 74. 

Woloshin, B., treatment of bronchial asthma 
by hypodermic injection of benzyl ben- 
zoate, 312. 

Wood, F. M., treatment of diphtheria by 
injectingdevitalizedKlebs-Loeffler bacilli 
and antitoxin, 30. 

Woodman, H. E., comparative investigation 
of corresponding proteins of cow and ox 
serum, cow's colostrum and cow's milk 
by method of protein racemization, 
575, 

Worner, E. : see Moog, 0., u. Worner, E. 

Wright, A. E., ' intertraction ' between 
albuminous substances and saline 
solutions, 577. 

Wu, H. : see Aub, .J. C, Cunningham, T. D., 
and Wu, H. 

Wulff, F. : see Thom&en, 0., u. Wulff, F. 



II. INDEX OF AUTHORS 



xliii 



Wulff, P., aneurysm of internal carotid after 

tonsillar abscess, 325. 
Wuth, G., biological effect of proteinogenous 

amines. A contribution to question of 

acetonitrile reaction, 578. 

Yamane, Jinshin, physical and chemical 
properties of horse semen in relation to 
physiology of spermatozoa, 477. 

Young, J., and Miller, D. A., eclampsia due 
to absorption of toxic products from 
degenerated portions of placenta, 544. 

Young, M. L., amoebic dysentery in London 
Children's Hospital, 400. 

Zanelli, P., action of continuous electric 
current on agglutinating sera, 355. 

Zappa, P., on normal leucocytic formula, 
169. 

Zeijdner, J. : see Storm van Leeuwen, W., and 
Zeijdner, J. 



Zeller, H. : see Herzog, F., u. Zeller, H. 
Zenoni, C, e Macchi, A., pulmonary strepto- 

thricosis, 316. 
Zielinski, C, treatment of typhus by intra- 
venous injection of patient's cerebrospinal 

fluid, 198. 
Zilva, S. S., action of ozone on fat-soluble 

factor in fats, 85. 
see Drummond, J. C, Goldin2, .J., Zilva, 

S. S., and Coward, K. H. 
Zlocisti, T., typhus in German Red Cross 

Hospital at Constantinople, 193. 
Zoeller : see De Lavergne et Zoeller. 
Zoepffel, H. : see Neumann, J., \i. Zoepffel, H. 
Zondek, S. G., importanceof colloidal nutrient 

solutions for normal, exhausted, and 

poisoned heart., 576. 
Zweifel, E., sacral anaesthesia, deaths from, 

525. 
theories as to cause of eclampsia, 537, 544. 
Zoller : see Rieux et Zoller. 



PRINTED AT OXFORD, ENGLAND 

BY FREDERICK HALL 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITV 



MEDICAL SCIENCE 

ABSTRACTS & REVIEWS 



Volume IV. Number 1 April 1921 



CONTENTS 

REVIEWS : page 

ALIMENTARY DISEASES 3 

DIPHTHERIA 18 

INJURY CAUSING SPASMODIC CONTRACTION OF SEGMENTS OF 

ARTERIES OF MEDIUM SIZE 33 

NON-TUBERCULOUS JUVENILE COXALGIA 38 

ANTERIOR DISLOCATION AT THE ELBOW 41 

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN 43 



ABSTRACTS : 

SURGERY ^2 

NEUROLOGY ^3 

PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 57 

BIOCHEMISTRY .^* 

RADIOLOGY AND ELECTROLOGY 91 



MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 

The viscount GOSCHEN, C.B.E. {Chairman) 

WILLIAM GEAHAM, M.P. 

The Hon. EDWAKD F. L. WOOD, M.P. {Treasurer) 

C. J. BOND, C.M.G., F.Pt.C.S. 

Professor WILLIAM BULLOCH, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 

T. R ELLIOTT, C.B.E., D.S.O., M.D., F.R.S. 

HENEY HEAD, M.D., F.E.S. 

Professor F. G. HOPKINS, D.Sc, F.E.C.P., F.E.S. 

Major-General SIE WILLIAM LEISHMAN, K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.S. 

Professor NOEL PATON, M.D., F.E.S. 

SIE WALTEE M. FLETCHEE, K.B.E., M.D., Sc.D., F.E.S. {Secretary). 



The Council are indebted to the following for editorial superintendence in 
the subjects named : 

Medicine . . . . J. D. EOLLESTON, M.D. 

Surgery . . . . W. G. SPENCEE, M.S., F.E.C.S. 

Pathology and Bacteriology W. BULLOCH, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 

Neurology . . . F. M. E. WALSHE, M.D. F.E.C.P. 

Radiology . . . W. S. LAZAEUS-BARLOW, M.D., F.E.C.P. 

SIDNEY RUSS, D.Sc. 

Biochemistry . . C. G. L. WOLF, M.D. 



All communications on editorial matters should be addressed to 

E. SCHUSTER, D.Sc, 
Assistant Secretary, Medical Research Council, 

National Institute for Medical Research, 

Hampstead, N.W. 3. 



REVIEWS 



ALIMENTARY DISEASES 

Jardet records four cases of parotid swelling occurring in adults 
characterized by sudden enlargement of tlie gland, which almost always 
occurred after the first meal of the day and rapidly increased duriiif 
mastication, its subsecjuent development depending on whether it was 
a primary attack or a relapse, and the character of the food. The swellino- 
was accompanied by local tension, restricted movement of the jaw, and some- 
times by pain, which was acute for the first half hour and dull afterwards, 
as in mumps. Contrary to what occurs in mumps, however, on pressure on 
the gland distinct lobulation could be felt, and occasionally a hard cord of the 
size of a pencil representing Steno's duct. Pressure on the gland caused 
expulsion of a plug of mucus followed by a (low of saliva. The affection 
usually starts the first week that a tooth-plate is worn, but it may occur 
later. It may last for some days, but usually disappears more or less 
completely the same day, and recurs the next and for five or six days in 
succession. It then subsides, but returns after an interval of a month or 
six weeks as the result of a chill, irritating food, or the onset of menstruation. 
The condition is due to the tooth-plate producing irritation of the gum and 
obstruction of the orifice of Steno's duct with subsequent retention of saliva. 
Cure is effected by removal of the tooth-plate and its careful readjustment, 
together with the use of a potassium chlorate mouth-wash. 

Gastric analysis. Briining, director of the Rostock University 
Children's Clinic, reports the results of about 300 examinations of the 
gastric contents in children aged from 2 to 15 years. While the total 
normal acidity in adults is 30-(jO and the average free hydrochloric acid is 
20-40, the average total acidity in children was found to be 48-8 and the 
free hydrochloric acid 14-3. Hardly any differences were noted between 
boys and girls, either in the upper or lower classes of society. On the other 
hand the figures rose as the age of the child advanced. Thus between 2 
and 10 years the total acidity was 46-9 and the free hydrochloric acid 11-5, 
and between 11 and 15 the total acidity was 52-8 and the free hydrochloric 
acid 20-1. During the war there was almost invariably a diminution of the 
hydrochloric acid values, as was found by other writers in adults. On 
ranging the children in two groups, according as their digestion was normal 
or diseased, it was found that the total acidity and free hydrochloric acid 
were higher in normal children than in those suSering from gastro-intestinal 
disturbance. There were no less than 63 cases, or 21 per cent., with hypo- 
chlorhydria or achlorhydria. It was a remarkable fact that 13 of the cases 
of achlorhydria had no gastro-intestinal symptoms, while the rest suft'ered 
from abdominal pain, diarrhoea, or constipation. 

IV. B 2 



4 REVIEWS 

As the result of a study of a larg^e number of cases, Rebfuss and Hawk 
found that the normal individual elaborates acid figures as high as those 
commonly associated with pathological conditions, no acid figures being- 
found in disease which exceeded the figures present under certain circum- 
stances in health. The average acid finding during the digestion of certain 
foods in the normal stomach was found to be within the range which is 
accepted by all clinicians as abnormal. It was found that approximately 
40 per cent, of normal individuals constantly show the acid titration 
findings of so-called hyperacidity. 

Dupuy describes the test of sham feeding introduced by Carnot in 1904 
as the practical application of Pavlov's well-known experiments. After 
preliminary catheterization of the stomach before breakfast to determine if 
there is any stasis, in which case the stomach is completely emptied, the 
patient is given an appetizing meal of ten minutes' duration, which he is told 
to masticate slowly without swallowing, the food and saliva being spat out 
after mastication into a special basin. He is then left for ten minutes, and 
told not to swallow but to spit out the saliva secreted. At the end of this 
time the catheter is passed again, and in normal cases 60-90 c.c. of clear 
fluid is withdrawn without any particles of food. The free hydrochloric 
acid varies from 1-64 to 1-80 and the total acid from 1-80 to 1-96. In seven 
out of eight cases of cancer of the stomach Dupuy found that the total acid 
was below 1 and that there was an absence of free hydrochloric acid. In 
gastric ulcer the quantity of gastric juice secreted after sham feeding was 
normal in the case of ulceration of the body of the stomacli, and generally 
increased in active or recently healed prepyloric or pyloric ulcer. In 
duodenal ulcer the secretion was usually increased. In dj'spepsia due to 
gall-stones there was an excess of secretion and of hydrochloric acid. In 
nervous dj'spepsia the secretion might be normal, exaggerated, or defective 
in amount and acidity. In tabes the secretion was often entirely absent. 

In alcoholism hj^perchlorhj'dria was usually present in the early stage, 
but later the amount of hydrochloric acid diminished, falling in extreme 
cases as low as 0-365. In tuberculosis with anorexia the quantity of gastric 
juice withdrawn after sham feeding was normal, but the fermentative 
activity of the gastric juice was still more diminished than its acidity. 
Dupuy concludes by saying that 'sham feeding' should be adopted as 
a routine method in the examination of gastric chemistry. 

Carnot describes the following three forms of plastic linitis according 
as the process affects the body of the stomach only or involves the orifices 
as well: (1) gastric linitis without involvement of the orifices; (2) cardio- 
gastric linitis ; (3) gastro-pyloric linitis. The characteristic features of the 
first form are microgastria, rigidity, and thickening of the wall of the 
stomach. The symptoms are dysphagia and regurgitation resulting from 
the small capacity of the stomach. In cardio-gastric linitis there is 
a rigidity of the cardiac orifice which is manifested by stenosis of the 
cardiac end of the stomach. The symptoms consist in dysphagia and 
regurgitation of mucus and food. The oesophageal bougie is arrested at the 
cardiac orifice or even higher up, at least 40 cm. from the teeth. Diagnosis 
of a new growth at the cardiac end of the stomach in such cases is therefore 
almost inevitable. In gastro-pyloric linitis there is a rigidity of the 
pyloric orifice, giving rise to pyloric incontinence which predominates over 
pyloric stenosis. 

Gastric and duodenal ulcer. In discussing the aetiology of gastric 



ALIMENTARY DISEASES 5 

and duodenal ulcer, Hurst states that he has seen a number of cases in which 
two or more brothers and sisters have suffered from gastric and duodenal 
ulcers, and still more in which brothers and sisters of a patient with 
a o-astric or duodenal ulcer have had symptoms of a similar character, 1 >ut so 
much less severe that it seemed impossible that actual ulceration was present. 
In one family the father and two out of nine children were dyspeptic and 
four others had typical symptoms of duodenal ulcer, one dying from 
a perforation. Hurst has never seen one meml)er of a family with 
a gastric ulcer and another with duodenal ulcer. This suggests that the 
types of stomach which predispose to the development of gastric and 
duodenal ulcer respectively are congenital, and either one or the other may 
exist in several members of a family. 

Albu also considers that a congenital predisposition to peptic ulcer 
exists, and remarks that all experienced practitioners have known families 
in which a so-called 'weak stomach' is transmitted from one generation to 
another. This condition is often nothing but a latent gastric or duodenal 
ulcer. In the pathogenesis of gastric and duodenal ulcer he distinguishes 
a series of different factors which include a predominant nervous or vago- 
tonic cause, insufficiency of the organs, and various occasional causes. 

According to Boas of Berlin, the frequency and severity of chronic 
gastric ulcer have recently shown a decided increase, which is manifested 
by the frequency of haematemesis, relapses, and perforation. It is natural 
to suppose that war diet is chiefly responsible for these complications, but 
Boas draws attention to another factor which has not received suflicient 
attention, namely, an increased amount of heavy work, particularly in 
women living in the country, who in the absence of then' husbands on 
military ser\-ice had to undertake work which was out of proportion to 
their strength. 

Nicolaysen reports ten cases of haemorrhagic erosions of the stomach 
or duodenum observed in the course of the last two years at the Rikshospital, 
Christiania. In six of the cases irritation of the vagus was produced during 
the course of the illness, which in every case was situated in the brain or its 
membranes. In a second group of three cases the disease involved the 
chest, the lungs and pleura being the seat of infiltrating processes. In the 
last case, one of peritonitis with empyema, there may have been involvement 
of the nerves of the stomach in the abdomen as well as in the thorax. 
Nicolaysen's results show that in most of the cases in which haemorrhagic 
erosions were found there had been irritation of the vagus or the possi- 
bility of such irritation. 

Rosier, of the Graz University Medical Clinic alludes to Schiff's recent 
article on the relation of gastric ulcer to plumbism (vide Medical Science, 
1920, 1, 584-5) and records a case in which a gastric ulcer developed as 
a sequel of a functional spastic hour-glass contraction in a woman aged 25, 
the subject of chronic plumbism. 

The occurrence of ascites in connexion with duodenal ulcer is an 
extremely rare event. Only one example of the kind occurred among 129 
cases of duodenal ulcer operated on by Haberer, a little free fluid being 
evacuated on laparotomy. Out of 121 cases of duodenal ulcer operated on 
by Finsterer, from whose paper this information is taken, in only two was 
there a large amount of ascites present. In one of them, however, there 
was hepatic cirrhosis, while in the other the liver was quite normal, but 
the ascites was due to compression of the portal vein. Complete recovery 



6 REVIEWS 

followed excision of the ulcer. The fact that duodenal ulcer may give rise 
to considerable ascites is of diagnostic and prognostic importance, because 
exploratory lapai'otomy which might reveal the true condition might be 
declined on the mistaken idea that mahgnant degeneration of the ulcer was 
responsible for the ascites. 

Brunn, Hitzenberger, and Saxl, recently examined 69 cases of gastric 
or duodenal ulcer which had been treated at the First Medical Clinic in 
Vienna between 1911 and 1919, and found that in both gastric and duodenal 
ulcer there is a period of complete absence of symptoms which alternates 
with a period in which symptoms are present. Even in this latent period 
objective signs, and especially X-ray changes, can be detected. The writers 
therefore conclude that only a xery small number of cases of gastric or 
duodenal ulcer can be regarded as cured. 

The value of the string test in the diagnosis of peptic ulcers and their 
location is illustrated by Einhorn (1). The test is performed as follows: 
The duodenal bucket, attached to a thread, a knot in which is made at the 
teeth, is swallowed in the evening after supper w^ith a glass of water. In 
the morning before breakfast it is slowly withdrawn and the thread is 
examined for blood spots and bile stains. The distance of the blood spots from 
the knot at the teeth will show the location of the ulcer. Thus a blood- 
stain at about 40 cm. (16 in.) points to an ulcer of the cardia ; from 44-54 cm. 
(17^-21^ in.), ulcer of the lesser curvature ; from 55-56 cm. (22-2.2f in.), ulcer 
of the pylorus ; 57 cm. (22^ in.) and more, duodenal ulcer. Einhorn regards 
the thread test as of importance not only in the recognition of the position 
of the ulcers, but also as a criterion of the efficiency of treatment, especially 
in determining whether a cure has been effected or not. 

According to H. Strauss, of Berlin, apart from certain rare X-ray find- 
ings, there is no single symptom really pathognomonic of duodenal ulcer. 
Since 1911 he has maintained that for practical purposes it is sufficient to 
make a diagnosis of parapyloric ulcer, a term which includes all ulcers on 
either side of the pylorus as well as in the pylorus itself, and that a diagnosis 
of this condition is more frequently correct than the difficult one of duodenal 
ulcer. He regards the triad of symptoms — hyperaesthesia, hypersecretion, 
and hypermotility as to a certain extent characteristic of the parapyloric 
symptom-complex. He considers hypersecretion as more important than 
hyperacidity. In his experience two-thirds to three-quarters of all cases of 
hypersecretion are due to a parapyloric affection. He points out that 
manifest or occult haemorrhages are by no means a necessary symptom of 
ulcer, the number of negative blood findings in the faeces varying with 
dift'erent writers from 25 to 50 per cent. On the other hand, he regards the 
undoubted presence of blood in the faeces as of very great diagnostic 
significance. 

Dunham maintains that visceral syphilis is frequently responsible for 
errors in the diagnosis of duodenal ulcer, and for the last five years has had 
a routine Wassermann reaction made on every patient with chronic digestive 
disturbance. If signs of syphilis are found after making a diagnosis of 
duodenal ulcer, the patient should be given thorough antisyphilitic treat- 
ment, even if the Wassermann reaction is negative. 

According to Ramond, pyloric spasm is a very frequent affection, but 
its symptoms, which are usually attenuated, readily escape notice. In some 
cases, however, they are verj?- pronounced. The causes of pyloric spasm may 
be local, reflex, or general. The local causes, which are the most numerous 



ALIMENTARY DISEASES 7 

and important, include gastritis, gastric ptosis, and badly masticated food. 
Retlex pyloric spasm is most frequently due to cholelithiasis and appendicitis, 
less frequently to renal calculus, pancreatic lithiasis, floating kidney, and 
constipation. General causes consist of intoxications, especially tobacco, and 
emotions. Two forms of pyloric spasm may be distinguished, viz. an inter- 
mittent form, which is much the commonest, and a continuous type. In the 
intermittent type the spasm may occur at the beginning of digestion or 
later. The patient has a sudden loss of appetite, and gaseous eructations 
occur with or without pyrosis and regurgitation of food. Nausea and 
vomiting are exceptional. In a few moments the spasm ceases and there is 
almost immediate relief. Continuous pyloric spasm, of which Ramond and 
Clement report an example, is manifested by continuity of all the above 
symptoms, the condition in course of time closely resembling pure pyloric 
stenosis with dilatation. 

Lichtenstein has come to some unorthodox conclusions concerning 
pylorospasm, 24: cases of which were treated at the Sachska Children's 
Hospital. These cases represent 1-9 per cent, of all the patients under one 
year. There were only 5 females to 19 males, and the numbers of breast- 
ted and artificially fed infants were approximately ec^ual. It was noted 
that, even in severe and perfectly typical cases, the pylorus might never be 
palpable. A palpable pylorus should therefore not be regarded as necessary 
to the diagnosis for wliich the triad, tonic vomiting, great loss of weight, 
and visible peristalsis of the stomach, are sufficient. [Special interest attaches 
to the case of twins, boys, one of whom developed typical pylorospasm at 
the age of two weeks, the other at the age of a month. The mortality, 
which various authors have put at 20 to 87 per cent., was in Lichtenstein's 
material only 4-1 per cent., and his single fatality was associated with 
cleft palate, wliich greatly interfered with the infant's feeds. His successes, 
achieved by dietetic and other conservative measures, are reflected in his 
disparaging discussion of operative treatment. He rejects the common 
view that pylorospasm is most frequent among breast-fed infants, and that 
artificial feeding is accordingly indicated. As a rule, he prefers small feeds 
at short intervals, i.e. 8-12 feeds of 25 to 75 grm., and he found that in 
some cases it was better to give human milk artificially, as sucking was apt 
to provoke pylorospasm. The two other principles he advocates are (1) 
replacement of the fluid lost in vomiting by rectal or subcutaneous injections 
of Ringer's solution, and (2) isolation to prevent the patient contracting 
influenza or any of the other intercurrent diseases responsible for many of 
the fatalities from pylorospasm. 

Cancer of the stomach. R. Strauss gives the following statistics of 190 
cases of undoubted gastric cancer from the Medical and Surgical University 
Clinic at Rostock. The paper, as Curschmann remarks in a footnote, 
though not containing anything really new, is of value, owing to its being 
based on a large number of cases. 67-6 per cent, of the cases occurred in 
men and 32-4 per cent, in women. No case was met with below the age 
of 30. 37-7 per cent, occurred between 50 and 60, and 89 per cent, between 
40 and 70. According to the histories considerably more than half the cases 
were in persons who had previously always had healthy stomachs, their 
first symptoms dating back to six months at most and usually only a few 
weeks. About one-fifth of the cases had formerly suffered from gastric dis- 
turbance or had had their first symptoms two years previously. Examination 
of the acid values in 160 cases gave the following results : free hydrochloric 



8 REVIEWS 

acid was present in about 19 per cent, and absent in 81 per cent. 78-6 
per cent, showed hypoacidity, 13-8 per cent, normal acidity, and 7-6 per 
cent, hyperacidity, 40-70 being reckoned as normal acidity, below 40 as 
hypoacidity, and above 70 as hyperacidity. 9 per cent, showed complete 
achlorhydria. 8 per cent, of the cases had developed on an old ulcer, as 
was shown by clinical and anatomical examination. As regards the 
frequency of the various symptoms, constipation was present in 60 per cent., 
vomiting in 60 per cent., anorexia in 71 per cent., blood in the gastric con- 
tents or faeces, including occult haemorrhage, in 64-7 per cent. In 91 per 
cent, of the cases which came to operation there was more or less marked 
emaciation. A distinctly circumscribed palpable tumour was found in 
60 per cent., and a more or less definite resistance in another 21 per cent., 
so that only 19 per cent, of the definite cases of carcinoma showed no 
evidence of a tumour on palpation before operation. 

Turretini and Gerber record a case of gastric cancer in a woman aired 
30 which was remarkable for the fact that it never caused the slightest 
pain or vomiting except during a period of jaundice, when vomiting took 
place. The only clinical symptoms of the tumour were thrombosis of the 
.right innominate and internal jugular veins which gave rise to considerable 
oedema of the face and arm, and progressive dyspnoea without any definite 
signs in the lungs, which suddenly developed a few days before death. The 
autopsy showed carcinoma of the stomach, generalized carcinoma of the 
pulmonary lymphatics and lungs, and thrombosis of the superior vena 
cava, innominate and internal jugular veins. 

A case of cancer of the stomach complicated by chylous ascites is reported 
by Hendricks in a man aged 72 who presented enlarged glands on the left 
side of the neck a few weeks before death. The necropsy revealed milky 
fluid in the abdominal cavity, cancer of the stomach, and metastases in the 
liver, lungs, mediastinal glands, and the glands in the left side of the neck. 
The thoracic duct was dilated. Hendricks has found that at least 10 per 
cent, of the recorded cases of chylous fluid in the thorax or abdominal 
cavity or both have been due to malignant disease. 

According to Vaurs, who has collected nine cases, including one of his 
own, perforation of the stomach is a rare complication of gastric cancer. 
It cannot be attributed to a special pathological form of the tumour, but it 
appears to be mainly due to the state of nutrition of the neoplastic tissue. 
Necrosis of the newly formed elements infiltrating the stomach wall takes 
place and a slough is formed which separates and so permits of communica- 
tion with the peritoneum, into which the septic contents of the stomach are 
discharged. The consequences of the perforation depend upon (a) the point 
of the stomach wall where sloughing has occurred, (b) the rapidity witli 
which the slough forms, and (c) the more or less marked reaction of the 
serous coat. According to the relative importance of the last two factors 
there occurs either a localized or a generalized peritonitis, the latter having 
all the appearances of an acute septic peritonitis. Massive infection of the 
peritoneum results, so that there is little chance of an operation being 
successful even if the condition is recognized at once. 

From a study of the blood-sugar tolerance test in health as well as in 
various aflectionsof the gastro-intestinal tract, Friedenwald and Grove have 
found that in gastro-intestinal carcinoma there is a rather characteristic 
curve of sugar tolerance which differs somewhat from that observed in 
carcinoma of other regions. The curve of this affection usually presents 



ALIMENTARY DISEASES 9 

a high sugar content, even in the fasting state, followed by an initial rise up 
to 0-24 per cent, or higher within 45 minutes after the ingestion of the 
dextrose, remaining at this level for at least 120 minutes and at no time 
during this period falling below 0-20 per cent. The writers consider that 
the sugar tolerance test may render valuable assistance in a large proportion 
of eases, as a means of differential diaofnosis between carcinoma and other 
diseases of the (rastro-intestiiial tract. 

Primary sarcoma of the stomach forms the subject of three important 
papers by Koettlitz, Basch, and Haggard respectively. Although Koettlitz 
regards the condition as comparatively rare, only 171 cases having been 
collected byGosset in 1912, Basch maintains that it is of more frequent 
occurrence than individual experience would lead one to infer. 244 authentic 
cases have been collected by Hagoard, including one of his own and 13 un- 
published cases from the Mayo Clinic. The condition may occur at any age, 
the youngest being in a boy aged 3^ years (Finlayson), and the oldest in 
a man of 85 (Gosset), but it is most frequent after 40. Of 66 cases in which 
the age is stated, 33 were in males and 33 in females. 

According to Koettlitz the diagnosis has never been made until operation 
or autopsy, except in Westphalen's case, in which microscopical examination 
showed the sarcomatous nature of a portion of the vomit. In the majority 
of cases the diagnosis has been carcinoma. Gastric sarcoma has also been 
mistaken for many other intragastric and extragastric conditions, such as 
tumours of the spleen, tuberculous abdominal glands, abscess of the liver, 
suppurative peritonitis, pancreatic growth, and benign peptic ulcer with 
secondary infiltrating tumour. The symptoms may be so indefinite that the 
condition may be attributed to simple dyspepsia, and sometimes there are no 
gastric symptoms whatever. This is due, as Basch points out, to the fact 
that the mucous membrane is not involved and that usually there are no 
obstructive changes. As a rule there are anorexia and gastric pain, and 
there is always more or less considerable loss of Hesh. Vomiting occurs in 
20 per cent. Haematemesis and melaena are frequent, especially in the 
round cell variety, though less so than in carcinoma. Reports as to the 
gastric chemistry differ. Whereas Gosset found a complete absence of hydro- 
chloric acid, Monti states that hydrochloric acid does not disappear till late. 
The only definite symptom is a tumour which was present in 66 out of 72 
cases (Ziesche and Davidson). Haggard regards rapid development of anaemia 
and debility with loss of weight and cachexia, early rather severe and more or 
less persistent pain in the epigastrium, and the absence of any long-standing- 
history of dyspepsia and pyloric obstruction, as suggestive of sarcoma. Gastric 
sarcoma is generally less malignant than carcinoma. According to Basch, the 
average duration of round cell sarcoma, wdiich is the most malignant type, is 
about 15 months, that of the spindle cell type 24-32 months, and that of 
myxosarcoma 3-| years (see also Medical Science, 1920, 1, 585-6). 

According to Du Bray, of the University of California, confirmed cases 
of gastric polyposis are comparatively unusual, though he suggests that 
some of the vague and obscure conditions of the stomach which have been 
diagnosed as chronic gastritis or gastric neurosis might on further examina- 
tion prove to be examples of benign tumours of the gastric wall. The term 
gastric polyposis includes adenomas, fibromas, lipomas, myomas, and papil- 
lomas, which may all form polypoid tumours, in some of which the connective 
tissue predominates and in others the glandular elements. Polyadenoma 
and papilloma are the most important primary benign tumours of the 



10 REVIEWS 

stomach, the others being extremely rare. Gastric polyposis is frequently 
associated with other morl)id conditions such as gastritis, hypertensive 
cardiac disease, and syphilis. It is commonest in men past middle age. 
There are no pathognomonic symptoms, although there is sometimes 
suggestive evidence of the disease. Clinical manifestations depend 
principally on the size, position, and nature of the growth, and especially its 
relation to the pyloric end of the stomach. Non- pedunculated masses on 
the greater curvature may remain latent or more commonly produce vague 
epigastric symptoms followed by a desire to belch and eventually to vomit. 
The sj^mptoms do not appear to have any relation to meals. The vomit 
contains an excessive amount of mucus, in which sometimes a polyp may 
be found, and enable a diagnosis to be made before operation. There is 
usually achylia gastrica or hypoacidity^ Pedunculated growths, of which 
Novak reports an example, and, less frequently, non-pedunculated growths 
near the pylorus may prolapse and give rise to partial or complete pyloric 
obstruction. Haemorrhage due to the great vascularity of the growths is 
frequent but remains long unrecognized, occult blood being found in the 
fasting contents of the stomach and in the stools. The general nutrition, 
weight, and blood picture are less affected as a rule than in carcinoma. Long 
duration of the symptoms with little or no change in the general health is 
strong evidence against the presence of malignant disease, and should 
suggest the possibility of a benign tumour. 

According to Neuber, three forms of gastric luyomata may be described. 
The first, which is situated at the pylorus, is manifested hy symptoms of 
pyloric obstruction which may simulate gastric ulcer or carcinoma. The 
second form is a subserous myoma which grows outwards into the abdominal 
cavity and may be mistaken for an intestinal or omental tumour on the one 
hand or for a tumour of the pancreas or retroperitoneal glands on the other. 
The third form, of which Neuber reports an example, is a pedunculated 
tumour which projects into the cavity of the stomach, where it gives rise to 
attacks of cramp and vomiting and is apt to be mistaken for gastric ulcer 
or cancer. Clinical examination shows occult haemorrhage and occasionally 
a palpable tumour. 

Lemon reports a case of angioma of the stomach of which he has found 
only five other cases on record. The patient was a medical man aged 67, in 
whom the clinical and X-ray diagnosis was carcinoma of the stomach. In 
spite of a systolic blood-pressure of 220-240 and an aneurysmal dilatation 
of the aorta, an operation was performed and a freely movable tumour, which 
proved to be an angioma, was found in the fundus of the stomach. Six 
months after removal of the tumour the patient was in good health and 
engaged in his medical practice. 

Gas cysts of the abdomen. Numerous articles have recently been 
published, especially by French writers such as Tufiier and Letulle, De Gery, 
Lenormant, Stoyanovitch, Cristol and Porte, and Weil, on the condition 
known as gas cysts of the abdomen, intestinal pneumatosis or cystic 
pneumatosis of the intestine. In this country Nitch and Shattock have 
described two cases under the name of diftuse emphysema of the intestinal 
wall. The condition is a rare one, only 70 cases having been recorded 
(Weil) since the first human case was reported by Bang in 1876, although 
a case in a healthy pig had been published by Mayer in 1825. The affection 
consists in the development in the abdominal cavity or peritoneum of gas- 
containing cj^sts, which are usually multiple, their size varying from 



ALBIENTARY DISEASES 11 



microscopical dimensions to that of a hazel nut or a lien's e^g. Their 
contents consist of a mixture of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, and 
nitrogen in varying proportions. Their seat of election is the intestine, but 
in some instances tlie alimentary canal is not affected and the cysts are 
localized in the mesentery, omentum, or parietal peritoneum. The condition, 
which has been found between the ages of 13 and 67, may occur by itself, 
but as a rule is associated with a gastric ulcer, especially one which has 
reached the cicatricial or stenotic stage. Thus of 54 cases collected \>y Weil, 
in 32 there was an ulcer of the gastro-duodenal region which in 72 per cent, 
of the cases was stenotic. The other abdominal conditions sometimes 
associated with these cysts are intestinal tuberculosis, cancer of the pylorus, 
appendicitis, and gastro-enteritis. Owing to the variety of the s^-mptoms, 
four forms of the affection have been described by Weil, viz.: (1) a pseudo- 
appendicular form in which the symptoms resemble appendicitis, (2) 
a peritoneal form simulating tuberculous peritonitis or acute perforative 
peritonitis, (3) a form resembling acute or chronic intestinal obstruction as 
in the ca.se reported by Cristol and Porte, (4) a form simulating an abdoniiaal 
tumour. Owing to the difficulties of diagnosis it is not surprising to learn 
that of 57 cases collected by Lenormant, 36 were not discovered till operation 
and 21 till autopsy. Weil, however, attaches great diagnostic value to 
considerable distension of the abdomen associated with a soft and easily 
depressible abdominal wall. Other signs which have been described as 
characteristic are a sensation of elastic resistance, peritoneal crepitation, 
abdominal transparency on X-ray examination, and the presence of gaseous 
ascites. Various theories, according to Stoyanovitch, have been proposed to 
explain the formation of the cysts. The mechanical theory that tliey are 
due to the passage of the intestinal gas into the subserous tissue is negatived 
by the nature of the gas, which resembles atmospheric air, and b}'- the 
localization of cysts in other situations than the intestines. The theory 
that the cysts are tumours formed at the expense of the lymphatics fails to 
explain the presence of gas. The microbial theory, which appears to be the 
most probable, is supported by Dupraz, who isolated a liquefying coccus 
which on injection into a bitch reproduced the cysts in tlie vagina. 

Singer of Vienna, describes two cases of gastro-iutestmal haemorrhage 
in polycythaemia hypertonica and syphilitic aortitis respectively, and draws 
attention to the fact that various vascular changes associated with high 
blood-pressure such as arteriosclerosis and post-syphilitic vascular disease 
may lead to severe gastro-intestinal haemorrhage which suggests the 
presence of ulceration. He points out that whereas ulcers due to erosion of 
large blood-vessels require operation, haemorrhages due to blood and arterial 
diseases should be a noli me tangere for the surgeon, and suggests that the 
unexplained cases of gastro-intestinal haemorrhage described by Hale White, 
Reichard, and others, may be connected with disease of the blood and 
vascular system. 

Commenting on Singer's paper, von Sohlern of Stuttgart, reports 
a case of intestinal haemorrhage in a woman, aged 47, in wliich all the 
ordinarj^ causes of haemorrhage could be excluded. He emphasizes the 
importance in such cases of making a careful examination of the whole 
body, especially of the cardio-vascular system, and not only of the intestinal 
tract. 

Fritzsche records two fatal cases of primary parenchjaiiatous haemo- 
rrhage from the stomach in women aged 38 and 42 respective J}^ for which 



12 REVIEWS 

no local or general cause could be found either clinically or on post-mortem 
examination. 

Farnell and Harrinoton record a series of 47 cases of acute infectious 
enteritis complicated by polj^neuritis, the cases being classified m three 
groups. In the iirst, which consisted of 19 cases, the gastro-intestinal 
symptoms were well-marked, and the polyneuritis was also prominent. In 
the second group, which consisted of seven cases, the gastro-intestinal 
vsymptoms were serious, and in one case fatal, but the neuritic symptoms 
were less severe. In the third group, which comprised 21 cases, the gastro- 
intestinal disturbance was the principal feature, only a few patients 
developing polyneuritis. Bacteriological examination showed that the 
condition was due to a virulent, rapidly growing staphylococcus introduced 
into the gastro-intestinal tract, this organism being found in the milk, 
throat cultures, blood, and urine. Pathologically there were acute haemo- 
rrhagic enteritis, multiple focal necroses of infectious origin in the liver, and 
acute haeraorrhao-ie neuritis. 

Friedman, who reports an illustrative case, classifies cases of non- 
specific intestinal infection into three groups, viz. (a) small intestine 
catarrhs, (b) diftuse processes involving both small and large intestine, and 
(c) colitis. The characteristics of ((() are meteorism, belching, and colicky 
jjain, and, especially in involvement of the jejunum and ileum, light brown 
or yellowish-brown foaming acid stools with a sour odour. Continuous 
diarrhoea with tormina is evidence of type (b), and the stools become 
smaller and more numerous as the sigmoid and rectum become irritated. 
In type (c), while there may be alternating constipation and diarrhoea, in 
the more frequent irritable form there is a stubborn diarrhoea similar to 
dysentery, with blood in the stools and often accompanied by fever. 

Antoine devotes his Paris thesis to a description of severe forms of 
inflammation of the rectum and colon which resemble dj'sentery in their 
symptoms and anatomical lesions but difier from it in their aetiology, which 
often remains undetermined. In addition to recto-colitis of syphilitic, 
tuberculous, uraemic, or toxic nature, there are cases in which examination 
of the stools shows various parasites such as lamblia, spirilla, trichomonas, 
Balantldium coli, parathyphoid and paradysentery bacilli, and salmonellae. 
Clinically the cases may be grouped into haemorrhagic, purulent, and mixed 
forms. The gravity of the attack does not appear to be due to the causal 
agent or to the anatomical lesions, but to the clinical course of the disease, 
which is characterized by repeated and profuse haemorrhage or suppuration, 
a protracted course and an absence of any tendency to respond to the usual 
treatment. The condition may last for several years with subacute inter- 
current exacerbations, and does not fail to give rise to marked loss of flesh, 
intense anaemia, and general enfeeblement. The most frequent complication 
is a hypertrophic reaction of the intestinal wall giving rise to extensive 
stenosis of the large intestine. Complications of an infective nature are less 
frequent, such as perforation and peritonitis, high fever, suprarenal in- 
competence, joint lesions, or venous thrombosis. 

The first section of Bloch's work is an attempt to clear the ground with 
regard to the aetiology of infantile diarrhoea. In his discussion of Czerny's 
and Finkelstein's theories, which place bacteriological activity more or less 
in the background, and which trace all the symptoms of infantile diarrhoea 
to the chemical action of the food and its decomposition products, Bloch 
remarks that these theories have involved their sponsors in a tangle of con- 



ALIMENTARY DISEASES 13 

tiadictions from which many authorities are straying; back to the simpler 
theory of infection. Bloch qualifies his adherence to this teaching with the 
reservation that no irrefutable evidence has yet been produced, proving that 
infantile diarrhoea is due to infection. 

On the assumption that this diarrhoea is due to infection, Bloch raises 
the further question : Is it possible clinically to distinguish between various 
cases of infantile diarrhoea according to their bacteriological aetiology in 
the same way that the diarrhoea of typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery and 
paradysentery can be clinically distinguished ? Bloch's material includes all 
the cases of. acute gastro-intestinal disease in infancy observed at the 
Rigshospital in the period 1911-18 inclusive. The classification adopted was 
clinical. (1) Acute dyspepsia, with 85 cases and no deaths. {'J) Acute 
gastro-enteritis, 310 cases with a mortality of 24 per cent. (3) Acute gastro- 
enteritis, complicated by chronic dyspepsia or infantile atrophy, 77 cases, 
with a mortality of 30 per cent. (4) Symptomatic diarrhoea, i.e. cases 
(figures not given) in which the diarrhoea was merely an incident of 
a disease outside the digestive system. 

In 461 of all these cases bacteriological examinations of the faeces were 
made. In 21 or about 10 per cent, of all the cases of acute gastro-enteritis 
examined bacteriologically, paradysenterj^ bacteria were found ; these cases 
were scattered over several years and did not represent a single epidemic. 
In onp case tj'phoid bacilli, and in five cases paratyphoid bacilli were found ; 
but these, too, were isolated cases, not the result of a single outbreak. The 
clinical manifestations of 21 cases of paradj^sentery varied greatly; some 
were severe and some were exceedingly mild. In 14 out of 18 cases of 
acute paradysenteric gastro-enteritis, blood w^as demonstrable in the motions, 
but there were many other cases of haemorrhagic motions in which para- 
dj^sentery could be excluded. The clinical course of the six typhoid or 
paratyphoid cases was more uniform. In every case the onset of the disease 
was sudden, and the diarrhoea and vomiting were accompanied by slight 
fever. Apart from the bacteriological evidence in these cases, there w^as no 
sign of typhoid fever, such as a roseola or enlargement of the spleen. The 
clinical picture was that of mild, non-specific gastro-enteritis. The B. proteus 
was found in 52 out of 128 cases of acute gastro-enteritis and in 95 out of 
244 cases of acute dyspepsia and symptomatic diarrhoea. Bloch concludes 
that the clinical picture, epidemicity, and the pathological-anatomical 
findings in infantile diarrhoea are the same whether pathogenic bacteria are 
found in the faeces or not. Acute gastro-enteritis in infancy is due to 
infection, but not to any specific infection. In most cases coliform bacilli, 
not pathogenic to adults or children over a certain age, are probably the 
cause of this disease. In a minority of cases the disease is due to micro- 
organisms pathogenic to adults. 

Pseudo-ascites in children suffering from prolonged enteritis seems to 
have been first described by Tobler in 1914, and other reports of the syndrome 
have appeared since. Segagni now reports four cases in which were present 
(a) very chi'onic diarrhoea, (6) enlargement and flattening of the abdomen, 
(c) some degree of fluctuation and shifting dullness, and {d) very large 
amounts of fluid in the bowel, but no excess of peritoneal fluid. The children 
were all wasted and cachectic and the general appearance closely simulated 
tuberculous peritonitis, for which several recorded cases have been operated 
upon. Cure appears to be long and tedious and is not specifically dealt with 
by Segagni. 



14 REVIEWS 

Barsony records two cases in Avhicli an extreme elongation and dilata- 
tion of the colon gave rise to difficulty in swallowing, owing to pressure on 
the subphrenic portion of the oesophagus. Tn the first case, which occurred 
in a man aged 54, the condition of the colon was found to be secondary to 
carcinoma of the rectum, which had hitherto not caused any symptoms. 
After colostomy in the lower part of the descending colon the dysphagia 
disappeared. In the second case, which occurred in a man aged 40, the 
dilatation of the colon was apparently due to intestinal paresis following 
enteritis, and was cured by a course at Carlsbad. 

Treatment. The following modification of Sippey's method of treat- 
ment of gastric or duodenal ulcer has been adopted by Hurst : 5 oz. of milk 
(or preferably milk and cream in equal quantities) are given every hour 
from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. inclusive. To each feed gr. x of sodium citrate 
dissolved in 2 drachms of emulsio magnesiae are added. Immediately before 
alternate feeds, beginning at 7.30 a.m., ^ oz. of olive oil is taken. This inhibits 
the secretion of gastric juice and also supplies a digestible and absolutely 
unirritating food of very high nutritive character in a concentrated form. 
Immediatelv before the remaining: feeds Cl)v tinct. belladonnae. which has 
a similar inhibiting effect, are given, as oil before each feed sometimes gives 
rise to nausea. Half an hour after each feed, and at 9, 9.30, and 10 p.m., 
a powder containing gr. x calcium carbonate and gr. xxx bismuth carbonate 
is taken in a little water. At 6 a.m. \ oz. of bismuth carbonate, shaken up 
but not suspended in 5-10 oz. of water, is swallowed and the patient then 
lies on his right side or in such a position that the bismaith comes in contact 
with the ulcer. This forms a protective covering to the ulcer and at the 
same time neutralizes any acid present and calls forth a secretion of pro- 
tective mucous. The stomach contents are thus kept neutral or alkaline 
from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. At 11 p.m. the stomach is completely emptied by 
Senoran's evacuator ; if not more than 2 oz. are present on two consecutive 
nights, this can be discontinued. If half a pint or more is removed at 
11 p.m., the stomach should be evacuated again at 1 a.m. At 11 p.m. atropin 
sulphate gr. -^^ is injected subcutaneously to inhibit the further secretion 
of gastric juice. At the same time the alkaline pow^der should be repeated 
every two hours through the night. This treatment should be continued 
until for three weeks the patient has had no spontaneous pain, no trace of 
tenderness has been present, no occult blood has been found in the stools, 
not more than 2 oz. of fluid have been removed on any one evening, and 
the X-rays showed no evidence of active ulceration. The diet can now be 
rapidly increased until at the end of a week everything is taken with the 
exception of chemically irritating substances, such as alcohol, vinegar, 
mustard, pepper, pickles, &c. 

Various physicians, such as Hurst in England, Albu in Germany, and 
Bastedo in America, deprecate surgical interference in the treatment of 
gastric or duodenal ulcer until a thorough medical treatment has been tried, 
on the grounds of the risks of the operation, the tendency to recurrences 
and unpleasant after-effects, such as hernia, rectus diastasis, gastro-intestinal 
fistula, and peritoneal adhesions. Albu remarks that the majority of patients 
in whom the operation has been unsuccessful do not return to the surgeon 
but consult a physician, especially if a long time has elapsed since the 
operation without improvement taking place. Bastedo maintains that 
a case should only be regarded as surgical when it continues to show (1) 
persistent recurrent haemorrhage even small in amount ; (2) pain ; (3) 



ALIMENTARY DISEASES 15 

nausea ; (4) pylorospasm of such persistence as to simulate pyloric stenosis ; 

(5) inability to ingest comfortably ordinary wholesome foods or to take 
enough food to maintain nutrition while leading a normally occupied life ; 

(6) recurrence after an apparent cure. Other indications for operation men- 
tioned by Hurst and Albu are perforation, hour-glass contraction, chronic 
peritoneal adhesions, and the possibility of a growth being present. 

Crohn and Reiss studied the eti'ects of restricted or so-called ulcer diets 
on gastric secretion and mortality, and found that only a small percentage 
reacted to medical treatment by showing a reduction of acid produced 
during digestion. Clinical improvement, however, took place independently 
of whether the hyperacidity was relieved or not. A similar conclusion was 
arrived at with regard to hypersecretion, as improvement occurred as often 
in cases with persistent hypersecretion as in those relieved of their excessive 
flow of gastric juice, and was apparently not dependent upon it. As regards 
the relationship between improved gastric motility and clinical relief, in 
11 out of 13 cases of delayed motility treatment alleviated this symptom 
and reduced the emptying time to normal. All these 11 cases w^ere also 
■ freed from subjective complaints. No explanation could be given of the 
relief of symptoms in cases not complicated by delayed motility in -which 
the h3'peracidity and hypersecretion were not affected by treatment. 

Eight benign cases of impermeable cardiospasm, by which is meant 
failure of food to enter the stomach in the normal way, absence of organic 
stricture, and impossibility of reaching the stomach by the usual gastric 
tube or bougie, vrere treated b}^ Einhorn (2) with retrograde stretching of 
the cardia soon after a previous course of duodenal alimentation. The 
stretching is done first by the pjdoric dilator, every other day or twice 
a week, the dilator being introduced at bed-time supplemented by a dose of 
atropin and the stretching done the following morning. After a few 
stretchings the dilator enters the stomach in a much shorter time. 

Einhorn (3), who had previously recorded a case of duodenal perforation 
successfully treated b}^ duodenal (jejunal) alimentation, reports another 
successful case in a man aged 50. After three wrecks of jejunal alimentation 
the tube was pulled up to some extent, so that the capsule end was situated 
in the duodenum proper. It w-as found that duodenal alimentation suited 
the patient much better, as he did not lose weight as he did on jejunal 
feedinsf. 

According to Bensaude and Vicente, rectal injections of a solution of 
extract of bile causes an increase of peristalsis in the terminal portion of the 
large intestine, resulting in the evacuation of the contents of the rectum 
and sigmoid. This action is purely excitomotor and is not accompanied by 
any excess of intestinal secretion. The use of bile enemata is therefore 
indicated in temporary or habitual constipation when single enemata or 
laxatives are ineffective. Powdered bile in doses of 4-5 grm. in i litre of 
water does not produce any rectal pain or irritation, even wdien employed 
for several weeks, and its habitual use does not interfere with its efficacy. 

AI.BU, A. Zur Diagnose und Therapie des Ulcus duodeni. Ztschr. f. (irztl. 
Fortbild., 1920, 17, 633-40. 

ANTOnnE:, E. Les recto-oolites graves (I'ecto-colites hemorragiques et recto- 
oolites purulentes). llieses cle Paris, 1919-20, 113. 

BABSomr, T. Schluckbeschwerden bei Dickdarniprozessen. Wien. Win. 
Wchnschr., 1920, 33, 729-30. 



16 REVIEWS 

Basch, S. Primary sarcoma of the stomach. N. YorJc ill. J., 1920, 112, 
9-13. 

Bastedo, W. a. Determination of the need of surgery in peptic ulcer, with 
remarks on gastro-enterostomy. Am. J. 31. Sc, 1920, 160, 491-503. 

Bensavde, K.., et Vicente, M. Les lavements de bile dans le traitement de 
la constipation. Bull, et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. de Far., 1919, 3e ser , 43, 932-9. 

BI.OCH, C. E. JEtiologien til de akute Fordoielseslidelser hos det spade Barn 
og disse Lidelsers Inddeling og Behandling. UgesTc. f. Lager., 1920, 82, 745-64. 

Boas, I. Die Behandlung des runden Magengeschwurs. Ztschr. f. arztl. Fort- 
Uld., 1920, 17, 333-9. 

Bruniitg, H. Ueber Mageninhaltsuntersuchungen bei Kindern. Beutsche med. 
Wchnsclir., 1920, 46, 883-4. 

Beunn, p., Hitzenbergee, K., u. Saxl, P. Ueber die Periodizitat der 
Erscheinungen beim Magen- und Zwolffingerdarmgeschwiir. Wicn. Jdm. 
Wchnschr., 1920, 33, 228-31. 

Caritot, p. Les syndromes cliniques et radiologiques de la linite gastrique. 
Paris med., 1919, ii, 481-6. 

Cristoi. et Porte. Les kystes gazeux de I'abdomen. Presse med., 1919, 27, 
726-7. 

Crohn, B. B., and B.eiss, J. Effects of restricted (so-called ulcer) diets upon 
gastric secretion and motility. Atn. J. M. Sc, 1920, 159, 70-93. 

Du Bray, E. S. Gastric polyposis (papillomatosis). Report of a case with 
operation and presumable cure. Arch. Int. Med., 1920, 26, 221-31. 

Dunham, J. H. Errors in the diagnosis and treatment of duodenal ulcer. 
Am. J. M. Sc., 1920, 160, 647-51. 

DuPUY. Epreuve du repas fictif en pathologie gastrique. Paris med., 1920, .. 

286-91. 

EiNHOEN, M.{1). Further experience with the string test. J. Am. M. Ass., 

1919, 73, 1509-10. 

EiNHORN, M. (2). On retrograde stretching in treatment of impermeable cardio- 
spasm. Med. Bee., 1920, 97, 983-6. 

EiNHORN, M. (3). Duodenal perforation (fistula) treated by duodenal (jejunal) 
alimentation. Another case. /. Am. M. Ass., 1920, 74, 790-1. 

Farneli., p. J., and Harrington, A. H. Acute infectious enteritis with a 
polyneuritic syndrome. Am. J. M. Sc, 1920, 160, 52-61. 

PiNSTERER, H. Ulcus duodeni mit Pfortaderkompression und Ascites. 
Wien. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 70, 273-7. 

Priedenwald, J., and Grove, G. H. The blood-sugar tolerance test as an aid 
in the diagnosis of gastro-intestinal cancer. Am. J. M. Sc, 1920, 160, 313-23. 

Friedman, J. C. Chronic non-specific entero-colitis, 3Ied. Clin. N. America, 

1920, 3, 1699-1707. 

Pritzsche, R. Ueber todliche primilre parenchymatose Magenblutungen. 

Berl. Uin. Wchnschr., 1919, 56, 747-51. 

De Gery, C. p. Les kystes gazeux de Tabdomen. Gas. d. hop., 1919, 92, 

1229-33. 



ALIMENTARY DISEASES 17 

Hagoabd, W. D. Sarcoma of the stomach, with report of a case and an 
analysis of 107 cases operated on. Surg , Gynec, ^- Ohst., 1920, 31, 505-11. 

Hendricks, H. V. Chylous ascites due to carcinoma of the stomach. J. Am. 
M. Ass., 1920, 74, 869-70. 

HuBST, A. p. New views on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of gastric 
and duodenal ulcer. Brit. M. J., 1920, i, 559-63. 

Jabdet. Hvdroparotides intermittenles causees par les dentiers. J. cle med. 
cf chit: prat, 1920, 91, 307-12. 

KoETTLiTZ, H. Un cas de sarcome de Testomac. Arch. mccl. helg., 1919, 72, 
136-43. 

Lemon, W. S. Angioma of the stomach. JSIcd. Bcc, 1920, 97, 220-2. 

Lenobmant, C. Les kystes gazeux de Tabdomen. Presse mod., 1920, 28, 
104-7. 

LiCHTENSTEiN, A. Nagra ord om pylorospasm och pylorus behandling. 
Hijgeia, 1919, 81, 627-32. 

Neubeb, E. Die Operation eines gestielten Magenmyoms. Wien. Tdin. 
Wchnschr., 1920, 33, 838-40. 

NicoiiAYSEN, K. Irritation of the vagus and haemorrhagic erosions of the 
stomach. Arch. Int. Med., 1920, 25, 295-305. 

NzTCH, C. A. R., and Shattock, S. G. Diffuse emphysema of the intestinal 
wall (two cases), with remarks upon pneumatosis. Proc. Bog. Soc. Med., 1919, 
12, Sect. Path , 46-86. 

Novak, E. Polypoid adenoma of the stomach. Removal by gastrotomy. 
J. Am. 31. Ass., 1920, 74, 871-2. 

B.AMOND, F. Le spasme du pylore (pylorospasme). Presse med., 1920, 28, 
273-5. 

Ramond, F., et Clement, R. Spasme pylorique continu et dilatation gas- 
trique. Bull, et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. de Par., 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 616-19. 

REHFUS3, M. E., and Hawk, P. A study of hyperacidity. Am. J. M. Sc, 
1920, 160, 428-33. 

RosZiEB, O. A. i'ber die Beziehungen der chronischen Bleivergiftung zum 
Magengeschwiir (Beitrag zur Frage der Ulcuspathogenese). Med, Klin., 1920, 
16, 1057-60. 

Seoagni, S. La pseudoascite nei bambini. PolicUn., 1920, 27. Sez. Prat., 
431-4. 

SiNGEB, G. Hypertonlsche Magen-Darmblutung (1. Polycythaemia hyper- 
tonica. 2. Aortitis syphilitica). Miinchen. med. Wchnschr., 1919, 66, 1165-7. 

V. S0HI.EBN. Uber Darmblutungen. Med. Klin., 1920, 16, 753-5. 

Stoyanovitch, M. D. Kystes gazeux de Tintestin. Theses de Paris, 1918-19, 
230. 

Stbauss, H. Uber Ulcus parapyloricum. Die Therap. d. Gegemv., 1920, 
N. F., 22, 379-85. 

Stbauss, R. Zur Diagnose des Magenkarzinoms (unter besonderer Beriick- 
sichtigung der Sekretionsbefunde). Berl. Idin. Wchnschr., 1920, 57, 251-4. 
IV. C 



18 REVIEWS 

TuRRETTiNi, G., et Gerber, I. Cancer precoce d'estomac et lymphangite 
cancereuse pulmonaire generalisee. Jiev. med. de la Suisse Rom., 1920, 40, 
177-84. 

Vaurs, R. Perforation de I'estoraac cancereux par sphacele de la paroi. 
Theses de Paris, 1919-20, 71. 

ViCEWTE, M. Les lavements de bile dans la constipation. Tlieses de Paris, 
1919-20, 18. 

WeiI:, M. p. La pneumatose cystique de I'intestin : etude clinique. Ann. de 
med., 1920, 8, 11-29. 

J. D. R. 

C. L. 

G. W. 



DIPHTHERIA 

Epidemiology. Dubourg and Guenavd give statistics showing the 
mortality from diphtheria at the Children's Hospital at Bordeaux during 
the thirty years 1888-1917. In 1888 and 1889 the eases were nursed in 
a general ward with an average mortality of 49 per cent, and a maximum 
mortality of 54 per cent, in 1888. From 1890 to 1893 the cases were 
admitted to a special block, and there was a decided fall in the mortality, 
since it was 35 per cent, during this period. In 1894, with the creation of 
separate cubicles for each patient, it fell to 19'4 per cent., the lowest figure 
reached before the introduction of antitoxin. Since 1895, when antitoxin 
was first employed, the average mortality has been 7*28 per cent, with 
a maximum of 15-5 per cent, in 1899-1900, and a minimum of 1-53 per cent, 
in 1907 (3 deaths among 195 cases). The number of operations for laryngeal 
diphtheria has also fallen considerably; in 1894 56 per cent, of the admis- 
sions required tracheotomy. After the introduction of serum and before 
intubation became current the annual average of tracheotomies fell to 9-87 
per cent, of the admissions. After the introduction of intubation the 
number of operations including both intubation and tracheotomy was 15-34 
per cent, of the admissions. 

Huntemiiller records an epidemic of diphtheria in the 19th Bavarian 
Infantry Regiment fighting in Lorraine, and considers the causes of the out- 
break to be as follows: (1) the general diminution of resistance due to the 
hard work involved in building the trenches, insanitary quarters, and bad 
weather ; (2) the local irritation of the chalk dust produced while working. 
After the trenches had been completed there was a steep fall in the morbidity. 
That this was the effect of increased resistance of the troops and not the 
result of a diminution of the infectivity or virulence of the diphtheria 
bacilli was shown by the large number of carriers who were subsequently 
discovered and by the occurrence of a fatal case. 

Aetiology. In view of Savage's recent contention that there is no 
foundation for the popular belief that cats may suffer from diphtheria 
(vide Medical Science, 1920, 2, 358-9), the case reported by Simmons 
is of considerable interest. The patient was an elderly lady who de- 
veloped a fatal attack of faucial diphtheria after fondling a cat which 



DIPHTHERIA 19 

had been ill one week before her illness began. The cat was said to 
have liad a croupy cough, to have been unable to swallow food, and to 
have become very thin. Throat cultures from the cat and from the 
patient showed morphologically similar organisms resembling diphtheria 
bacilli, and their virulence for guinea-pigs was the same. The cat was 
killed, and a post-mortem examination revealed a small ulcer covered with 
a yellowish membrane on the upper surface of the left nasal fossa, cultures 
from which yielded diphtheria bacilli. No lesions in the internal organs 
were found. A second cat which had played with the first and yielded 
a throat culture showing morphologically typical diphtheria bacilli, died 
after eight days' confinement in a cage and pod onortem showed small 
membranous patches on the vocal cords, from which virulent diphtheria 
bacilli were grown. The history of contact, dates of infection, and bacterio- 
lofifical findinofs suofoested that the first cat was the source of infection of 
the patient as well as of the second cat, though this could not be absolutely 
proved. It was certain, however, that both cats were carriers of virulent 
diphtheria bacilli and were therefore a danger to human beings. 

Cartesegna and Casassa of Turin, examined catheter specimens of the 
urine in 100 cases of diphtheria and found diphtheria bacilli present in 85 per 
cent. They are convinced that,by slight improvementof techniqueand frequent 
examination of a larger quantity of urine, positive results could be obtained 
in all cases. The presence of the bacilli was independent of the severitj^ of 
the case. It was impossible, for obvious reasons, to continue investigations 
on the same individual until the examination became negative, but it was 
an almost invariable rule for the urine to be still positive one and a half 
months after the onset of the attack, when the faucial cultures were nega- 
tive. The diphtheria bacillus was never found in pure culture in the urine, 
but always in association with other micro-organisms, such as the strepto- 
coccus, B. coli, pneumococcus, the Brisou coccus, and Friedliinder's bacillus. 
The practical importance of these observations is that excretion of diphtheria 
bacilli in the urine should be taken into consideration in dealing with 
carriers. 

Symptomatology. A case of isolated diphtheria of the mouth in a 
breast-fed infant, aged 14 days, is reported by Janssen from the Gottingen 
University Children's Clinique. The region affected was the alveolar margin 
of the upper jaw on either side of the mid-line. Diphtheria bacilli were found 
in cultures of the lesions, whereas nasal and faucial cultures were negative. 
2,000 units of antitoxin were injected and the condition rapidly cleared up. 
Though secondary diphtheria of the mouth, which usually appears in tne 
form of ulcers, is well known, Janssen has been unable to find any record 
of a case of primary diphtheria of the mouth. 

According to Lambert, primary dipMheria of the middle ear is observed 
in both sexes, and in adult life as well as in childhood, though like all forms 
of diphtheria it is commonest in early life. Infection takes place from the 
pharynx or nasal fossae by the Eustachian tube. The condition is charac- 
terized by the association of the following three symptoms : intense and 
persistent pain, pronounced bulging of the tympanic membrane, and a 
sero-haemorrhagic discharge, sometimes containing whitish-grey pieces of 
membrane. If recognized in time and treated by antitoxin the condition 
rapidly clears up, especially if it is not complicated by a secondary infection, 
but if it is not recognized or treated until late, it tends to become chronic 
and to be complicated by mastoiditis or facial paralysis, which may even occur 

c 2 



20 



REVIEWS 



during the first few days, so that primary diphtheria of the ear cannot 
be regarded as a mild form of ear disease. 

Although dqjJitheria of the vulva is relatively frequent in small children, 
usually secondary to faucial diphtheria, this localization is extremely rare 
in adults. Kromayer of Berlin, reports a case in a woman aged 22, who, in 
May 1919, had contracted syphilis, for which she was treated with salvarsan 
and mercury. When she was seen in the following August she presented 
a profuse yelloAV vulvar discharge and several ulcers round the clitoris and 
urethral orifice which were regarded as soft chancres. The ordinary treat- 
ment for this condition had no effect, and the ulceration became more 
extensive. When the patient was seen by Kromayer, on November 5, the 
floor of the ulcer was covered by a thick white adherent membrane, smears 
from which showed diphtheria bacilli. 3,000 units of antitoxin were given, 
and within three weeks the ulceration had completely healed. There does 
not appear to be any similar case on record of vulvar diphtheria simulating 
soft chancre. 

Leendertz of the Konigsberg University Medical Clinique, records a case 
of primary dqjhtheria of the vagina and sJdn of the intergluteal folds in 
a child aged 5^ years, in whom nasal and faucial diphtheria were absent. 
A brother and sister of the patient had recently suffered from diphtheria. 
The truth of Trousseau's doctrine that diphtheritic paralysis begins in the 
region first attacked by diphtheria was exemplified in this case. The first 
paralysis occurred in the bladder, as was shown by incontinence of urine, on 
the ninth day after disappearance of the membrane, and was followed by 
paralysis of the rectum (incontinence of faeces) eighteen days later, or on the 
forty-eighth day of disease. On the forty-ninth day paralysis of the palate, 
third and sixth cranial nerves, and ataxia of the legs were observed. All 
the palsies gradually disappeared. The origin of the bladder palsy in this 
case can be explained as in the case of palatal palsy after faucial diphtheria 
by a direct ascent of the toxins. The subsequent palsies are regarded by 
Leendertz as the result of toxins circulating in the blood, when, according 
to recent investigations, they may persist for a long time, especially in the 
lungs. 

Peiper, alluding to the frequency of vulvar and cutaneous diphtheria 
durino- the war. attributes this occurrence to defective cleanliness of the skin, 
which was chiefly due to the absence of soap. 

After noting that diphtheria of the umbilicus was first described in 
1860 by a Norwegian, Moller, whose patient, a new-born child, died after 
an illness of 12 days, Schonf elder gives an account of an important epidemic 
observed in Christiania in 1919. The first case was that of an infant, born on 
April 13 at a maternity hospital, and admitted to Ullevaal Fever Hospital 
on May 10. The diphtheritic nature of the umbilical inflammation was not 
recognized till after death, on May 28, when diphtheria bacilli were found. 
The necropsy showed no sign of peritonitis apart from a limited patch 
of redness and hyperaemia on a part of the large intestine situated immedi- 
ately beneath the umbilicus. Between May 19 and November 15, 130 patients 
were admitted from the maternity hospital to the fever hospital, of whom 33 
were infants with umbilical diphtheria. These cases were grouped in four 
classes according to the severity of the disease, 10 being in the first class, 19 
in the second, and 2 in each of the last two classes. In the first class the 
condition of the umbilicus, from the clinical standpoint, was practically 
normal. The diagnosis depended on the routine bacteriological examina- 



DIPHTHERIA 21 

tions of tlic umlulicus wliich, <lurin<( the epidemic, were undertaken at the 
maternity hospital. These cases may, therefore, be i-e^arded as ' carriers ' ; 
as they were at once treated with antitoxin, it is impossible to say whether 
they would subsequently have developed into clinically demonstra])le diph- 
theria or not. In the second class, indolent ulcers, up to the size of a small 
coin, were coated with a *^reenish-yellow dischar<^e, but not with a typical 
pseudo-membrane. In the remaining two classes there was extensive 
infiltration and an erysipelas-like redness about the umbilicus which formed 
an ulcerating prominence as large as a Spanish nut. The depth of the 
ulceration in one of the cases in the fourth class was so great that the 
patient's escape from peritonitis was remarkable. 

Discussing the frequency of umbilical diphtheria, Schonf elder points 
out that, as the disease is seldom clinically distinguishable from non-specific 
infections, it must often be overlooked. Every infection of the umbilicus, 
especially during an epidemic of diphtheria, should, therefore, be suspect, 
particularly if the infant snufiles. It is curious that while se\ere diphtheria 
of the throat often kills the patient in a few days or a week, diphtheria of 
the umbilicus lasts several weeks, and for a considerable time does not 
disturb the general health. Even in the one case which terminated 
fatally the duration o.f the disease was 30 days. The disease is seldom 
febrile, and only in 3 out of the 33 cases was the temperature raised. The 
absence of fever was particularly remarkable in the worst cases, and this 
point is of value in the differential diagnosis, for in non-diphtheritic infec- 
tions the height of the temperature is directly proportional to the severity 
of the local reaction. In 2 cases diphtheria bacilli were also found in the 
nose, and in 3 in both nose and throat. 

Reviewing his own experience and others, Schcinfelder concludes that, 
in severe cases, the prognosis is bad without antitoxin. He gave 4,000 units 
and, in the worst cases, 6,000 units. Remarking on the fact that no case 
of umbilical diphtheria has been reported in Norway between 1861 and 1919, 
Schonfelder finds it strange that in this year many cases should have occurred 
both in Bergen and Christiania, He correlates these outbreaks with a sudden 
rise in the frequency of diphtheria of the skin in 1919. Thus, in 1916, among 
912 notifications of diphtheria, there was only 1 of skin infection. In 1917 
there were 5 such cases among 926 notifications, and in 1919 there were 32 
among about 1,700 notifications. It is also instructive that in 1860 the 
occurrence of umbilical diphtheria coincided with many cases of wound 
diphtheria. As to the source of infection at the maternity hospital, no 
' carriers ' could be found on its permanent staff*, but some of the mothers 
were found to be infected on admission. 

Looft, who records two cases of diphtheria in the new-born, in one of 
which the umbilicus was affected, maintains that diphtheria is not, as 
commonly supposed, rare in the new-born. It should always be suspected 
in the presence of snuffling, otitis, lesions of the skin, and, not least, inflam- 
matory conditions of the umbilicus. In his first case, a new-born infant was 
infected by another child in the same family, suffering from nasal diphtheria. 
The infant's snuffling was regarded by the parents as a simple cold, and, as 
it seemed well in other respects, medical aid was not sought. After about 
three weeks numerous paralyses developed in rapid succession ; the muscles 
of the neck and those supplied by the lower branches of the facial nerve 
were involved, as well as all four limbs. There was absence of tendon re- 
flexes with anaesthesia and, in two places, hyperaesthesia. This polyneuritis 



22 REVIEWS 

miglit well have led to the diagnosis of Heine-Medin's disease, had not 
diphtheria bacilli been found in the nose. No antitoxin was given, and only 
palliative measures were adopted. Death occurred after eight days' illness, 
when the child was about five weeks old. The chief interest attaching to 
the second case, one of umbilical infection, was the promptness with which 
the patient recovered after the injection of 650 units of antitoxin supple- 
mented by compi-esses of Burow's solution. It transpired that the mother 
had recently suffered from ' a cold ', and diphtheria bacilli were found in her 
throat. They were still there a month later. 

After referring to five cases of umbilical diphtheria observed by Axel 
Looft in 1919 at a maternity hospital in Bergen, C. Looft discusses the 
clinical picture and remarks that its uniformity, as taken for granted by the 
follow-my-leader writers of text-books, is purely hypothetical. Umbilical 
diphtheria is in reality extraordinarily polymorphous, and apart from 
bacteriological findings, there is nothing constant. The same applies to 
wound diphtheria, which shows every degree and kind of inflammation from 
phlegmon and gangrene to a reaction which is so slight that only the 
bacteriological examination clinches the diagnosis. 

Goppert states that the great majority of cases of diphtheritic infection 
of the umbilicus occur at the end of the first week of life or in the course of 
the second week. The disease may, however, develop much later. In such 
cases the child may be suffering from nasal diphtheria or be a diphtheria 
carrier, so that the infection may have arisen in a lying-in hospital. A larger 
proportion of the cases, according to Goppert, show hardly any symptoms. 
A slight dampness of the umbilicus may prompt an examination which 
shows a thin deposit in the folds of the umbilicus or on the granulating 
umbilical wound. In other cases, especially those in which the infection 
occurs in the first few days of life, the disease runs a much more maKgnant 
course even from the first. Ulceration, with infiltration of the .'surrounding 
areas, occurs, and even gangrene of the navel may develop. Most cases of 
diphtheria of the umbilicus, like diphtheria of the new-born, generally 
originate in lying-in hospitals, though the infection may sometimes occur in 
a private house. 

Henkel, who records four illustrative cases, agrees with von Reuss, who, 
in his text-book on diseases of the new-born, states that diphtheria of the 
umbilicus does not present a characteristic or specific appearance, and that 
the diag-nosis must be made by bacteriological examination, which should be 
carried out as soon as possible. Diphtheria of the umbilicus may be associated 
with diphtheritic processes elsewhere, e. g. in the nose, conjunctiva, skin, &c., 
but this is not necessary, and it is usually the only localization of diphtheria, 
as in the cases reported by Henkel. The general condition is not aflected 
at first, and it is only when the disease has made considerable progress that 
constitutional disturbance takes place. As a general rule, in Henkel's 
experience, diphtheria of the umbilicus is not a severe infection, provided it 
is recognized early before a mixed infection occurs. 

Prausnitz records five cases of diphtheria of the umbilicus, four of which 
occurred in new-born children and three of which were fatal. In the first 
case death was due to generalized paralysis, in the second to staphylococcal 
peritonitis, secondary to the umbilical infection, and in the third to debility 
resulting from concurrent nasal and umbilical diphtheria. 

Snell reports eight cases of diphtheria of the umbilicus from the 
Gdttingen University Children's Clinique. Three of these had severe, 



DIPHTHERIA 33 

two motlerate, and tliree mild attacks. Death, which was sudden, occurred 
in three cases, being due in one case to erysipeUis, and in the other two to 
broncho-pneumonia. Paralysis of any kind was not observed. Concurrent 
nasal diphtheria was present in five cases. In two cases pyogenic organisms 
were found, in one in the blood, and in the other in a section of the uml)ilicus. 
In three cases the disease occurreil in the first few days of life, and in the 
others in the second week or as late as the fourth week. 

At the Greifswald Medical Society on June 20, 1917, Peiper showed 
a case of diphtheria of the penis and lunbilicus in a new-born infant. 
Diphtheria bacilli were also found in the nose and throat, without, however, 
any clinical evidence of disease in these regions. The source of infection 
was the mother, who was suft'erinof from intertrio-o in the secretion from 
which diphtheria bacilli were present. Peiper also alluded to the frequency 
of diphtheria carriers among the new-born, no less than 36 per cent, of the 
children admitted to an infant's home beino- found to be carriers. 

Wieting maintains that uviind diphtheria, on which so much has 
recently been written (vide Medical Science, 1919-;20, 1, 151-4 ; 404-9), is 
simply the old hospital gangrene which was by no means uncommon in the 
military hospitals in the campaign of 1870-1, but under the influence of 
the aseptic and antiseptic methods of peace time had become practically 
unknown. 

A case of diphtheria, with multiple and subintrant rela])ses, is reported 
by Boidin. The patient was a soldier who had an attack of diphtheria which 
was treated in the ordinary way. After the acute symptoms had subsided 
he remained w^ell for six wrecks and then developed a condition of chronic 
sore throat with periods of transient improvement. It was not until five 
months had elapsed that the sore throat, which had been regarded as 
herpetic angina, was recognized as diphtheria and treated as such. After 
remaining well again for six weeks the patient had another relapse, eleven 
months after the initial attack, and infected other soldiers. 

E. Aaser has attempted to calculate the incidence of heart failure 
in diphtheria by comparing the deaths with the actual number of cases 
treated at UUevaal Fever Hospital at various periods. He classifies his cases 
in four groups, according to the severity of the disease, and he excludes from 
his analyses cases complicated by other diseases, as well as ' carriers '. In 
the pre-serum period, 1890-4, there were 858 cases in the first group with 
only 8 deaths. In the second group there were 245 cases with 48 deaths. 
In the tliird group there were 89 cases with 55 deaths. In the fourth group 
there were 30 cases wdth 27 deaths. Thus the mortality percentages for 
the four groups were 1, 20, 70, and 90 respectively. Comparing these figures 
with those for 1915-18, he shows that in the first two groups there w^'re no 
deaths, in the third group the mortality was only 1 per cent., and in the 
fourth group only 19 per cent. The total number of cases in this 4-year 
period was 1,856. Thus, the mortality among the fourth group cases treated 
with serum was practically the same as that for the second group cases 
treated without serum. But though serum treatment has thus greatly 
reduced the mortality, it has, in Aaser 's opinion, done little or nothing 
to reduce the incidence of cardiac complications late in the disease. He 
even thinks that these may be promoted by the serum on account of its high 
carbolic acid content (0-5 per cent.). He gives no figures indicating the 
frequency of non-fatal cardiac complications, but he suggests that if physicians 
dared undertake functional heart tests on their patients on the day of 



24 REVIEWS 

discharge a very large proportion would react with signs of cardiac insuffi- 
ciency. The treatment he recommends is absolute rest, with morphia to com- 
bat restlessness and insomnia in children as well as adults. An ice-bag over the 
heart, laxatives, and flushing the system with fluids are also recommended. 

Marriott reports a case of post-diphtheritic iKLvalysis of the respiratory 
muscles in a girl aged 10 years, whose life was saved by prolonged artificial 
respiration. An apparatus designed by Gesell and Erlanger for administer- 
ing artificial respiration to animals was used and was employed at intervals 
for five days, at the end of which time the respiratory muscles had so far 
regained their function that artificial respiration was necessary only at 
relatively infrequent intervals. Complete recovery took place. 

From a study of the literature and observation of six cases of diph- 
theritic paralysis, in which examination of the cerebrospinal fluid was made, 
De Lavergne comes to the following conclusions : (1) Diphtheritic paralysis, 
whether confined to the soft palate or generalized, is accompanied, as a rule, 
by a meningeal reaction. (2) I'his reaction consists in an excess of glucose 
and albumin in the cerebrospinal fluid with a normal lymphocytosis. (3) This 
reaction is probably present a little before the appearance of the paralysis. 
The excess of glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid is the first sign, and persists 
until clinical recovery. 

Diphtheritic paralysis of central origin, of which Riemschneider reports 
a case, is very uncommon. In 1913 Rolleston (1) collected 80 cases of diph- 
theritic hemiplegia, including six of his own, in patients aged from 1^ to 
17 years. Right hemiplegia occurred in 48 — in 21 of whom aphasia was 
noted — left in 27, and in 5 no details were given. The occurrence of the 
hemiplegia took place at the following dates : in the first week 1 case ; in 
the second week 14 ; in the third 27 ; and in the fourth to the seventh 12. 
In 14 cases in which no exact date is given it is said to have developed in 
convalescence ; in 12 no date whatever is given. Recovery took place in 52, 
death in 24, and in 4 no details were given. Necropsies were held in 18 
cases. Embolism was found in 13, thrombosis in 3, haemorrhage in 1, and 
sclerotic atrophy in 1. In all the cases where details are given the initial 
attack was severe. Albuminuria and ordinary diphtheritic paralysis 
developed in a large number. The prognosis in diphtheritic hemiplegia, as 
in hemiplegia generally following acute infections, is unfavourable as regards 
complete recovery. In the great majority of cases contractures and atrophy 
have supervened in the paralysed limbs. Rolleston (2), however, has 
recently reported two cases of diphtheria in which the hemiplegia, though 
complete and accompanied by aphasia and characteristic changes in the 
reflexes, disappeared within 24 hours. Though one case recovered and an 
autopsy could not be obtained in the other, which proved fatal, it is probable 
that uraemia was the cause of the paralysis in one case and minute emboli 
in the other. 

Diagnosis. Hesse of the Halle University Medical* Clinique, describes 
an auscultatory sign for diagnosing laryngeal diphtheria which, in the 
absence of concomitant faucial involvement, can only be recognized by 
laryngoscopy or the presence of diphtheria bacilli in the sputum. Hesse's 
sign consists in the normal broncliial breathing being replaced by extra- 
ordinarily rough and sharpened breath sounds. The phenomenon, which is 
present not only in laryngeal diphtheria accompanied by stridor or recession, 
but also in the non-stenotic form of the disease, is best heard over the lateral 
aspect of the thyroid cartilage or over the cricoid or upper rings of the 
trachea. 



DIPHTHERIA 2 



:io 



Prophylaxis. The determination of susceptibility to diphtheria by the 
Schick test, and the immunization ot" those found to be susceptible by toxin- 
antitoxin, have formed the subject of immerous recent papers. Bauer, who 
is in charge of Schick testing and active immunization for tiie Philadelphia 
Department of Health, has made observations on 3,000 children with the 
following results : up to six months infants enjoyed immunity, from six 
months to three years 72-5 per cent, were positive, from three to five years 
46 per cent., from five to ten years 3:2'4 per cent., from ten to twenty years 
28-2 per cent., and over twenty years 13-2 per cent. 1,100 persons who 
were found to be susceptible to diphtheria by the Schick reaction were given 
toxin-antitoxin. 200 of these were retested at the end of five months, and 
all gave a negati\e test. A reaction due to the protein contained in the 
mixture occurred in a few individuals and consisted in malaise, headache, 
fever up to 101-3°, joint pains, and leucocytosis. The reaction usually 
occurred after the tirst injection, and was milder after the second or third 
dose, if it occurred at all. 

Blau studied the Schick test and active immunization against diphtheria 
with toxin-antitoxin at the Stuyvesant Clinic of the Department of Health, 
and found that more than a third of the children under 14 were susceptible 
to diphtheria, i. e. had no natural immunity against the disease. The greatest 
susceptibility was between 1 and 6 years. After the age of 6 years the 
degree of susceptibility gradual!}' diminished, as shown by the negative 
Schick tests. Of a total of 227 negative Schick tests 136 were between 6 
and 14 years. Blau considers that the immunity proiluced by three injec- 
tions of toxin-antitoxin is probably permanent. The development of an 
active immunity is determined by the Schick test at the end of three 
months. If the test is negative, the person is immune. By re-injecting 
those who give a positive test an immunity can be developed in all suscep- 
tible persons. Blau, however, points out that, as the immunity afforded by 
toxin-antitoxin does not develop until the lapse of from two to twelve 
weeks, active immunization with toxin-antitoxin cannot be utilized to protect 
persons within that period. 

Owing to an outbreak of diphtheria in a state industrial school, Lilly 
performed the Schick test on 257 persons aged from 15-21, and obtained 
positive results in 148 and negative in 109, The susceptible ones were then 
given three doses each of 1 c.c. toxin-antitoxin at intervals of seven days, 
in only 33 per cent, was there any general reaction, and in a much smaller 
number a slight local reaction. The general disturbance was much less after 
the second dose, and almost nil after the final injection. Two months later 
all the boys who had had the toxin-antitoxin were given a second Schick 
test, and out of 98 only 18 showed a slight reaction after 72 hours, and 
13 showed a very slight pigmentation at the end of a week. A third test 
was performed three months after the immunization, when only six showed 
a slight reaction. Two boys contracted diphtheria after two injections of 
toxin-antitoxin, and one on the day following the last injection. These cases 
were treated with ordinary antitoxin and recovered promptly. Lilly con- 
cludes ( 1) that toxin-antitoxin gives absolute immunity to diphtheria when 
more than one month has elapsed after its administration; (2) that it does 
not cause such troublesome and alarming reactions as ordinary antitoxin 
often does ; (3) that the immunity persists indefinitely. He points out, how- 
ever, that toxin-antitoxin has no curative properties and does not immediately 
protect against diphtheria, and that the Schick test is not rapid enough to 



26 REVIEWS 

be of immediate use in cases exposed to clinical diphtheria, and should be 
employed only to separate immunes from non-immunes. 

Armand-DeHlle and Marie investigated Schick's test in more than 200 
children belonging to several orphanages and obtained positive results in 75 
cases, or 37-5 per cent. Thej'^ found that in children of the same family the 
reaction was almost always the same, and that it was negative in healthy 
carriers. 

Renault, while emphasizing the importance of Schick's reaction in the 
epidemiology and prophylaxis of diphtheria, points out that it does not 
render unnecessary the investigation and isolation of carriers, as these are 
to be found both among those who are susceptible and those who are 
refractory to infection by diphtheria. 

Leete examined the Schick test in 500 cases of scarlet fever and found 
positive results in 57*2 per cent. Positive reactions diminished with 
increasing age, but were more frequent among scarlet fever patients than 
normal adults of the same age. In a series of normal adults only 17, or 
28 per cent., were positive as compared with 37-5 per cent, in a corresponding 
group of scarlet fever patients. Of 32 diphtheria cases Leete found that 18 
were negative and 14 positive to the Schick test, this fact showing that 
immunity may depend on other factors than the presence of antitoxin. 

From a study of Schick's test in cases of diphtheria, non-diphtheritic 
angina, and diphtheria carriers among soldiers, Rieux and Zoller recom- 
mend that the test should be performed on every new recruit and the result 
noted in the soldier's book, only those with a positive reaction requiring 
immunization. 

De Lavergne and Zoeller report four cases of diphtheritic paralysis 
with a negative Schick's reaction. This shows that even in a state of 
active immunity gradually conferred by an attack of diphtheria the anti- 
toxin, which is in a sort of nascent condition, does not succeed in neutralizing 
the toxin fixed in the nerves. 

Park states that in 95 per cent, of the cases injected toxin-antitoxin 
gives an immunity, which develops between the fourth and twelfth week 
and persists for at least three and a quarter years. He mentions that the 
injections are absolutely harmless, 1,950 babies from three to five days old 
having been injected without any ill etfects. The older the patient the 
more severe the reaction, this being due to the presence of peptones and 
other foreign products in the broth and not to the toxin- antitoxin itself. 
The method of administering the toxin-antitoxin recommended by Park is 
injection of 1 c.c. subcutaneously or intramuscularly with the finest needle. 

As the result of a recent inquiry Bieber has found that inoculation 
with toxin-antitoxin in the Magdeburg- district in 1913 conferred a definite 
if not absolute immunity against diphtheria, the results being sufficiently 
encouraging to make a more extensive use of the method in districts 
exposed to diphtheria advisable. 

The gist of A. H. Meyer's paper is in the question : Does diphtheria 
break out so frequently in children's wards as to warrant special prophy- 
lactic measures ? Since the writer's clinic was started, in July 1905, about 
2,400 patients have been treated, the average number of occupied beds out 
of 24 being 20. During the following 14 years, 28 cases of diphtheria 
developed in the hospital. In the first 10| years there were only 7 cases 
among 1,700 patients, whereas in the last 3 years there were 21 cases among 
onl}^ 700 patients. Since March 1910 every patient was examined on 



DIPHTHERIA 27 

admission for diphtheria bacilli, and in this way 21 'carriers' were detected 
and prevented from spreading infection. Up till March 1916 the writer 
flattered himself that his comparative immunity fro]n outbreaks of 
diphtheria was due to these precautions. His more recent experience 
convinced him that even when the nose as well as the throat is examined 
for diphtheria bacilli, and the examination is repeated a week later, 
' carriers ' are still able to elude detection in a certain proportion of cases. 
But though his measures proved imperfect, the fact that he did intercept 
21 'carriers' has convinced him that this .system of examining all 
admissions for ' carriers ' is useful. As for the procedure to adopt 
when diphtheria has already broken out, he used to give prophylactic 
injections of serum till nine years ago when, for fear of anaphylactic shock, 
he abandoned this treatment. Of the wisdom of this course he is still 
in doubt. 

Treatment. In a review of 25 years' antitoxin treatment Martin 
states that in the pre-antitoxin era the highest mortality from diphtheria 
per 100,000 inhaljitants was 200 deaths (Berlin 1883) and 100 (Paris 1882) ; 
since the introduction of antitoxin the highest mortality for Paris was 27*7 
deaths per 100,000 during the epidemic of 1901-2. The minimum figures 
were 6-4 per 100,000 for Paris in 1906, 3 per 100,000 for Havre in 1908, 
and 2-6 per 100,000 for Utrecht in 1908. As a general rule, before serum 
therapy, the average mortality per 100,000 below 100 was above 50. Since 
serum therapy had been introduced the average number of deaths had 
been almost always less than 20, and often less than 10 per 100,000 
inhabitants. 

Hospital statistics. During the years 1890-93 incluf-ive, of 3,971 cases 
admitted to the diphtheria block of the Hupital des Enfants Malades, 
2,029 died — a mortality of 51-75 per cent. In cases treated by serum from 
February to July 1894 the mortality was 24-5 per cent. The lowest death- 
rate in this hospital was reached in 1904, when Marfan andLe Play reported 
a mortality of 7-4 per cent. Before serum treatment the average mortality 
of faucial diphtheria was 34 per cent, ; since the introduction of serum it 
has been about 10 per cent. The mortality from operations for laryngeal 
diphtheria, which was previously 73 per cent., is now about 20 per cent., 
and the number of operations required has considerably diminished. In 
the years 1887-94, 36 per cent, of the admissions required operation ; since 
then the number of operations has fallen to less than 15 per cent. 

At the Pasteur Hospital, 1,624 cases have been admitted from 1900-19, 
with 133 deaths, or a mortality of 8-18 per cent. As a general rule the 
mortality at this hospital has ranged between 10 and 15 per cent., or more 
than two-thirds less than in the pre-antitoxin era. 

Diphtheria in the army. Before serum treatment diphtheria was 
rare in the French army. According to Bayeux, from 1888-94 there were 
3,551 patients and 393 deaths, or an average mortality of 11-07 per cent. 
In 1895 and 1896 the mortality fell to 5-65 per cent., and in 1897-1914 
was only 3-3 per cent. During the five years of the war, in the Army of 
the Interior, i. e. in the hospitals situated outside the zone of the armies, 
there were 15,271 patients and 378 deaths, or a mortality of 2*4 per cent. 
In the zone of the armies there were 11,433 cases and 229 deaths, or 
a mortality of 2 per cent. 

Diphtheria 'mortality in Parish Before the introduction of serum 
1,432 persons died annually in Paris from diphtheria, whereas during the 



28 .REVIEWS 

last few years this fioure has dropped to 130. Before serum treatment the 
maximum number of deaths a week was 45 and the minimum 14 ; since 
1898 the maximum number of deaths was 20 in 1898, and the minimum 
1 in 1918. 

The intramuscular route for injection of antitoxin, widely employed in 
Germany and the United States and recommended in this country by Ker 
and Rolleston and Macleod, has recently been adopted by French physicians 
such as Netter, Weill-Halle, and Armand-Delille. Weill-Hall^ agrees with 
Rolleston and Macleod, who had claimed the following advantages for the 
intramuscular method : (1) It is quite as simple as the subcutaneous method, 
ensures more rapid absorption, and is less liable to give rise to abscesses at 
the injection site. (2) It is superior to the intravenous method not only in 
the greater simplicity of its technicjue, but also in the less rapid excretion 
of antitoxin after injection. (3) The more rapid absorption of antitoxin by 
the intramuscular route is shown by lesser incidence of paralysis, especially 
of a severe kind. 

Owing to the greater rapidity of elimination of antitoxin when 
administered by the intramuscular route, Armand-Delille recommends that 
intramuscular injection should be supplemented the following day by sub-' 
cutaneous injection of antitoxin in sufficiently large doses. 

Alluding to the objection made by opponents of his method that the 
favourable results were due to his havino: used serum from horses which 
had formerly supplied antitoxin (vide Medical Science, 1919, 1, 156), Bingel 
states that he had had the serum examined for its antitoxin content, with 
the result that the serum supplied him by one firm was entirely free from 
antitoxin, and that supplied by another contained only a negligible 
quantity (3 units in 1 c.c). He adds that he has made no experiments as 
to the prophylactic action of diphtheria antitoxin, the value of which he 
has no reason to doubt. He also declares that he has never disputed 
the therapeutical value of antitoxin, but has merely seen no difference 
between its therapeutical results and those of normal serum. 

Herzfeld, from his experience at the Leipzig University Medical Clinic, 
found that the use of ordinary horse serum had the following disadvantages : 
(1) The deposit in the throat persisted longer. (2) Paralyses were relatively 
frequent even after mild faucial diphtheria. (3) Cases of cardiac death, 
especially in adults, were more frequent. (4) An extension of the local 
process in the throat was more frequent than after employment of anti- 
toxin. (5) Secondary laryngeal diphtheria could not be prevented with 
certainty. Herzfeld concludes that ordinary horse serum should be used 
only in the mildest cases in adults, which, as Feer remarks, can be treated 
without serum. In faucial diphtheria of any severity and in laryngeal 
diphtheria the use of antitoxin is imperative. 

Birk states that a severe epidemic of diphtheria in Kiel, during the 
• winter of 1918, gave him an opportunity for testing Bingel's claims. He 
found that cases sent to hospital wrongly certified to be sufi'ering from 
diphtheria and injected with ordinary horse serum subsequently contracted 
diphtheria after admission to a diphtheria ward, an occurrence quite 
unknown when antitoxin had been given in cases of mistaken diagnosis. 
Birk therefore concludes that ordinary horse serum does not possess any 
immunizing properties. 

H. Meyer, assistant at the Greifswald University Children's Clinic, 
injected 17 cases of mild faucial, nasal, and laryngeal diphtheria with 



DIPHTHERIA 20 

ordinaiy horse serum, using |-10 c.c, an amount corresponding to 1,000- 
4,000 units of antitoxin. In three cliildren, who had liad a positive nasal 
culture for weeks, but had sliown no other signs of nasal diphtheria, the 
treatment had no etiect. Four cases which showed no improvement after 
ordinary serum, and in one case distinct spread of the membrane, were given 
antitoxin, when immediate improvement occurred. On the other hand, one 
case had a relapse after antitoxin which promptly subsided after injection 
of ordinary horse serum, and in the remaining nine cases ordinary horse 
serum seemed eftective. They were, however, all mild cases which might 
have recovered without serum at all. Meyer concludes that ordinary serum 
has a certain curative action due to its foreign protein content, but by no 
means comparable to that of antitoxin. 

P. Aaser, Superintendent of the Ullevaal Fever Hospital for 25 years, 
has carried out, with the support of the Nansen Fund, a long series of 
investigations on guinea-pigs with a view to controlling Bingel's figures 
and conclusions. Owing to a comparative shortage of guinea-pigs, and in 
order to check accurately the effect of normal and diphtheria serum, intra- 
instead of sub-cutaneous injections of diphtheria toxin were given, according 
to the method devised by Schick for the titration of diphtheria antitoxin. 
It was found that the amount of toxin required to provoke necrosis of the 
skin at the site of injection was strikingly constant ; doses less than this 
amount gave rise either to no reaction or only to a pink infiltration of the 
skin. As the necrosis could be easily detected, the injected toxin was 
limited to the amount required to provoke necrosis. The toxin used had 
been stored since 1906 and belonged to the stock used for the titration of 
diphtheria serum. 

As Aaser 's tables show, an intracutaneous injection of an emulsion of 
diphtheria bacilli induced a reaction which, within 24 hours, was indicative 
of incipient necrosis (anaemia of the centre of the infiltrated area). After 
42 hours complete necrosis was established. Practically the same reaction 
occurred when 0-2 c.c. of normal horse serum was added to the emulsion of 
diphtheria bacilli, the only marked effect of this addition being the delay 
of the necrosis by about 24 hours. Only in a few cases in which very 
large doses of normal serum were added, was the necrotic action of the 
emulsion inhibited. But when an equal (|uantity of diphtheria serum was 
added to the emulsion there was hardly any reaction after 24 hours, and 
there was no necrosis. Complement fixation tests also showed that no 
specific amboceptors were demonstraljle in normal serum. 

Aaser suggests that Bingel obtained no better results with specific 
than with non-specific serum because his dosage in both cases was far too 
timid. Bingel's average mortality was about 10 per cent., and in 1913 it 
was even lo-l per cent. The mortality from diphtheria in Christiania in 
the period 1895-1919 was about 5 per cent., and during the last six years 
it was only 3-08 per cent., althougli there were many severe cases, and the 
disease was classified as diphtheria only when it gave rise to clinical 
symptoms. Aaser expresses amazement over Bingel's dosage ; of the cases 
terminating fatally within 30 hours of admission, several received only 
2,000 or 3,000 units, and only in one such case were as many as 10,000 
units given. One child with descending diphtheria was given only 1,000 
units. In another case of gangrenous diphtheria, admitted on the second 
day, and terminating fatally on the fourth day, only 5X)00 units were 
given. Bingel appears also seldom to have repeated an injection. The 



30 REVIEWS 

frequency with which Bingel's patients developed paralysis also suggests 
that insufficient antitoxin was given. 

Wood states that during the last six years a combined method of 
injecting devitalized Klebs-Loeffler bacilli and antitoxin has been used in 
the treatment of diphtheria by the Chicago Department of Health, If the 
treatment can be administered before the disease has progressed more than 
four days, the initial dose of tlie vaccine is 300 million bacilli. If the 
disease has lasted longer than four days, 100 million bacilli should be given, 
and from 3,000-5,000 units of antitoxin according to the severity of the 
case. The next dose may be increased to 300 million bacilli, and later to 
500 million, and the antitoxin may be repeated as indicated. By this 
means both destruction of the bacilli and neutralization of the toxin are 
effected. Wood also claims that the method prevents the occurrence of 
carriers by destroying the bacilli in the throat. Another advantage of the 
method is the saving of expense in the cost of antitoxin. 

Brownlie treated 50 diphtheria carriers with vaccine in doses ranging 
from 10 to 200 millions. The vaccine was prepared in the ordinary way 
and was not autogenous. One to eight injections were given. In the 
majority a limited number was efficacious. It was found that the vaccine 
produced well-defined degeneracy in the morphological appearance of the 
cultured organism, followed by its complete dispersal from the locality 
invaded. 44 of the cases which had received at most three doses were 
discharged with two consecutive negative cultures on the eleventh day. 
No bad effects were observed from the use of the vaccine. 

Eraser and Duncan report three cases of diphtheria carriers successfully 
treated by detoxicated vaccines. 

As illustrating the remarkable disinfectant properties of Dakin's 
solution, Haugseth records the case of a man, aged 48, who was operated 
on for an umbilical hernia. The wound became septic, its base necrotic, and 
its margins red and infiltrated. This condition did not affect the tempera- 
ture or the patient's general health, but, on the other hand, it was entirely 
refractory to ordinary disinfectants, including hydrogen peroxide, silver 
nitrate, and potassium permanganate. No improvement having been 
effected after four weeks, irrigation with Dakin's solution was adopted 
with strikingly rapid effect, and the temperature, which had been about 
37°, fell to 36° on the day after the institution of this treatment which was 
discontinued after a week. Thougfh no bacteriological examination was 
made, diphtheria was diagnosed on the strength of the development of 
undoubted polyneuritis. 

Aaser, E. Om difterihjertet og dots behandling. Tldssla'.f. d. norsJcc Ldegefor., 
1920, 40, 585-93 ; 617-25. 

Aaser, P. Om behandling av difteri med nornialt hesteserum. Tidss7a\ /. d. 
norsU Laegefor., 1920, 40, 473-88. 

Abmand-Delzi.i.e, p. p. Importance des doses suffisamment elevees dans la 
serotherapie de la diphterie par voie intramusculaire et sous- cutanea. Bull, et 
mem. Soc. med. d. hop. de Par., 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 380-2. 

ABMAND-DEI.II.I.E, P. P., et Mabie, P. L. Etude de I'immunite diphterique 
par rintradermo-reaction a la toxine diphterique [Technique de Schick, Park 
et Zingher). Ses applications a la prophylaxie scolaire de la diphterie. Bidl. 
Acad, de med., 1920, 3^ ser., 83, 530-2. 



DIPHTHERIA 31 

Baueb, E. L. a preliminary report of Schick testing and permanent immu- 
nization ji<?ainst diphtheria in three thousand chikh-en. T/ierap. Gas., 1920, 3rd 
ser., 36, 457-()l. 

BiEBEB, W. Untersuchungen fiber die Schutzwirkung des Behringschen 
Diphtherieschutzmittels T. A. in der Praxis. Beutschc mcd. Wc/mschr., 1920, 
46, 1184-7. 

BiNOEi.. Zur Behandhmg der Diphtheric mit gewOhnlichem Pferdeserum. 
Deutsche med Wchnschr., 1919, 45, 739-40. 

BiBK, W. f ber Behandlung der Diphtheric mit gewOhnlichem Pferdeserum. 
Med. Klin., 1919, 15, 890-1. 

BZ.AT7, A. I. The Schick test, its control and active immunization against 
diphtheria. X. York M. J., 1920, 112, 279-82. 

BoiDiir, L. Angine diphterique a rechutes multiples et subintrantes. Bull, et 
mem. Soc. mcd. d. hop. de Par., 1920, 3© ser., 44, 747-9. 

BBOWNI.IE, J. L. The problem of the 'positive throat' in diphtheria con- 
valescents. A clinical study of fifty consecutive vaccine-treated cases. Lancet, 
1920, i, 706 -S. 

Cabtesegna, M., e Casassa, A. Sulla presenza di bacilli difterici nel- 
r urina. (Horn. d. r. Acad, di mcd. di Torino, 1919, 82, 424-4G. 

DuBOUBG et GuEiTABD, F. La mortalite par diphterie pendant trente ans 
a rhopital des enfants assistes a Bordeaux. J. de mcd. de Bordeaux, 1920, 91, 
83-6. 

Fbaseb, a. R., and Dttncait, A. G. B. Treatment of diphtheria carriers with 
detoxicated Ivlebs-Loefiler vaccine. Lancet, 1920, ii, 994-7. 

GOPPEBT, F. Zur Nabeldiphtherie bei Neugeborenen. Deutsche mcd. Wchnschr., 
1920, 46, 324. 

HAX7GSETH, K. Dakin's v£eske ved saardifteri. Norsk Mag. f. Laegevidensk., 
81, 994-5. 

Henkel, M. Zur Nabeldiphtherie bei Neugeborenen. Deutsche med. Wchnschr., 
1919, 45, 1411-3. 

Hebzfeld, E. Ueber die Behandlung der Diphtherie mit Pferdeserum. 
Miinchen. med. Wchnschr., 1919, 66, 954-8. 

Hesse, W. Ein auscultatorisches Philnomen bei Kehlkopfdiphtherie. Mitnchcn. 
med. Wchnschr., 1919, 66, 928-9. 

HuNTEMULiiEB. Beitrag zur Epideniiologie und Bekampfung der Diphtherie. 
Deutsche med. Wchnschr., 1919, 45, 964-6. 

jANSSExr, H. Ein Fall von primarer Munddiphtherie bei einem Saugling. 
Ztschr.f. Kindcrh., 1919, 24, 179-82. 

Keb, C. B. Infectious Diseases. A Practical Textbook, 1920, Second Edition. 

Ebomayeb, E. Diphtherie der Vulva bei Erwachsenen unter dem Bible des 
Ulcus molle. Dcrmctt. Wchnschr.. 1920, 71, 770-2. 

Lambebt. Manifestations anormales de la diphterie en oto-rhinologie. Arch, 
mcd. beiges, 1920, 73, 382-92. 

De Lavebgne. De I'alteration du liquide cephalo-rachidien dans les paralysies 
diphteriques du voile du palais et a tvpe de polynevrite. Bull, et mem. Soc. med. 
d. hop. de Par., 1920, 3© ser., 44, 1246-50. 



33 REVIEWS 

De Lavebone et Zoelleb. La diphtherino-reaction (Reaction de Schick) 
dans les paralysies jwst-dipliteriques. Bull, et mem. Soc. med. d. hup. de Far. 
1920, 3e ser., 44, 954-6. 

IiEEN-DEBTZ, G. Pi'imare Vaginal- und Hautdiphtherie niit postdiphtherischen 
Lahmungen. Med. Klin., 1920, 16, 151-2. 

Leete, H. M. The Schick reaction for the determination of susceptibility to 
diphtheria. Lancet, 1920, i, 192-4. 

Lxi.i.7, T. E. An experience with the Schick test and toxin -antitoxin mixture 
and a plea for their use in the extinction of diphtheria. Boston M. 4- S. J., 
1920, 182, 110-13. 

LooPT, C. Difteri hos nyfodte. Med. Bev., 1920, 37, 66-74. 

Mabbzott, W. M. Postdiphtheritic paralysis of the respiratory muscles : 
report of a case treated by prolonged artificial respiration. J. Am. M. Ass., 
1920, 75, 668-9. 

Mabtzit, L. Vingt-cinq annees de serotherapie anti-diphterique. Bull. Acad, 
de med., 1919, 82, 172-9. 

Meyeb, a. H. Difteriinfektion per Bornafdelinger. UgesJc. f. Laeger. 1919, 
81, 908-17. 

Meyeb, H. Ueber die Behandlung der Diphtherie niit normalem Pferdeserum. 
Beutsche med. Wclmsclir., 1920, 46, 1048-9. 

Fabk, W. H. The Schick reaction and the immunization of children against 
diphtheria: a communication. Med. Bee., 1919, 96, 900. 

Peifeb. Diphtherie des Penis und des Nabels. Deutsche med. Wchnschr., 

1919, 45, 1037. 

Fbausztztz, p. G, Zur Kasuistik der Nabeldiphtherie des Neugeborenen. 
Bed. hlin. Wchnschr., 1919, 56, 797-9. 

Henault, J. Sur la diphterino-reaction (Reaction de Schick). Bull. Acad, de 
med., 1920, 3e ser., 83, 130-2. 

EriEMSCHNEiDEB, G. Zur postdiphtherisclien Hemiplegie im friihen Kindes- 
alter. Monatsehr. f. Kinderh., 1919, Orig. 15, 415-24. 

E.IEUX et Z01.1.EB. Considerations sur la reaction de Schick en milieu militaire. 
Bull, et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. de Far., 1920, 3e ser., 44, 717-20. 

RoiiiiESTOir, J. D. (I). Diphtheritic hemiplegia. Clin. J., 1913, 42, 12-14. 

I{.OZ.]:.ESTOir, J. D. (2). Transient hemiplegia in diphtheria. Bev. Neurol. 4' 
Fsyehiat., 1916, 14, 145-50. 

KoitLESTOir, J. D., and Macleod, C. Intramuscular injections of antitoxin 
in the treatment of diphtheria. Brit. J. Child. Bis., 1914, 11, 289-97. 

ScHONFELDEB, T. Om navledifteri. NorsJc Mag. f. LaegevidensJc, 1920, 81, 
857-76. 

Simmons, J. S. Virulent diphtheria bacilli carried by cats. Am. J. M. Sc., 

1920, 160, 589-94. 

Snei.1., M. Die diphtherische Nabelinfektion mit besonderer Berucksichtigung 
der Nabelgangriin. Jahrh. f. Kinderh., 1919, 89, 40-57. 

Weili.-Hai.i.e, B. Voie d'introduction et posologie du serum antitoxique dans 
le traitenient de la diphterie. Bidl. et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. de Far., 1920, 
3e ser., 44, 83-5. 



DIPHTHERIA 33 

WiETiNO. Wunddiphtherie und Hospital brand. Munchen. med. Wchmchr., 
1920, 67, 262. 

"Wood, F. M. The vaccine antitoxin method in the treatment of diphtheria. 
N. York 31. J., 1920, 103, 53-4. 

J. D. R. 
C. L. 



INJURY CAUSING SPASMODIC CONTRACTION OF 
SEGMENTS OF ARTERIES OF MEDIUM SIZE 

The vasoconstrictor nerves supplying the wall of a medium-sized artery, 
such as the brachial or superficial femoral, may be irritated by blood extra- 
vasated into and around the sheath of the artery whilst the wall of the artery 
escapes injury, the endothelial lining of the artery is unaltered, and there is 
no thrombosis. But whilst the spasmodic contraction lasts there is a greatly 
diminished flow through the segment of the artery affected. A bullet in 
traversing the limb passes close by the artery, and there is induced a 
spasmodic contraction involving several centimetres. The spasm lasts a day 
more or less and then spontaneously disappears. The immediate sign con- 
sequent on the restriction of the flow of blood through the segment is the 
absence or marked diminution of the circulation through the limb beyond 
the injury. This being observed, it may reasonably be assumed that a con- 
tusion or laceration of the artery may have been produced, and that there is 
a danger of secondary haemorrhage and gangrene. In consequence, the 
surgeon proceeds to explore the artery at the site of injury ; in view of the 
possibility of conditions to be described, it must not be hastily assumed that 
a contused, lacerated, and thrombosed artery exists because there is a defec- 
tive circulation in the limb beyond. The condition to be described was 
termed by Viannay ' La stupeur art^rielle traumatique ' ; by Fiolle, * L'in- 
hibition segmentaire des arteres dans les plaies de guerre (arret du cours du 
sang au niveau d'arteres traumatisees sans lesions visibles des parois ni 
coagulation) ' ; by Kiittner and Baruch, ' Der traumatische segmentiire 
Gefasskrampf '. 

There have been numerous observations on the nerve-supply of medium- 
sized arteries by the sympathetic. Leriche and Heitz concluded that as soon 
as the sheath of the artery containing the sympathetic nerve-fibres is touched 
the artery enters into contraction until it has no more than one-third or one- 
quarter of its normal lumen in the segment involved in the contraction. 
Meanwhile, the artery above and below is not affected. The reaction varies 
in degree, being more marked in some animals, less in others. It is a reac- 
tion more evident in the brachial than in the axillary or subclavian arteries, 
more active in the femoral than in the iliac arteries, in the brachial even 
more than in the femoral. 

Viannay describes the following cases : 

Case I. A fragment of a bullet had entered the nape of the neck at 
the level of the 6th cervical spine and a little to the left ; it had crossed the 

IV. D 



34 REVIEWS 

subclavian fossa and made exit through the anterior border of the axilla. 
There followed a large haematoma in the axilla and a loss of pulsation in all 
the left upper extremity. An incision was made along the free border of 
the pectoralis major, and next the muscle was cut across up to the clavicle. 
After turning out the clot the axillary artery and vein were found not to be 
wounded. The clavicle was then divided by excising a length of 5 cm. 
which exposed the subclavian artery on the first rib. It appeared uninjured 
but small, with a feeble pulsation, whilst there was no pulse at the wrist. 
The wound was sewn up with a drain, and a few hours later a pulse • could 
be felt in the radial artery which increased until quite restored. 

Case II. A fragment of shell passed through the back of the upper 
part of the arm, crossed the axilla and entered the chest. There was severe 
primary haemorrhage, the radial pulse was weak and irregular. Five hours 
after the injury the termination of the axillary and the commencement of 
the brachial arteries were exposed ; the axillary artery pulsated well, the 
brachial at its commencement was very small, and the pulse in it could 
hardly be felt. The next day the radial pulse and circulation in the upper 
extremities were equal on the two sides. 

Case III. A bullet had caused a small wound in the forearm with 
marked contusion, and there was no pulse at the wrist. On exposing the 
radial under the wound, the artery was found intact, but there was no 
pulsation in it for 4 cm. There was slight ecchymosis in the adventitia of 
the artery. The affected segment was excised, after which both ligatured 
ends pulsated, and there was a good recovery. No lesion could be found in 
the segment of the artery excised. 

La Coste and Ferrier published a case in which they made observations 
on the blood-pressure of the injured limb. A fragment of shell had passed 
across the apex of Scarpa's triangle, and the pulse at the ankle below was 
scarcely perceptible. The superficial femoral was exposed, but found 
uninjured ; the circulation in the injured limb had become the same on 
the opposite side by the second day as shown in the following table : 





Time. 


Right. 
The Injured Li 


mb. 


Left 
The Uninjui 


ed Limb. 




Hrs. 


Mins. 


Max. 


Min. 


Ampli- 
tude. 


Max. 


Min. 


Ampli 
tude. 


Before operation 


14 


30 


13 


10 


n 


20 


11 


4 


After operation 


16 


30 


8 


8 




20 


7 


4 


J5 >) 


17 


30 


12 


9 


H 

2| 

4 


18 


9 


3 


5) )> 


20 




15 


10 


21 


10 


4 


Next day 


7 




20 


11 


23 


11 


4 


:? T? 


18 




21 


11 


4 


22 


11 


4 


Second day 


10 




21 


13 


3 


23 


14 


3 


5> >J 


18 




23 


14 


3 


23 


14 


3 



Viannay described also a case which was not the result of a bullet 
wound. A mechanic, wliilst starting the motor of an aeroplane, was struck 
by a blade of the propeller on the inner side of the right arm a little above 
the epitrochlea. It caused a small transverse wound prolonged by a linear 
ecchymosis ; there was little external haemorrhage. There was found a 
marked diminution of the radial pulse below the injury. The margins of the 
wound were first excised ; there was then exposed a small rupture of 
the aponeurosis, below which the tip of the epitrochlea was bare but not 
fractured. On dividing the expansion of the biceps the median nerve was 



INJURY CAUSING SPASMODIC CONTRACTION, ETC. 35 

found intact. The sheath of the brachial artery was slightly infiltrated 
with blood ; the artery at first sight seemed not to pulsate ; on close 
examination a very feeble pulse was evident. On opening the sheath 
there was no apparent wound of the artery oi* of the venae comites, the 
wall of the artery being, perhaps, slightly more bluish tlian normal. The 
wound was sutured without a drain and healed without complication. 
The following observations were made on the blood-pressure : 







Eight. 
The Injured Limb 


- 




Max. 






Min. 


Before operation 

2 hours after oper 
16 „ 
18 „ 


alioii 


10 

13 

9 

9 






8 
9 
7 
6 





Left. 




The Uninjured Limb 


Max. 




Min. 


15 




10 


13 




9 


13 




9 


11 




7 



Within the next day or two the maxima became definitely equal, but 
the minima remained unequal until the fourth day. 

Fiolle's case furnishes an instance of the importance of distinguishing 
the condition. In a man aged 21 the bullet entered by the left buttock, 
crossed Scarpa's triangle and lodged in the scrotum. There was found a large 
haematoma in the triangle, over which the skin was violet and tense ; there 
was no pulsation, neither in the triangle nor in the limb below, A free 
incision was made, which exposed the common femoral artery as it emerged 
from under Poupart's ligament, and the loop of a ligature was passed under 
it. Then the haematoma was incised and the clot turned out ; also a wounded 
vein was ligatured. The bullet had crossed the commencement of the super- 
ficial femoral artery ; the common femoral above pulsated well and was of 
full size ; the superficial femoral appeared very small, there was no pulsation 
in it, it was supposed to be thrombosed. Thereupon 3 cm. of the commence- 
ment of the superficial femoral was cut out ; the excised segment exhibited 
no thrombosis, or injury to the inner or outer coat. Profuse suppuration 
followed in the wound ; on the 7th day there was severe secondary haemo- 
rrhage from the common femoral arter3^ and a ligature was applied just 
above the sloughing opening and below Poupart's ligament. The next day 
further haemorrhage was followed by death, when suppuration and sloughing 
were found to have extended to the external iliac arteiy. 

In Kroh's first case of a revolver shot in the groin there was no pulse in 
the superficial femoral artery. The saphena vein had been cut across at its 
junction with the femoral. The superficial femoral artery, when first found, 
seemed reduced to the size of a packing-needle. After exposing 5 cm. of the 
artery, dividing the sheath, which was infiltrated by blood, and watching it 
for five minutes, it was seen to gradually enlarge and pulsate more strongly, 
next the popliteal artery began to beat, and a pulse was felt in the internal 
plantar artery. 

In a second case, in which a bullet had crossed the artery in Scarpa's 
triangle, there was no pulsation in the popliteal artery or in the arteries of 
the foot, and the skin of the limb below the knee was a yellowish-white. 
The pulse above the site of injury and in the opposite limb was good. After 
nine hours the injured limb had become warm and a bright red ; the arteries 
in the foot pulsated well. The wound healed without complications. 

In a third case of a wound in the arm, following which the forearm and 
hand had become yellowish- white and bloodless, the brachial artery for 

D 2 



36 REVIEWS 

lOj em. above the elbow-joint was, on exposure, found to be contracted 
to a thread and pulseless, whilst above it pulsated strongly. After prolonged 
gentle stroking with the finger the artery slowly dilated to its normal 
dimensions, and the forearm and hand presented the most marked arterial 
hyperaemia. The radial pulse afterwards became equal on the two sides 
and the wound healed without disturbance. 

Kuttner and Baruch claimed to have met with 8 cases of what they 
referred to as a waist-like spasm of a segment of an artery. In 6 the 
operation gave an opportunity for an exact observation ; in the remaining 

2 the clinical picture appeared definite. 

Case I. Among other slight wounds by shell fragments one entered to 
the outer side of the tendo Achillis, just above the os calcis, and made exit by 
a larger and irregular wound between the tendo Achilhs and the internal 
malleolus ; there was only venous bleeding and no bone injury. Four hours 
after the injury, after excising the margins of the two wounds, the exposed 
posterior tibial artery was found not to pulsate, so 2*5 cm. was excised, after 
which both the ligatured proximal and distal ends pulsated. On examina- 
tion the excised segment showed no thrombosis or injur}- to the intima ; 
only at one point was the adventitia infiltrated by blood. 

Case II. A fragment of shell entered the outer side of the left thigh 
about its middle and made exit on the inner side about the same level with- 
out fracturing the femur. Much blood had been lost, the limb was of a pale 
livid colour; there was no pulse in the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial 
arteries ; the man could not move the limb. Five hours later a large amount 
of clot was turned out ; the femoral vein had been ruptured, its ends had 
retracted, and each bled freely before being tied. The sheath of the artery 
was infiltrated by blood and it did not pulsate. After the artery had been 
exposed for 10 cm. it was noted that a length of 2-5 cm. was contracted and 
at first sight pulseless ; above the artery pulsated, below there was no pulsa- 
tion. On more careful examination a small pulse was detected in the 
contracted portion. Immediately after closing the wound no pulse could be 
felt in the foot ; after a while a pulse was felt, then it was not felt, and again 
the pulse returned. Three hours after the operation the pulse in both feet 
was normal and there were no further complications. 

Case III. A shell fragment entered the back of the arm ; the wound 
of exit was large, just external to the internal bicipital sulcus at the same 
level. A tourniquet having been applied, there was much swelling below 
and all the arm nerves were paralysed when the tourniquet was removed, 
four hours after the injury. There was then no external haemorrhage, but 
the radial pulse could not be felt. The bracliial vein had been torn across, 
also the median nerve lacerated. The brachial artery for the length of 

3 cm. did not at first sight seem to pulsate, but on careful observation a small 
pulse was found passing through the segment. The arm after the operation 
was somewhat Uvid ; the pulse the next day could be felt at the wrist, but 
was weaker than on the uninjured side ; the second day the pulses on the 
two sides were equal. 

Case IV. A very similar case to the last exhibited a cold bluish arm 
without movement and with an absence of a radial pulse ten hours after the 
injury. The ruptured portion of the basilic vein was cut out ; there was no 
injury to nerves ; the appearance of the artery was the same as in Case III. 
Twenty-fours later the limb was warm and of a good colour, with the radial 
pulse equal on the two sides. 



INJURY CAUSING SPASMODIC CONTRACTION. ETC. 37 

The gi-eatest difficulty in diagnosis arises in relation to the popliteal 

artery- 
Case V. A machine-gun bullet entered to the inner side of the knee 
and made a larger wound of exit on the outer side ; there was no sign 
of fracture or of a haematoma, but of an acute efiusion into the joint. The 
foot and leg were cold, bluish, and quite immobile ; there was no pulse in the 
dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial arteries. The leg was raised and wrapped 
up ; four hours later a weak pulse was felt in the posterior tibial, but the 
limb was still cold and motionless. On the next day the dorsalis pedis could 
be felt pulsating ; after 48 hours the circulation had recovered, the foot and 
toes could be moved, and subsequently the knee. Whilst under observation 
for the month following there was no sign of a haematoma or of an 
aneurysm. 

Case VI. A rifle bullet traversed the thigh about its middle from the 
anterior aspect to the inner side behind. There was free primary haemo- 
rrhage, much swelling of the thigh, the leg and foot were cold and immobile. 
Ther'e was no pulse in the dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial artery. The 
circulation generally was weak owing to shock. The limb was elevated and 
wrapped up, and after the general circulation had improved the posterior 
tibial artery of the injured limb could be felt, the leg became warm and the 
toes moved. Meanwhile, the swelling of the thigh did not increase. The 
man was three weeks under observation, during which there were no com- 
plications and the wound healed. 

Case VII. A fragment of shell caused a wound of entry the size 
of a pfennig to the outer side of the right knee-joint, and a wound of exit 
the size of a mark in the popliteal space. The man was picked up after ten 
hours and operated upon eighteen hours from the injury. The leg and foot 
were pale, cold, and insensitive, the foot could not be moved, the calf muscles 
were hard but the calf was not swollen, there was no pulse in the posterior 
tibial artery. An incision was made into the calf for a suspected haema- 
toma ; none was found, but as no artery spurted the limb was amputated 
through the knee. The popliteal artery, the vein, and both nerves were 
found intact, only the sheath of the artery was widely infiltrated by blood. 
There was no haematoma in the popliteal space. 

Case VIII was an instance of spasm affecting the common carotid 
artery. A bullet had passed through the neck from the anterior border of 
the right sternomastoid muscle at the level of the larynx to a point three 
fingers' breadth to the right of the 6th cervical spine. The man walked back 
complaining of pain in the right side of his head and dark patches before 
the right eye. There was no haematoma, but a thrill could be felt and 
a bruit heard. The artery was exposed six hours after the injury ; there was 
a small hole in the internal jugular vein which was closed ; the common 
carotid artery was quite intact, but for 3 cm. it was contracted to the size of 
a goose-quill, through which there was a small current with a thrill. 
Beyond this no pulsation was felt ; on the proximal side there was evident 
pulsation. No complications arose; a fortnight later no thrill was felt or 
bruit heard. 

The two cases described by Frassi direct attention to the danger of 
stroking the contracted segment, for although it may not appear thrombosed 
there may still be injury to the internal coat. The stroking may then in- 
duce the formation of a clot and push it onwards, so causing gangrene. A 
man was shot throngh the popliteal space, and the limb below was pulseless. 



38 REVIEWS 

The popliteal vein had been lacerated, the popliteal artery was intact 
but contracted and with a very slight pulsation, until after stroking down- 
wards, when the pulsation returned to its full extent. But the leg went 
gangrenous and had to be amputated. In the second case there was an 
absence of pulsation in a segment of the radial artery, above which the 
artery pulsated well. After gentle stroking of the artery the pulsation 
returned in the contracted segment. Gangrene ensued, and the limb was 
amputated. 

FioiiXiE, J. L'inhibition segmentaire des arteres dans les plaies de guerre. 
Bull, et mem. Soc. de cliir. de Far., 1918, 44, 996. 

Fbassi, L. L'inibizione segmentaria delle avterie secondaria a ferite. Os^, 
maggiore, 1920, 4, 66. {Zentralbl. f. Chir., 1920, 47, 1402.) 

Eboh, p. Frische Schussverletzungen des Gefiissappavates. BcHr.z.Min.Chir., 

1917, 108, 61. 

EuTTNEB, H„ u. Babuch, M. Der traumatische segmentiire Gefasskrampf. 
Beitr. s. Jdin. Chir., 1920, 120, 1. 

La Costs et Febbieb. Un cas de stupeur arterielle. Bull, ct mem. Soc. de 
chir. de Par., 1918, 44, 1323. 

Lebiche, R., et Heitz, J. Des effets physiologiqiies de la sympathectomie 
peripherique (reaction thermique et hypertension locale). Compt. rend. Soc. de 
hiol, 1917, 80, 66. 

ViANNAY, C. (1). La stupeur arterielle traumatique. Presse med., 1919, 27, 
106. 

ViAHNAY. C. (2). La stupeur arterielle. Bull, ct mem. Soc. de chir. de Par., 

1918, 44, 322. 

W. G. S. 



NON-TUBERCULOUS JUVENILE COXALGIA 

Before the use of X-rays for diagnosis, all pain in the hip of young 
people was presumed to be tuberculous in nature, even what were popularly 
called ' growing pains '. By the aid of the X-rays changes at the epiphysis, 
the separation of the head and the bending of the neck, producing the 
deformity of coxa vara were distinguished. In June 1909, A. T. Legg described 
to the American Orthopoedic Society, 5 cases of what he termed ' an obscure 
affection of the hip-joint '. He appears to have differentiated the cases from 
tuberculous disease, as there was no tendency to caries, caseation, and sup- 
puration, but he did not sharply separate them from the epiphj^seal changes 
for the recognition of which the use of the X-rays are essential, and which 
are in many cases, associated with rickets, early or late. Legg's cases were 
between 5-8 years of age, lameness had followed slight injur}'', resulting 
in thickening of the neck of the femvir with little or no pain, no constitutional 
symptoms, little or no spasm of muscles, and no shortening. 

Coxalgia being generally understood to refer to an early stage of 
tuberculous hip-joint disease, the term pseudocoxalgia has been adopted by 
some to denote the non-tuberculous disease. 



NON-TUBERCULOUS JUVENILE COXALGIA 89 

In 1910, Calv(^, among 500 cases at Berck, distinguished 10 cases of 
chronic or subacute arthritis of the hip-joint, of short duration, recovering 
witli a mobile joint. The cases were fully distinguished by means of X-rays ; 
the skiagrams reproduced tended to show that the changes from the normal 
connnenced in the nucleus of ossification of the head. The normal condition 
of the ossifying head is that of a hemisphere, slightly concave towards the 
neck from which it appears separated by a translucent line. In the cases 
referred to it was found changed to a flattened cap, the epiphyseal line 
irregular, and the neck of the femur thickened. In young children the 
nucleus of ossification appeared subdivided, the particles later fusing to 
form a flattened head. But there was an absence of ex'osion of cartilage or 
bone. 

An appropriate comparison maybe made between Calvd's communication 
and that from the same hospital at Berck 10 years later by Sorrel. Using 
the term ' Infantile deforming osteochondritis of the upper epiphysis of the 
femur ', Sorrel distinguished 6 among 1,500 children with hip-joint disease, 
in which the following changes were noted by the X-rays. In the very 
young the nucleus of ossification of the head appears divided into two 
or three unequal bits. The head resembles a flat cap. As the separate 
parts fuse together, the head tends to mushroom out ; its process of ossifica- 
tion is irregular, opaque zones are intermingled with translucent areas. 
The epiphj'seal cartilage is irregularly indented, or divided by irregular calci- 
fication. The articular line as seen in the radiographs is increased ; Sorrel 
attributed this to distension of the capsule by fluid. The overhanging 
curve of the acetabulum presented in some cases irregularities, but he 
attributed little importance to this point. Sorrel also included changes in 
the neck of the femur giving rise to slight degrees of coxa vara or coxa valga. 
The report on Sorrel's communication by Mouchet and the discussion 
on it by Lapointe and Mauclaire whilst clearly distinguishing the cases 
from tuberculous disease, appear to draw no sharp distinction between the 
changes commencing in the nucleus of ossification of the head and those 
at the epiphyseal line, causing deformity of the neck. 

Fairbank's description of a case follows that by Calv^, and he uses 
the terms Pseudocoxalgia — Osteochondritis deformans juvenilis, i. e. non- 
tuberculous pain in the hip-joint in which the head of the femur becomes 
deformed owing to disturbance in the nucleus of ossification. 

Perthes, in 1910, described the affection under the name of arthritis 
deformans juveniHs, the change being regarded as similar in its commence- 
ment to the osteoarthritis of tlie hip of old people, a malum coxae juvenile 
resembling mahon coxae senile, but only advancing a little way and then 
undergoing spontaneous arrest. 

Foui' illustrations from the post-mortem examination of a case by 
Pommer are reproduced by Kreuter. In this instance there was found 
a fibrillation and erosion of the articular cartilage covering the head, which 
had commenced just above the insertion of the ligamentum teres. Also 
similar changes had occurred on the opposing surface of the acetabulum. 
From this point of view the pathological changes of the articular surface 
stop short at a flattening of the head and a widening of the acetabulum and 
do not advance to a porcellaneous condensation of the exposed bone, or to 
osteophytic formations at the margins of the acetabulum. 

Sundt's monograph deals with every aspect of the disease. The term 
' Osteochondritis ' is rejected because there appears to be no inflammatory 



40 REVIEWS 

element in the disease, and the cumbersomeness of the term Calvd-Legg- 
Perthes is minimized by the contraction C. L. P. Sundt's material consisted 
of 66 cases, most being sent to the Fredriksvern Coast Hospital for scrofula 
with the diagnosis of tuberculosis of the hip, A large section of the mono- 
graph is, accordingly, devoted to the differential diagnosis of these two 
conditions, and Sundt is driven to admit that, apart from abscess formation 
and other signs of destructive processes pointing unmistakably to tubercu- 
losis, there is no one pathognomonic sign which by itself can distinguish 
one disease from the other. It is, therefore, not surprising to find that 
many of his cases were treated by immobilization for a considerable period 
before the non-tuberculous character of the disease was established. This, 
by the way, appears to be an error in the right direction, for Sundt has 
come to the conclusion that it is a far more serious mistake to diagnose and 
treat tuberculosis of the hip as a case of C. L. P. than vice versa. 

Sundt finds that heredity, trauma, sex (male) and age (childhood) 
play important parts in the aetiology of this disease, whereas syphilis and 
tuberculosis are not contributory factors. In 110 cases of C. L, P. in which 
v. Pirquet's reaction has been recorded, only 37 gave a positive reaction. 
With regard to treatment, Sundt has come to the conclusion that the less 
these patients are interfered with the better. He justifies this attitude by 
the results of classifying his cases according as they were treated for long 
periods or for short spells by immobilization, or not treated at all. In 19 of 
his cases the limb was immobilized as for tuberculosis for a period of 1 to 4 
years. In another series of 16 cases, relief of pressure on the hip or absolute 
immobilization was maintained for an average period of 6 to 7 months. In 
the last series of 23 cases observed for periods of 9 months to 12 years, the 
principle was adopted of letting the child run freely about and abstaining 
from every interference. A comparison of the ultimate results showed no 
differences in these three series to indicate that progress of the disease 
could be arrested by treatment or, on the other hand, that its course could 
be favoured by giving the child perfect freedom. Sundt is convinced that 
C. L. P. is an exceedingly common disease in childhood, that abortive forms 
occur frequently, and that many a case of transient limping in childhood 
may subsequently be proved to be a case of C. L. P. as shown by skiagrams 
taken in adult life. 

From the numerous references to this obscure affection which have 
appeared of late, it would seem that injury, even slight injury, has only 
been noted in a few and, besides, the affection has often been bilateral ; it 
has been described as following the reduction of a congenital dislocation, 
but it has also been seen on the opposite side to a unilateral congenital 
dislocation. One might interpret that observation as showing a congenital 
cause, but it is also possible to attribute it to the extra stress thrown on the 
sound side by the unilateral dislocation. A mild infection has also preceded 
the trouble. 

The provisional conclusion on this obscure affection of the hip-joint 
would seem to be that it occurs particularly in the class of children specially 
liable to tuberculous disease ; that it is best treated for a while in the same 
way as early tuberculous disease until by repeated X-ray examinations this 
latter assumption can be disproved, when the child should be let run about 
under observation. Granted the correctness of the diagnosis, it may be 
expected to make a complete recovery. 

Such complete recoveries would seem to be the rule when the probable 



NON-TUBERCULOUS JUVENILE COXALGIA 41 

underlying cause, malnutrition, is at the same time overcome by good food 
and fresh air. But when the changes on the articular surface have been 
probably secondary, whether to rickety disturbance at the epiphyseal line 
resulting in coxa vara, or when occurring on the opposite side to a unilateral 
congenital dislocation, or when preceded by some infection, then there may 
well be permanent limitations of movement. 

CAI.VE, J. Sur une forme particuliere de pseudocoxalgie greffee sur des deforma- 
tions caractt-ristiques de I'extremite superieure du femur. Rev. de chir., 1910, 
42, 54. 

Paibbank, H. a. T. Pseudocoxalgia — Osteochondritis deformans juvenilis. 
Lancet, 1920, i, 20. 

Kbeuteb, E. Zur Atiologie und Pathogenese der Osteochondritis deformans 
juvenilis coxae. Zentralbl f. Chir., 1920, 47, 1162. 

Lego, A. T. An obscure affection of the hip-joint. Boston M. ^- S. J., 1910, 
107, 111. 

Febthbs, G. (1). Ueber Arthritis deformans juvenilis. Deutsche Ztschr.f. Chir., 
1910, 107, 111. 

Perthes, G. (2). Beitrag zur Atiologie der Osteochondritis deformans. 
Zentralbl. f. Chir., 1920, 47, 542. 

SoBBEL, Etienne. Osteocliondrite deformante infantile de I'epiphyse superieure 
du femur. Bull, et mem. Soc. de chir., 1920, 46, 1421. 

SuxTDT, H. Undersokelser over Malum Coxae Calve-Legg-Perthes. Jacob 
Dybwad, Christiania, 1920, pp. 231. 

W. G. S. 
C. L. 



ANTERIOR DISLOCATION AT THE ELBOW 

There has been doubt as to the occurrence of an anterior dislocation at 
the elbow. Until the observation in 1914, by Theodore Kocher of a case at 
the Surgical Khnik in Bern, and a second case of the kind by his son in 1916, 
no previous assertion has received confirmation by X-ray examination. 

Case I. A man, aged 40, was carrying a box weighing 25 kilos upstairs 
upon his right shoulder, the right arm flexed at the elbow supporting the 
box on that side, and his left hand on the other side. The box struck 
against a low ceiling, and he fell on liis knee ; as he got up the box slipped 
otf his shoulder to the right, backwards ; this forcibly extended his right 
arm, and twisted it outwards at the elbow. The pain thus caused made 
him fall to the ground with the box on the extended elbow. Some hours 
later he was examined, when the forearm was found fixed at a right angle 
with the humerus, abducted, and semipronated. The lower end of the 
humerus, including the external condyle, capitellum, and trochlea, but not 
the internal epicondyle, could be felt behind. In front could be felt the 



42 REVIEWS 

olecranon with the sigmoid notch and coronoid process ; external to this 
was the head of the radius in normal relation with the ulna. 

The tense biceps and brachialis anticus were partly ruptured, also the 
triceps. X-ray photographs showed the ulna and radius dislocated in 
front of the humerus, the head of the radius being displaced upward 
1-5 cm., and the olecranon process 4*5 cm. The internal epicondyle had 
been fractured and displaced in front of, and internal to the coronoid process of 
the ulna. 26 years before, at the age of 14, the patient had fallen on the elbow 
and broken off a bit of bone, possibly the internal epicondyle. Attempts 
at reduction failed until, when the man was fully anaesthetized, the forearm, 
flexed to a right angle at the elbow, was pushed backwards and towards the 
inner side so that the olecranon passed under the inner condyle and was 
then pressed outwards into place, the radius following. 

The patient recovered use of the arm, but could not completely extend 
or flex the elbow, being prevented hy the detached internal epicondyle which 
he refused to have excised. 

Case II. A man, aged 21, fell 7 metres down through an opening in 
a hay loft upon his left side, and in doing so struck his left elbow against 
the edge of the opening. He sustained, together with a fracture of the 
ilium, a dislocation forwards at the elbow, combined with a fracture of the 
olecranon. When examined the elbow was much swollen, the forearm 
fixed at an angle of 120° with the arm, midway between pronation and 
supination. The whole limb seemed shortened and the forearm displaced 
a little outwards. There could be felt the tip of the olecranon in its 
normal position with a sharp edge, also the head of the radius could be 
felt in front of the external condyle. The X-ray photograph showed 
a displacement of the ulna and radius in front of the humerus and some- 
what outwards, except for the tip of the olecranon remaining attached 
to the triceps. The dislocation was reduced under general anaesthesia 
by forcibly flexing the forearm on the arm and pushing backwards, and by 
exerting direct pressure upon the head of the humerus. 

Among some 25 cases in which this accident is said to have occurred, 
that published by Richet in 1839, had additional evidence supplied by 
a post-mortem examination. A man, aged 18, fell 14 metres from a scaffold 
and apparently sustained an injury to the elbow the same as in Case II 
above. Reduction (needless to note without a general anaesthetic) was made 
by extension on the forearm and counter-extension on the arm, then sharp 
flexion and pushing the forearm backwards. The displacement tended to 
recur and the elbow was fixed by plaster. Death followed from other 
injuries, when the brachialis anticus and the muscles arising from the 
internal condyle were found ruptured, the internal lateral ligament torn, 
and the olecranon fractured obliquely. 

A. Kocher concludes that the dislocation is due to torsion so that the 
external or internal lateral ligament is ruptured, and the forearm screwed 
round the external or internal condyle whilst fully or over-extended at the 
elbow. Then the internal or external lateral ligament gives way, or the 
internal epicondyle is torn off. In the more severe cases there is a fracture 
of the olecranon process ; in that case the dislocation forwards could occur 
in acute flexion. 

In connexion both with dislocations and fractures at the elbow, Kirmis- 
son recalls Malgaignd's view that the common dislocation backwards at the 
elbow occurs in extension, or with only slight flexion, combined with torsion. 



ANTERIOR DIST.OCATION AT THE ELBOW 43 

There is thus agreement as to tlie importance of torsion in both 
instances, in the case of the very rare, as in that of the common 
dislocation. 

KxBMissON, E. Considerations gonerales sur le mecanisme des fractures 
de I'extremite inferieure de I'humerus et des luxations du coude. Hev. d'orthop. 
1918, 5, 1. 

EocHEB, A. Die Luxatio cubiti anterior. Erqehn. d. Chir. it. Orthop., 1918, 
10, 1122. 

W. G. S. 



THE PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN 

Pain is so common, in fact so universal an experience, that it is apt to 
be taken very much for granted and to escape any very searching curiosity 
as to its ultimate signiticancc. 

It is of course true that philosophy has alwa3^s been much occupied 
with the problem of pain, but such inquiries have mostly been conducted 
upon an assumption, whether acknowledged or not, which makes their value 
to the biologist almost negligible. 

The object of practically all philosophic speculation has been to 
demonstrate some kind of congruity between man's moral nature and the 
universe at large. The subject of pain, therefore, has been approached by 
the philosopher under the conviction that the phenomenon must necessarily 
and however indirectly have value and moaning for mankind. In conse- 
quence, we see ascriljed to pain a ' disciplinary ' function in human 
experience which enables the philosopher to regard it as a not inconsistent 
element in an anthropocentrically constructed universe. Such methods and 
conclusions are, however, very unsatisfying to the biologist who is met at 
the outset b}'- the fact, so very evident to objective examination, of the 
enormous discrepancy between the amount of experienced pain in the world 
and any observed physical, mental, or moral benefit that ensues to the 
sufferers. 

Other methods must be used if results capable of resisting criticism are 
to be attained, and it was to these objective modes of inquiry that we were 
referring when we suggested that the general significance of pain as a bio- 
logical phenomenon had attracted relatively little curiosity. 

It is perhaps commonly assumed that pain is to be regarded as an 
evidence of disturbance of function similar in its general features to other 
such manifestations, and strictly comparable, for example in a broad way, 
wnth vertigo, vomiting, wasting, paralysis, and so forth. It is assumed, 
that is to say, to be related as to its origin and continuance with so)ne 
definite underlying abnormality of which it is a more or less precise ex- 
pression and measure. The further assumption is also not infrequently 
made that in a general way pain may be looked upon as having a distinct 
though perhaps indirect functional meaning and value to the individual, so 
that within limits sensitiveness and liability to pain constitute conditions 
tending to favour survival. 

Consideration, however, shows that these assumptions cannot be 
accepted without great reservations, and that pain as a symptom occupies 



44 REVIEWS 

a position by no means strictly analogous with that, for example, of dyspnoea 
or vomiting. Certain peculiarities in the status of pain are not difficult to 
detect and they may be indicated in three broadly definable groups. Of 
these groups the first is concerned with the frequency of pain, the second 
with the relations between pain and its pathological causes, and the third 
with the functional value of pain to the individual. 

The frequency of pain. — Pain is undoubtedly by far the commonest 
disturbance of well-being to which man is subject. Not only is it the 
almost universal manifestation of well-defined injury and disease, but it 
spreads its range much farther into experience than this. If one watches 
oneself carefully, even the healthiest will find that quite apart from injury 
he rarely gets through a whole day without some experience of bodily pain, 
some usually transient twinge or stab or ache that easily lapses from 
a healthy memory because it is unaccompanied by any other evidence of 
abnormality. 

The relation of pain to its bodily cause. — It is a commonplace of 
practical medicine that pain is of all symptoms the one most likely to show 
itself persistent and inveterate, and it is perhaps true to say that the more 
pain is a predominant symptom the more difficult it is to treat efiectually. 
The longer the time during which pain has been experienced the more 
difficult it is to relieve, though the originating lesion has ceased to progress 
or even been eliminated. It may even be said that when severe pain has 
been present for a long time, it seems as it were to become ingrained in the 
very substance of the nervous system, and to have become truly ineradicable. 

The functional value of pain. — Within the comparatively narrow 
limits of recoverable injury, pain undoubtedly has a value for the individual 
and furnishes unmistakable guidance whereby the life or the activity of the 
patient may be preserved. The value of sensibility to pain in this regard 
is very well illustrated by the diseases such as tabes and syringomyelia, in 
which analgesia of the limbs is a usual symptom. There can be little doubt 
that the so-called neuropathic arthritis of these conditions is due to persis- 
tent use of joints under circumstances of slight injury, when in the normal 
subject pain would have rendered disuse and rest imperative. 

When we consider the usefulness of pain to the individual and to the 
species, it soon becomes obvious that a distinction must be sharply drawn 
between pain in relation to disease and pain in relation to injury. In 
disease pain is almost wholly without usefulness to the sufferer. Apart 
from a few exceptional cases, such as perhaps the pain of acute pleurisy 
and of caries of the spine, pain is no more than an arbitrary and super- 
added affliction. It is difficult to suppose that the pain of cerebral tumour, 
of renal or biliary colic, of cancer, of trigeminal neuralgia, has the slightest 
functional value to the patient. Moreover, in most cases of cancer pain is 
characteristically absent in the earlier stages, and present only at a period 
when successful treatment is doubtful or impossible. Again, certain diseases 
consist, as it were, entirely of pain ; in trigeminal neuralgia, and the pain 
that sometimes follows amputation, the one symptom constitutes the whole 
disease and may continue for twenty, thirty, or even, as in one case known 
to me, sixty years. Such cases constitute the very acme of the functional 
uselessness of pain. A superficial examination then of pain as met with in 
practical medicine furnishes a fair body of evidence that its position as 
a symptom is remarkable, even perhaps unique. Let us now turn to what 
we know of the mechanism of pain in the normal. 



THE PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN 45 

Sensibility to pain in the skin. — It is in the skin that the mechanisms 
of sensibihty to pain most easily lend themselves to physiological study 
and it is upon work done in this field that most of the facts available are 
based. 

It will be convenient to enumerate fii'st certain facts which have been 
established as the result of work done on the normal and normally inner- 
vated skin by a large number of workers, chief amongst whom, by general 
consent, is v. Frey. 

(1) Sensibility to pain in the skin has, like tactile and thermal sensi- 
bility, a punctate distribution. Pain spots react to painful stimuli alone, 
just as tactile and thermal spots react to the corresponding stimuli alone, 
provided the stimulus in a given case does not pass outside the appropriate 
spot. 

(2) While the adequate stimulus to a touch spot is mechanical (or 
electrical) alone, and the adequate stimulus to a thermal spot (heat or cold) 
is thermal alone, the adequate stimulus to a pain spot is mechanical, electrical, 
or thermal (heat or cold). 

(3) At the same time, however, the mechanical stimulus that would 
excite a touch spot has to be increased in intensity in order to stimulate 
a pain spot, and the same applies to thermal stimuli. That is to say, the 
threshold of the pain spots is relatively high for the same stimuli as 
compared with the touch and thermal spots. 

(4) The quality of the sensation ' pain ' is characteristically different 
from all other sensations in being urgent, in tending to some kind of 
compulsory motor reactioA, and in being charged with affective quality. 

(5) The cornea possesses sensibility to pain alone, and in it the only 
nerve-fibres present terminate in free arborizations among the cells. It is 
therefore assumed that the free naked arborization is the end organ of 
nerve-fibres giving sensibility to pain. 

Thus far then we are able to make the important general statements 
that the peripheral pain mechanism is excitable by a number of different 
stimuli ichich have tw single physical character in common, that while it 
requires a stimulus relatively intense, it yields a reaction relatively excessive, 
amd that its characteristic anatomical feature differs strongly from all other 
so-called end organs in being a mere free and naked terminal arborization. 

It is necessary to give particular attention to the accessibility of the 
pain mechanism to a number of different stimuli. Of the other specific 
sensory spots in the skin each is accessible to one stimulus alone which 
represents a simple unanalysable physical process — the touch spot responds 
to movement, the heat spot to transference of heat to the skin, the cold 
spot to transference of heat from the skin. The pain spot is accessible to 
stimidation by all these, and hence the mechanism is destitute of that 
adaptation to registering a single physical change which is characteristic of 
all other peripheral mechanisms, including those of the special senses. The 
only unitary feature in the stimuli of pain is that they are such that 
a moderate increase in their intensity (with the exception of electrical 
stimulation) w^ould inflict actual damage. It is suggested in explanation of 
this apparent anomaly that in the process of natural selection the skin lias 
acquired what Sherrington calls a 'specific sense of its own injuries'. It 
must be admitted, however, that there is a difficulty in regarding as the 
essence of a stimulus, not the physical characters it actually possesses, but 
those it would possess if it were something else. It is also suggested that the 



46 REVIEWS 

supposed absence of a specific end organ of the pain nerve is in accordance 
with its high threshold and its accessibilitj^ to various stimuli, for the 
specialized end organ is regarded as at the same time increasing accessibility 
to one specific stimulus, and diminishing it to all others. 

Supposing these views to be accepted, they still give us no special insight 
into the phj^siological meaning of the excessive reaction and unpleasant 
affective tone so characteristic of the pain sensation. 

When we consider the number of simple sensations which in isolation 
are almost altogether free of urgency and aftective tone, the extent to 
which these accompany the smallest and most elementary experience of 
pain cannot fail to seem remarkable and to be a peculiarity, the explanation 
of which should lead us into the inmost significance of the pain mechanism. 
Simple touch, heat and cold may at times be accompanied by a certain 
amount of affective tone ; for example, some degrees of warmth are exceed- 
ingly pleasant, but they have no element whatever of urgency and tend to 
produce no impulse towards motor reaction. It seems therefore probable 
that the urgency of pain is not an ordinary sensory quality that enables us 
to recognize the stimulus, but something superadded and belonging to the 
nature of the pain mechanism. The sensation ' touch ' is easily evoked, and 
as it were flows quietly and smoothly into the sensorium, its sole effect 
being to inform the subject of a simple movement at the periphery ; the 
sensation ' pain ' is more difficult to evoke, but when its threshold is reached 
seems suddenly to burst upon the sensorium, liberating at the same time 
a veritable explosion of reactive energy. 

Now it happens that we possess other evidence that the urgent element 
in pain is not what we may call a mere ' recognition quality,' is not, that is to 
say, merely the means by which we recognize a stimulus likely to become 
injurious. In animals and man, after division of the spinal cord, different 
reflexes are elicited by stimulation of the lower limb according to the nature 
of the stimulus. The response to a stimulus that would cause pain in the 
intact animal, is a vigorous widespread and defensive movement ; the 
response to a stimulus that would not cause pain in the intact animal is 
a totally different movement which will frequently, for example, have 
a postural adaptation. Moreover, the response to the ' pain ' stimulus is 
prepotent over other responses, and if the two stimuli are applied simul- 
taneously or successively, the former will anticipate or interrupt the latter 
as the case may be. 

The study of pain in the normally innervated skin furnishes us, then, 
with a large body of evidence that it is in certain respects unique among all 
the other forms of sensibility, and gives us a reason to suppose that the 
mechanism which subserves it can be understood only upon principles 
perhaps fundamentally different from those in accordance with which the 
other peripheral mechanisms manifest their function. 

The results of experimental nerve section in man. — In 1905 papers 
were published by Dr. Head giving the results of a wholly new method of 
investigating the sensibility of the skin — the method, that is to say, of 
experimental section of cutaneous nerves in man. In 1909 and 1913 
observations founded on the use of the same method were published by 
Trotter and Morriston Da vies. More recently (1916) Boring in America 
has published a contribution to the same subject also based on the method 
of experimental nerve section. 

There can be no doubt that the new mode of attack on the problems 



THE PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN 47 

of cutaneous sensibility has yielded a body of precisely established facts 
which could have been discovered in no other way. The method, however, 
is so laborious that in fifteen years it has been used by only three groups of 
investigators. It is therefore natural that no exact agreement upon the 
whole body of observations has been reached, and that the theoretical con- 
clusions arrived at by the different groups of inquiries has been widely 
different. The reviewer does not propose to attempt here any critical 
examination of these three contributions to the subject, but will merely 
try to define what new material has been obtained which bears upon the 
physiology of pain. 

Numerous as are the differences and discrepancies of detail, there 
emerges from the whole series of observations the broad fact tliat during 
recovery of a sensory nerve after suture there is a tendency for the 
characteristic features of sensibility to pain to be greatly exaggerated, and 
for other forms of sensibilit}'' to take on similar characters to a greater or 
less extent. The sensation of pain elicited from the recovering area is 
extraordinarily intense, explosive, and unpleasant, and causes a practically 
uncontrollable impulse to some motor response. The sensation of cold 
assumes similar characters to a remarkable extent; it becomes urgent, 
explosive, extraordinarily intense, and associated with painful stinging. 
The tendency to a motor response is strong, the affective tone unpleasant, 
and the sensation distractingly vivid and obsessing. 

Traces of a similar kind of intensification are to be met with in 
recovering sensibility to heat and to touch, but in neither case are the 
phenomena so striking as they are with pain and cold. There are reasons 
for supposing that this is due rather to intensification being necessarily less 
conspicuous with manifestations of these forms of sensibility than to the 
tendency to the production of it being less pronounced. For example, the 
intensification of heat very easily produces a sensation of ])ain in which the 
thermal element is very difficult to distinguish. 

That all sensations in a recovering area tend to undergo what we have 
called intensification is, within limits, generally admitted by all workers in 
this field. That this intensification represents a modification of all types of 
sensibility towards the type which in the normal is shown exclusively by 
sensibility to pain is an interpretation shared in neither by Head nor by 
Boring, who explain the phenomenon by hypotheses far more elaborate. 
Both of these observers proceed upon the assumption that any peculiarities 
of sensibility shown in recovering areas must be explicable in terms of 
defect only, and are the result merely of some function having not yet 
returned. It was pointed out by Trotter and Morriston Davies that the 
events which accompany and follow section and suture of a nerve constitute 
a pathological process, the existence of which makes it necessary to consider 
as a causative factor in the ensuing sensory peculiarities the possibility of 
a disturha nee of function as well as a defect of function. 

What are the processes which follow upon a nerve section and suture ? 
The very familiar histology of these changes need merely be summarized 
here in the briefest way. 

Beloiv the Section : 

(a) Degeneration and disappearance of axis cylinders. 

(6) Proliferation of the neurilemma sheath so that its lumen comes 
to be occupied by a solid column of cells. 



48 REVIEWS 

At the Section: 

(a) Ramification and outgrowth of axis cylinders from the central 
end, some finding their way into the peripheral end; others escaping 
into the tissues about the suture line and wandering irregularly 
there. There is apparently nothing which attracts the axons to 
the peripheral end toward which their course is always irregular 
and wandering. 

(b) Fibrosis of the tissues in and about the suture line apparently 
excited by the presence of the naked axis cylinders, which appear 
to be irritants of connective tissue proliferation. 

Similar changes are seen after simple division of a nerve, as in an 
amputation. The so-called amputation neuroma or bulbous nerve end is 
chiefl}'^ made up of very numerous axis cylinders which have issued from 
the central end in a veritable spray. These are found pursuing a com- 
plicated convoluted course embedded in an extremely dense connective tissue. 

The study of such conditions gives one tlie strongest impression that 
when a nerve is cut across and left free, there is a pronounced antagonism 
between the escaping nerve-fibres and the surrounding connective tissues. 
The nervous elements seem to seek to invade, the connective tissue elements 
to restrict the invasion, and each seems to be excited to activity by the 
other. The changes found about the line of a satisfactory nerve sutui-e are 
of the same kind, but naturally of less degree, as many of the outgrowing 
axons are received by the waiting and approximated peripheral end. There 
is evidence then at least to suggest that the regeneration of a nerve is not 
a process that occurs wholly as a matter of course, but rather that it is to 
a certain extent resisted and precarious. Moreover, it would appear that 
the downgrowing axis cylinders are exposed to irritative influences, and 
that those which fail to find the peripheral end of the nerve must be 
particularly liable to this. Clinical experience of nerve suture in man 
leaves no doubt at any rate of the fact that regeneration is never certain 
and frequently incomplete. 

We may ask next whether there is any collateral evidence of the 
existence of this apparent hostility or incompatibility between the neural 
and somatic tissues. 

The insulation of the nervous system. — When we consider the anatomy 
of the central nervous system we cannot fail to be struck by the number 
and complexity of the mechanisms the apparent function of which is to 
insulate the nervous tissues from contact with the somatic, except at certain 
restricted points where regulated contact is necessary for function. 

The dura mater is commonly regarded as functioning chiefly as 
a mechanical support. This view scarcely accounts for the dural lining of 
the skull and the dural sheaths of nerves, for the extreme density and 
imperviousness of its substance and for the fact that of all membranes of 
the body it is the one most certainly and rapidly reformed after excision 
of part of it. If one excises a part of the dura at an operation, and has to 
expose the parts again at a subsequent operation in a few weeks, one 
invariably finds the dura completely restored and scarcely distinguishable 
from the normal, even though at the first operation one has laid the raw 
surface of the scalp flap upon the bare brain. The new dura always 
possesses the three characteristic features of the normal membrane — a 
glistening inner surface, extreme density of substance and difierentiation 
from the overlying parts, so that the scalp readily strips off" it. 



THE PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN 49 

Another similar evidence of this neurosoinatic ineonipatiliihty is 
afforded by the estabhshed fact tliat it is impossible permanently to drain 
the cerebrospinal fluid into any somatic tissue or cavity. The cerebrospinal 
fluid apparently shares in the physico-chemical characters of neural tissues, 
for wherever it is allowed to escape into the subcutaneous tissues, peritoneal 
cavity or so forth, a cyst wall forms aljout it havinf^ all the characters of 
a dura. The supply of the central nervous system with vessels, and the 
necessary somatic intrusion this involves, is met by every vessel that 
penetrates the nervous substance being insulated by the so-called peri- 
vascular lymphatic — a structure otherwise very difficult to account for. 

Again, it cannot be regarded as physiologically insignificant that 
ordinary connective tissue is practically excluded from the structural 
support of the central nervous system, while the skeletal properties which 
are peculiarly necessary in the brain and spinal cord are supplied by 
a special tissue of neural origin, and therefore, unlike all the mesoblastic 
tissues of the body inert towards nerve protoplasm. 

Pathological illustrations of the same fundamental principle are 
numerous and striking. The glioma, although behaving in the brain like 
a malignant tumour, never infiltrates the dura or invades the skull — it is 
essentially a neural neoplasm. Endothelioma of the dura which infiltrates 
the skull and behaves like a malignant tumour there, does not infiltrate the 
brain and remains separable therefrom though deeply embedded in it — it is 
essentially a somatic neoplasm. 

An excellent illustration of the seclusion of the central nervous system 
from the body is the impenetrability of the neural tissues to certain drugs — 
as is shown, for example, by the resistance of the parenchymatous infection 
of general paralysis to antisyphilitic treatment, while the connective tissue 
and truly extraneural gumma of the brain responds. 

The insulation of the peripheral nerves.— The peripheral nerves from 
the very nature of their function cannot be protected from contacts which 
would produce reaction by a general seclusion such as is satisfactory in the 
case of the central nervous system. Each individual fibre must therefore 
be insulated by a special envelope which need not be present around fibres 
contained in the spinal cord and brain. The neurilemma seems to fulfil 
these requirements. It is absent or rudimentary in the brain and cord, 
where the nerve can meet only such tissues as are to it physiologically 
inert, but it is present throughout the whole peripheral course of the nerve. 
Provided with this sheath a nerve-fibre can traverse any part of the body 
and remain inert to all the tissues with which it comes into relation, until 
it reaches the structure with which it is functionally related. 

Though not strictly relevant, it may be interesting to note that if, as 
has already been hinted, the outgrowth of new nerve-fibres during regener- 
ation is the result of the stimulating effect of contact with the somatic 
tissues, the absence of regeneration in the spinal cord may be due to the 
absence of any such excitant contact. Absence of neurilemma and absence 
of regeneration within the central nervous system would not then be cause 
and effect as sometimes supposed, but both effects of the same thing — 
complete physiological seclusion. 

When we see neurosomatic contact so carefully guarded against in the 
whole structure of the nervous system, we may reasonably suppose that 
the contact that is made even in the most careful section and suture of 
a nerve, is not without serious eft'ects. That such effects on the side of the 

IV. E 



50 REVIEWS 

nerve are in the nature of a continuous excitation is shown by the results 
of the division of nerves in amputation. In every such case the patient's 
consciousness of the lost limb is increased rather than diminished by the 
operation. He is acutely and more or less painfully aware of this phantom, 
and is probably receiving abundant impressions as a result of irritation of 
the raw nerve ends by the tissues in contact with them. In the majority 
of cases the phantom limb fades within a few weeks and one must assume 
that an equilibrium is reached between the invading efforts of the nerve- 
fibres and the encapsulating activity of the tissues. In some cases, however, 
such equilibrium is greatly delayed or never reached. The ends of the 
nerves continue to suffer a persistent excitation, and the patient to be 
plagued by a painful phantom limb. 

If one is right in supposing such a phenomenon to be due to excitation 
of the cut nerve, we may suppose that the sensations experienced would 
bear some relation to the number of fibres of various kinds in the nerve. 
Now it is probable that sensory fibres reporting movements are those most 
numerous in the limb nerves, and corresponding with this is the observed 
fact that perhaps the commonest of all complaints by patients is that of 
painful cramp-like fixed postures of the phantom limb. 

Having reached the position that the fibres of a regenerating nerve are 
probably exposed to a varying degree of continuous irritation, we have 
next to ask if this can be correlated with that intensification of sensibility 
in the recovering area which makes all forms approximate to the type 
which is represented in the normal by sensibility to pain. 

Now we have seen that pain nerves end in naked arborizations which 
necessarily keep them in direct contact with non-neural tissues. May we 
not suppose then that the pain nerve is a nerve that is constantly exposed to 
a limited mild subliminal excitation and that the secret of the peculiarities 
of the pain sensation lies in the fact that the nerve by which it is originated 
is a nerve differing from all other nerves in being normally in a state of 
continuous excitation. This would at any rate give us a tentative explana- 
tion of the explosive quality, the unpleasant affective tone and the tendency 
to motor response characteristic of the experience. 

The relation of pain to other forms of sensation. — It would follow 
from what we have just said that the nerves subserving tactile and thermal, 
that is, discriminative sensibility, differ from pain nerves in lacking this 
chronic excitation and in being as it were damped down. It will be 
remembered that all other end organs than those of pain, widely various in 
structure as they are, show one constant feature, and that is that the 
terminal nerve fibrils are shut in by a well-marked encapsulating formation. 
Whatever may be the function of these organs the constant recurrence in 
their structure of this element of encapsulation suggests that the insulation 
of the nerve fibril from contact with the surrounding tissues is of great 
importance, and the other considerations we have advanced allow us to 
suspect the completeness of the insulation of such nerves to be a means of 
damping down their general excitability so that the sensations they originate 
shall be without urgency and explosiveness and permit of that quite sensory 
atmosphere in which alone deliberation and discrimination are possible. 

Aspects of nenral evolution. — From this point of view we get perhaps 
a glimpse of the way in which the evolution of common sensation has 
proceeded. 

The germ of a nervous system is a group of cells capable of irritating 



THE PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN 51 

and being irritated by the other cells of the body. The essential hostility 
of neural and non-neural tissues gives us perhaps a hint of the physiological 
significance of the ectodermal origin of the nervous system and of its being 
formed at the surface and then sunk en iniibse into the substance of the 
embryo. If this hostility is fundamental, not less so is the need for limiting 
and regulating the opportunities for contact between the two tissues, which 
must therefore be separated b}'' an impenetrable wall in whicli openings are 
present only at the exact spots where interaction is valuable. In many 
invertebrates the nervous system is a mere diffuse subcutaneous plexus, and 
from that state onwards in the animal scale there is an extended series of 
increases in the centralization and insulation of the nervous system — 
centralization, however it may have come about, very obviously rendering 
insulation easier. In discussing the insulation of the human nervous system 
we have seen how very elaborate and complete the mechanisms securing 
this condition have become. 

Now in animals with a diffuse nervous system response to stimulation 
seems to be for the most part immediate and urgent. We may suppose 
that the relatively uninsulated nervous system yields in general afierent 
impulses of the explosive type, and that in such animals what sensation 
there is, is all of the quality which survives in us only as pain. Delay 
between stimulus and response, which is the fundamental function of 
a centralized nervous system, is possible when advancing insulation has 
damped down the urgency of incoming sensations ; as soon as delay is 
possible deliberation and discrimination appear. 

It is at any rate tempting then to regard sensibility to pain as the 
survival in us of the primordial mode of sensation. Its urgency and 
tendency to evoke immediate motor response is the reproduction of the 
normal experience of the lower invertebrate. From it the discriminative 
forms of sensibility liave been differentiated by the progressive increase of 
insulation. Regeneration of a nerve by exposing a greatly increased 
number of nerve-fibres to somatic contact and irritation throws back all 
forms of sensibilit}' more or less into the primitive type and provides an 
explanation of the characteristically variable phenomena of recovery after 
suture. If we view pain as an exaggerated response by a physiologically 
irritated nerve, it is possible to get some conception why pain is the 
commonest of symptoms and w^hy it is so apt to become inveterate. Pain 
is, as it were, physiologically only just not present in us all, and what 
appears to be a very slight disturbance pathologically may prove an eflfective 
and incurable excitant of it. 

Boring, E. G. Cutaneous sensation after nerve division. Quart. J. Exx)er. 
Fhysiol, 1916, 10, 1. 

Head, E., Rivers, W. H. R., and Sherren, J. The afferent nervous system 
from a new aspect. Brain, 1905, 28, 99. 

Trotter, W., and Morriston Davies, H. (1) Experimental studies on the 
innervation of the skin. J. PhtjsioL, 1909, 38, 134. 

Trotter, W., and Morriston Davies, H. (2). The peculiarities of sensibility 
found in cutaneous areas supplied by regenerating nerves. J. f. Psyclwl. u. 
Neurol {Ergiinzungsheft), 1913, 20, 102. 

W. T. 

E 2 



ABSTEACTS 



SURGERY 

ExtOGius, A. Studiei- och betraktelser ofver den Dupuytren'ska finger- 
kontrakturens patogenes. [Studies in the genesis of Dupuytren's con- 
traction.] Finsla LiikrsallsJi. Handl, 1920, 62, 489-506. 

Of the 22 cases of Dupuytren's contraction treated in the period 1888- 
1920 at Kirurgiska Sjukhuset in Helsingfors, 18 were males, and only 4 
females. In 2 cases the age of the patient was between 10 and 19, in 6 
between 20 and 29, in 4 between 30 and 39, in 4 between 40 and 49, and in 
6 between 50 and 59. Thus, in more than half the total the diseatje began 
before the 40th year. The disease was bilateral in no fewer than 12 cases; 
in 7 it was confined to the right and in 3 to the left hand. In 4 cases there 
was a family history of the disease, and in one of these it had appeared in 
as many as 16 members of the same family distributed over 4 generations. 
No correlation between manual labour and the disease could be uniformly 
established, and several of the patients belonged to the intellectual classes. 
Among the 50 professors of Helsingfors, 5 exhibited this deformity. 

Krogius examined microscopically 13 cases, in 2 of which the contraction 
had lasted only a few months. In others it had lasted for several years, in 
2 for more than 20 years. He also examined microscopically the palmar 
aponeurosis of new-bom infants, and found among the bundles of connective 
tissue small islands of transversely striated muscle obviously undergoing con- 
version into connective tissue. Among his sections of Dupuytren's contrac- 
tions he could never find in the thickened palmar aponeurosis any small-celled 
infiltration or other sign of an inflammatory reaction. Nor could he ever 
in these cases encounter transversely striated muscle-fibres. He concludes that 
this condition is a developmental disorder of the superficial palmar muscle 
(flexores breves manus superficiales). Just as the palmar aponeurosis itself 
must be regarded as a fibrous equivalent of certain muscles of the palm in 
some mammals and in the human embryo, so the fibrous tissue of Dupuytren's 
disease may be regarded as a product of an embryonic relic of the same 
muscular layer. The subjects of this disease do not possess atavistic muscles 
in the strictest sense of the word, but they develop the disease because, 
imbedded in the palmar aponeurosis, there are musculo-tendinous islands 
which later in life develop into fibrous tissue and thus provoke the charac- 
teristic contraction. But though Krogius regards the disease primarily as 
one of ' embryonic tendency ', he does not deny the importance of trauma in 
a certain proportion of cases ; it may, indeed, be the determining and 
exciting cause. C. L. 



NEUROLOGY 53 



NEUROLOGY 

HussT, A. F. The psychology of the special senses and their functional 
disorders. Oxford Medical Publications, 1920. 

Under the above title Dr. Hurst has published in full the Croonian 
Lectures delivered by him in 1920. The book is a record of the extensive 
observations by him and his colleagues on the action of suggestion in 
producing functional symptoms in normal people, and in relieving gross 
manifestations in hysterics. The author has shown in a very conclusive 
way that many physical signs usually considered to be pathognomonic 
of organic disease are in reality functional ; and great praise is due for the 
thorough manner in which he has worked at this subject over a wide field. 
In view of the publicity which his work enjoys, it will be difficult for 
a practitioner to fold his hands over any kind of case and say that nothing 
can be done ; for Dr. Hurst has shown that in every case of organic disease 
there is an hysterical element, and it should be the business of the doctor 
to disentangle this and get rid of it. This is all to the good, and may, 
perhaps, be a corrective to another school of thought, now enjoying an equal 
publicity, whose avowed aim is to register the symptoms of illness for years, 
it may be, before there is any disability at all. 

Dr. Hurst's work is so good that one wishes that his vision were 
a little wider, that he could see that his dictum, ' Hysteria is a condition in 
which symptoms are present which have resulted from suggestion and are 
curable by psychotherapy,' does not cover the whole ground, and that his 
associated statement, that after the removal of such symptoms by psycho- 
therapy the patients were fit and no more liable to develop new symptoms 
than other people, is not wholly in accordance with fact. Not only did 
those who worked in other hospitals see Dr. Hurst's failures from time to 
time, just as he tells us he saw theirs, but in this very book there are 
cases recorded which demonstrate that these two propositions of his are 
untenable. 

He describes two examples of hysterical deafness, in each of which the 
cure of the deafness was followed by amnesia, which had not been present 
before. He mentions these two striking occurrences without comment, and 
it is clear that for him they were of little significance. One man had a com- 
plete loss of the whole epoch, some sixteen months in duration, between his 
enlistment and the day on which his deafness was removed. So complete 
was it that he had to relearn the whole of his drill when he was returned to 
duty. Now, are we to suppose that this amnesia was not of hysterical 
nature "? If it was, who or what had suggested it ? It was so dramatic that 
it is astonishing that so important a question, involving as it did the impli- 
cation of faulty technique, was overlooked. Why was it not cured by 
psychotherapy before the poor wretch was sent back ? An amnesia of 
sixteen immediately preceding months would be no light handicap for 
any one of us with which to face the world. Dr. Hurst must have con- 
sidered it hysterical; he would not have sent a man back to duty with 
a brain lesion so gross as to have caused a symptom like this. Is it not 
possible that beneath the manifest symptom of deafness there was a strong, 
perhaps unconscious, wish to have nothing more to do with war, that when 



54 ABSTRACTS 

Dr. Hurst made a return to war likely the mind reacted by dissociating all 
knowledge of anything that had to do with war, and that in this way the 
wish was fulfilled ? Surely there is here an instance of a mental attitude in 
these patients, which it might be advisable to understand and to alter, 
something quite different from a sj'mptom, but which was the cause of 
a symptom that did not arise from suggestion, was not curable by the 
psj^chotherapy of persuasion, but yet was an hysterical symptom. 

Dr. Hurst has devoted considerable energy to the study of the 
so-called stigmata of hysteria; and because he has found that they, 
both somatic and mental, are always artifacts, he has somehow come to 
the conclusion that there is nothing in hysteria beyond the symptoms. 
It is a strange conclusion from such a premiss ; for the stigmata, if they 
existed, could themselves be only symptoms, symptoms of a more permanent 
character than paralyses or contractures. Their disappearance from the 
scene leaves the problem untouched. Hysterical symptoms characterized 
by loss are explained by the psychological mechanism of inattention. 
Physically, this is described as being probably due to retraction of den- 
drites. In severe cases these remain retracted during sleep, so that the 
hysterically deaf do not hear even in sleep. Dr. Hurst says that he 
hoped to be able to cure hysterical deafness by hypnosis, and was sur- 
prised that he failed ; but he found an explanation in the probability that 
the dendrites were retracted in hypnosis just as in sleep. This is very 
interesting, for it is a good example of the way in which a fanciful pathology 
leads astray. It is possible that, though Dr. Hurst consciouslj^ expected cure 
by hypnosis, his unconscious knew from the sleep analogy that he would 
fail, and that he therefore tried only half-heartedly and did fail. The 
present writer had no difficulty in curing several cases of hysterical deafness 
by hypnosis. 

In the section of the book dealing with ocular troubles there is curiously 
no mention of what used to be called neurasthenic asthenopia, where the 
patient can read quite well for five or ten minutes and then everything gets 
blurred. This is probably the commonest of all functional eye troubles, 
much commoner than blindness or fixed accommodation difficulties. As the 
patient can always see clearly for some minutes, it is difficult to fit the 
symptom into a pathology of ' not looking '. 

It must be said again that Dr. Hurst's work is of great value. The 
removal of hysterical symptoms is well worth while. If the patient has not 
to return to a difficult environment nothing more may be needed. Even if 
he has, it is a useful preliminary to further investigation; it makes the 
patient willing to co-operate. T. A. R. 

ViETS, H. Belatiou of the form of the knee-jerk and patellar clonus to 
muscle tonus. Brain, 1920, 43, 269. 

Viets, working in Sherrington's laboratory, has investigated the relation 
of muscle tone to the knee-jerk. This subject was recently reviewed in 
Medical Science, and there is little to add to what was then stated (1920, 
2, 346). 

He finds that in the spinal animal the knee-jerk is a single twitch 
followed by rapid and complete relaxation of the muscles. There may be 
a single rebound jerk, or several, after relaxation. 

In the decerebrate animal, or in the spinal animal, when the vasticrureus 



NEUROLOGY 55 

is rendered tonic by reflex stimulation, the knee-jerk is a single twitch 
followed by a continued contraction, the muscle assuming a new and shorter 
length after the jerk. There are then two elements in this jerk, the twitch 
or ' contractile ' element, and the tonic or ' plastic ' element. It is this 
second element that is the true index of muscle tone. It varies according to 
the tone of the muscle and disappears when this is reflexly inhibited. 

The flaccid muscle of the spinal animal is not completely toneless, but 
contains an element of spinal tone, which can be reflexly inhibited. When 
this inhibition is complete the muscle gives no jerk. 

Clonus is best o])tained with a low degree of tonus, and the range 
of tonus through which it is obtainable is small. Beyond this range, either 
increase or decrease of tonus causes it to disappear. The appropriate degree 
of tonic shortening is called the ' neutral tension ' of the muscle. A true 
clonus consists of a series of self-sustained twitches, regular in rate and 
amplitude, superimposed upon a tonic shortening. Its rate ranges from 12 
to 17 per second. 

It is perhaps unfortunate that the slighter degree of clonus which dies 
out after five or six Ijeats is called ' pseudo-clonus ' by Viets. There seems 
no fundamental difierence between it and the stronger clonus that persists, 
while the specific meaning attached to the phrase by the clinician makes this 
use of the word misleading. 

The plastic element of spasticity in man is possibly better appreciated 
than Viets imagines, and its occurrence has been observed and recorded. 
However, owing to practical difficulties in graphic registration of reflex 
movements in patients, to which Viets refers, there have been no adequate 
permanent records made. 

The tendon-jerks, obtainable in man from flexor muscles, have never 
been examined in experimental animals. In view of the more or less selec- 
tive incidence of tonus, it would have been interesting had some reflex 
comparable with the hamstring-jerk of man been investigated in the 
decerebrate and spinal animals, and its dependence upon contractile tone 
determined. F. M. R. W. 

WIX.S017, S. A. K. On decerebrate rigidity in man and the occurrence of 
tonic fits. Brai7i, 1920, 43, 220. 

Wilson describes a series of cases in which, in association with various 
abnormal conditions of the brain, and with or without loss of consciousness, 
there was observed a persistent tonic extensor rigidity of the musculature. 
This may be unvarying in intensity, or it may be periodically increased by the 
occurrence of ' tonic ' or postural fits. These are the ' tetanus-like seizures ' 
of Jackson, and they may also occur apart from persistent rigidity. Wilson 
regards this rigidity as strictly analogous with the decerebrate rigidity of 
Sherrington, while the tonic iits are in reality ' attacks of decerebration '. 
When the condition occurs during conscious life, it is not associated with 
tonic fits, and it may be localized in one or more limbs or segments of 
a limb. Underlying the involuntary movements of chorea and athetosis 
is a ' postural background which is composed of part of the complete decere- 
brate attitude '. 

The essential feature of the lesions producing these phenomena is that 
they dissociate the cortex from the mesencephalo-cerebellar level, and at the 
same time leavie the latter functionally intact. 



56 ABSTRACTS 

The rigidity is the expression of a non-cortical motor mechanism which 
finds its full expression in decerebrate rigidity and in complete tonic 
fits. 

The rigidity produces extension of the head, neck, and trunk, sometimes 
with opisthotonos, the upper limbs are fully extended and adducted with the 
forearms pronated and the wrists and fingers flexed. The legs are extended 
and adducted, the feet plantarflexed, and the toes dorsiflexed. If the two 
halves of the body are unequally affected the head is rotated to one side. The 
tonic fits are sudden in onset and cause a marked increase in the rigidity, but 
do not modify its form. They are associated with slowing of respiration, 
sometimes with Cheyne-Stokes rhythm, and dilatation of the pupils. He 
has observed cases in which tonic fits occurred, but in which there was 
no residual rigidity between the fits. 

Several of the cases did not die, and therefore the site and nature 
of the lesion could not be accurately determined, but in such cases as came 
to autopsy the lesions were various — cerebral haemorrhage, meningeal 
inflammation, and tumours — while he also cites hysteria as a cause. In 
cases of athetosis and of chorea, Wilson, also on purely clinical grounds, 
believed that he detected partial or localized manifestations of decerebrate 
rigidity. 

Wilson makes no reference to previous work devoted to the study 
of decerebrate rigidity in man, and therefore does not include the rigidity of 
hemiplegia and of spastic paraplegia, in which this tonic manifestation has 
been most definitely identified. In fact, he says, in reference to hemi- 
plegia, ' It might be supposed, simply, that the ordinary hemiplegic attitude 
of arm and leg is a unilateral decerebrate posture, but this is the case only 
in a sense.' What this sense may be he does not add, nor is any explana- 
tion afforded of the spasticity of pyramidal tract lesions, though this might 
be considered to demand consideration in this connexion. 

It is not certain from the clinical records that in all the cases there 
is evidence of the withdrawal of cortical control, which is an essential 
condition for the appearance of rigidity. This may be reasonably objected 
to the cases of chorea, while it is not very clear why pronation of the hand 
without any trace of underlying rigidity should be regarded as a segmental 
decerebrate rigidity. 

It seems unfortunate, too, to complicate a fairly clear conception by the 
admission of the attitudes of hysterical fits. Surely these cannot be attri- 
buted wholly to a ' release mechanism ', but demand something more than 
an uncontrolled normal activity of the midbrain postural centres for their 
explanation. This is also true of 'tonic fits'. Quite possibly they may 
arise in the same centres as decerebrate rigidity (though Jackson did not 
assert this), but while simple rigidity may be regarded as ' release pheno- 
menon ', a tonic fit has all the appearances of an active and explosive 
discharge of energy, as an irritative phenomenon, in other words. These 
have always been carefully distinguished from simple release phenomena. 
That Wilson fails to draw this distinction is seen from his reference to 
Graham Brown's stimulation experiments on the red nucleus, as well as 
from his view that tonic fits are merely attacks of decerebrate rigidity. 

In short, Wilson appears to include phenomena which have little or 
nothing in common, under the term decerebrate rigidity ; he makes no 
reference to the most commonly seen forms of this condition; while the 
conditions of disease underlying the tonic states and involuntary movements 



NEUROLOGY 57 

comprehended within his definition include irritative lesions, ditluse and 
focal paralytic lesions, and, finally, hysteria. 

At the same time, the rigidity and the tonic fits described are interest- 
inf and obscure phenomena, the elucidation of which is a prol)]em of great 
physiological importance, and it is a distinct advantage that they should be 
considered as possible expressions of the tonic rigidity so fully described by 
Sherrincrton. This, however, has certain characteristics of incidence and 
(quality, notably its plasticity and the reflex reactions that accompany it, and 
we should need a more minute description of these features in clinical cases 
than Wilson -provides, before the identification could be attempted with any 
degree of accuracy. F. M. R. W. 

BOGEB, H. Reveil liivernal de I'epidemie encephalitique et revivescence saison- 
niere des encephalites ii forme prolongee. [The winter incidence of epidemic 
encephalitis and the seasonal recurrence of chronic forms.] Bull et mem. 
Soc. med. d. hop. de Par., 1921, 36, 1633. 

Roger draws attention to the almost exclusive incidence of lethargic 
encephalitis during the period November-March, in every country in which 
it has appeared, and for every year since 1916. 

In addition, he records several personally observed cases, in which the 
onset of the disease during the winter 1919-120 was followed by the persis- 
tence of such symptoms as muscular (myoclonic) twitching, or the paralysis 
agitans syndrome. With the arrival of December 1920 these cases have 
shown a marked aggravation of their symptoms and the appearance of fresh 
manifestations of the disease. 

One of these cases, as briefly recorded by Roger, provides an interesting 
case for commentary. During the winter 1918-19, the patient, a man, had 
a short illness ushered in by two days' fever and consisting of asthenia and 
diplopia lasting for two weeks. Recovery ensued, and the patient appears 
to have been in normal health until two months ago, when transient 
diplopia was noted. More recently a sudden apoplectiform attack ushered 
in an illness consisting in right hemiparesis, ocular palsies (not specified), and 
lethargy. 

Doubtless, the diagnosis of encephalitis is justified in this case, but 
from the brief account given one is tempted to ask why not disseminated 
sclerosis or cerebral syphilis ? F. M. R. W. 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 

TwoKT, F. W. Researches on dysentery. Brit. J. Exper. Path., 1920, 1, 237. 

Three tjrpes of special forms can be isolated from dysentery and allied 
bacilli. Type A shows moderately thick but long bacilli, which may twist 
like a spirochaete. Type B shows long thick rods, some swollen in the 
middle or at one end, and these may break open and set free granules. The 
bacilli are associated with round forms and many free gi-anules. Type C 
bacilli are like Type B, but shorter. There are many granules and round 
forms, also thick branching units. In older cultures most of the units are 



58 ABSTRACTS 

globular, and the protoplasm may collect as a semi-lunar mass round the 
circumference. A filter-passing dissolving material may be present in 
cultures of dj^sentery bacilli, &c., which breaks down the bacilli into granules. 
The special types A, B, and C are produced by normal bacilli, but some 
smaller units are always present. The special forms are probably not stages 
in a true life-cycle, as the normal type is not produced in rotation, and it is 
doubtful if they are mutations. Special types may be produced for 
performing special work, and types in ' pure culture ' may be likened to bees 
in a swarm. They are possibly of importance in connexion with incubation 
period, successful infection, and production of immunity. Sexual multi- 
plication is not proved, but may exist in normal cultures. P. F. 

TocuNAGA, H. Ueber die Biologie der Influenzabazillen. [The biology of 
the influenza bacillus.] Deutsche mcd. Wclmschr., 1920, 46, 1857. 

An investigation into the effect of haemoglobin upon the growth of 
B. influenzae. PfeifTer and all workers up to now have looked upon the 
iron-containing pigment fraction of haemoglobin as the essential body for 
growth, but the present author concludes that it is not this pigment but the 
globin fraction which is necessary. He arrives at this by showing that the 
haematin fraction will not allow growth, a fact which has been known 
always, while globin prepared by him from haemoglobin permitted good 
growth. Although the method of preparation ascribed would not be 
expected to produce pigment-free globin (Reviewer), nevertheless his 
specimens ' on analysis showed no iron reaction '. Method not stated. 

P. F. 

Mackie, T. J., and IIowi.and, C. C. The value of simultaneous testing for 
the Wassermann reaction with two different antigens and the ' ice-box 
method'. Brit. J. Exper. Path., 1920, 1, 219. 

(1) The sensitiveness of the Wassermann reaction as here described can 
be increased, especially in early primary and treated cases, by testing 
simultaneously with a liver lecithin plus cholesterol antigen and a heart 
extract plus cholesterol antigen, i. e. a proportion of weakly positive reactions 
can be detected in this way which would escape notice if only one of these 
antigens were used. (2) The ice-box modification as applied to the method 
described does not confer any appreciable advantage over the usual procedure 
of incubating the mixture of antigen, serum, and complement at 37° C. for 
14 hours. P. F. 

Fbuhwald, II . Ueber Spirochatenbefunde in Lymphdriisen. [Spirochaetes 
in lymphatic glands.] Wien. Min. Wchnschr., 1920, 33, 999. 

An estimate of the value of examining for spirochaetes in fluid removed 
by puncture of the regional glands, in the diagnosis of syphilis. This 
procedure is recommended in cases of primary syphilis in which the chancre 
is healing or has been treated with antiseptics. The syringe needle is 
pushed into various parts of the gland and a few drops of saline are injected. 
Aspiration is then started while the gland is being massaged. 

In 24 cases of primary syphilis, S. pallidiiini was found in the inguinal 
glands 20 times, 7 times in 18 cases of acute secondary s}^hilis, and 7 times 
in 27 of later secondary syphilis. 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 59 

Thus, in the hands of the author, the method is of very considerable 
value for the diagnosis of primary syphilis. 

Attempts were then made to disclose spirochaetes in ' rests ' in the 
glands of later cases of syphilis. Four tertiary glands were examined, but 
none were found. 

Spirochaetes were, however, found in enlarged glands of two cases 
described as ' latent ' (i. e. persons with no obviously conspicuous signs of 
syphilis at the moment, but not closely examined. — Reviewer). One had 
a positive W.R. and had syphilis 2 1 years before ; the other was a recent 
ease of secondary syphilis, in whom the obvious signs had receded after 
a dose of salvarsan, P. F. 

Habebmann, R., u. MaueIiSKAOEn, F. Die Bedeutung der Hoflfmannschen 
Driisenpunktion fiir die Fridierkennung der Syphilis. [The value of glaud 
puncture in the early diagnosis of syphilis. ] Deutsche med. Wchnschr., 1920, 
46, 574. 

Thirty-three cases of primary syphilis were examined by gland puncture 
and in 30 >S. pallidum was found. In 1 1 of the cases the method permitted 
an early diagnosis, which, otherwise, was impossible. 

In the secondary period spirochaetes were not found so often. P. F. 

Dbeyfus, G. L. Die Beschaffenheit des Liquor cerebrospinalis — das entschei- 
dende Moment fur Prognose und Therapie in den einzelnen Stadien der Syphilis 
des Nervensystems. [The constitution of the cerebrospinal fltiid — the 
deciding factor for prognosis and therapy in syphilis of the nervous system.] 
Miinchen. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 1369. 

A summary of the author's long-continued investigations into tlie 
relation of the state of the cerebrospinal fluid to the prognosis and treatment 
of cerebrospinal syphilis. 

A pathological cerebrospinal fluid in the early stages of syphilis 
may revert to the normal without treatment ; from the latent stages 
onwards, however, such a fluid is an index of grave progressive processes in 
the C.N.S. This is particularly so when the W.R. is positive in high 
dilutions. The author has observed in many cases a progression from 
cerebrospinal (interstitial) to generalized encephalitis (G.P.I.). 

Eighty per cent, of 72 cases of early syphilis without obvious nervous 
signs show pathological cerebrospinal fluids (including slight increase of 
pressure as such). Most of these become normal on treatment, but some 
become abnormal again, and therefore it is essential in every case of syphilis 
to repeat lumbar puncture about 12 months after the end of treatment. 
The first course of treatment is vastly more important than subsequent 
courses for preventing relapse. 

Among 260 ' latent ' syphilitics, without nervous signs, at all periods of 
infection 17 per cent, had abnormal cerebrospinal fluids. 

Cases of cerebrospinal syphilis (371 cases) require intensive treatment 
in proportion to the degree of abnormality. Many cases can thus be brought 
to normal, but others not. 

In tabes (327 cases) a normal cerebrospinal fluid may be found, but this 
does not necessarily indicate a cure of the process, and treatment should 
nevertheless be carried out. 



60 ABSTRACTS 

The short summary of the author's work indicates again that no case of 
syphilis can be properly controlled or treated without the information 
supplied by repeated lumbar puncture. P. F. 

Bruusgaabd, E. Neurosyphilis. [Neurosyphilis.] Norsk Mag. f. Lcege- 
vidensh, 1920, 81, 76-84. 

Professor Bruusgaard's main theses may be classified thus. (1) It is 
certain that an inadequate, unsystematic course of salvarsan treatment may 
be harmful, as it often gives an atypical turn to the disease, notably neuro- 
recurrence. (2) In the case of primary syphilis with a positive Wassermann, 
specific treatment must be pushed vigorously, and prolonged observation is 
required before the success of abortive treatment can be claimed. (3) In 
cases of primary syphilis with a negative Wassermann, modern specific 
treatment can almost invariably abort the disease and effect a complete cure. 
(4) If early cases of neuro-recurrence are traceable to inadequate specific 
treatment, then energetic, systematic treatment should banish this com- 
plication. 

In support of hypotheses (1) and (4), B. gives the following statistics 
from the dermatological department of the Rigshospital in Christiania. 
Since 1912, 630 cases of recent secondary syphilis were observed, and 
among them were 10 cases of neuro-recurrence. After giving details of 
each of these cases, B. remarks that common to all was the inadequacy of the 
specific treatment. In some cases only a few injections of salvarsan or neo- 
salvarsan had been given at long intervals. In others numerous injections 
had been given, but the each injection had been small. At this point 
B. digresses with the reminiscence that his predecessor, Caesar Boeck, 
objected to the use of mercury in early syphilis because its course was only 
modified, and not always to the benefit of the patient. As for B.'s fourth 
hypothesis, he finds it supported by the fact that since he adopted, in 1915, 
energetic, systematic treatment of early syphilis, he has only once seen 
a case of neuro-recurrence among 420 cases of early secondary syphilis. 
His treatment for men and women was different. The former were given 
salvarsan combined with injections of salicylate of mercury, the latter neo- 
salvarsan combined with mercurial inunctions. The fu-st course of treatment 
was the most energetic on the assumption that it might also be the last. 
Treatment was continued long after the disappearance of clinical symptoms 
and the development of a negative Wassermann. The total amount of 
salvarsan given in one course was often 5 to 6 grm., and of mercury up to 
2 grm. For women the total was 6 to 10 grm. of neo-salvarsan, and often 
as much as 250 to 300 grm. of mercurial ointment. B. pushes the mercurial 
treatment of women more than that of men because the action of neo- 
salvarsan is far less efiective than that of salvarsan. Referring to the one 
case of neuro-recurrence in this series, B. confesses that, had he but taken 
the precaution of examining the cerebrospinal fluid before the patient's 
discharge, this disaster might have been avoided. C. L. 

Hoi.i.AirD. Neurosyphilis. [Neurosjrphilis.] Norsk Mag. f. Lcegevidensk., 
1920, 81, 84-7. 

Discussing the prognostic significance of changes in the cerebrospinal 
fluid in syphilis, Holland regards globulin and an increased number of cells 
as of doubtful significance, for these two factors have not been adequately 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 61 

checked by control examinations in other diseases and in healthy persons. 
He attaches more importance to Wassermann's reaction. Lumbar puncture 
in 92 cases of recent syphilis was undertaken, the material, after the 
exclusion of 6 cases of congenital syphilis, being grouped in two classes. 
The first included 44 consecutive cases before the institution of treatment. 
In one case all three tests (globulin, cells, Wassermann) were positive, the 
patient being a man of 45, with headache as the only clinical symptom. In 
three other cases, one of the tests was positive, and in one case two of the tests 
(globulin and cells) were positive. The second series of cases included 42 
patients on whom lumbar puncture was performed because clinical evidence., 
such as headache, suggested morbid changes in the cerebrospinal fluid. 
While only 5 of the patients in the first group showed morbid changes, 17, 
or 42 per cent., showed morbid changes in the second group. Holland gives 
these findings with reserve, admitting that they may prove instructive only 
in conjunction with similar investigations by other workers. C. L. 

ScHon, H. J. Nervelidelser ved tidlig Syfilis og deres Behandling. [Nerve 
lesions in early syphilis and their treatment.] Hosp.-Tid., 1920, 63, 57-9. 

In a preliminary report to the Danish Dermatological Society, Schou 
reviews his findings in about 800 cases of syphilis of less than 3 years' 
standing. About 1,200 examinations of the cerebrospinal fluid was made, 
the number of cells, the amount of the proteins, and Wassermann's reaction 
being investigated. The cases were classified according as they had been 
treated or not, and according to the stages of the disease. There were 491 
cases of recent syphilis in which absolutely no treatment had been given. 
Among them were 56 cases of primary syphilis with a positive Wassermann 
(blood), and in 12 per cent, morbid changes were found in the cerebrospinal 
fluid. The same percentage was found in 75 cases of primary syphilis in 
which Wassermann's reaction (blood) was negative. This percentage rose to 
23 in 300 cases of secondary syphilis, and to 39 in 41 cases of syphilis of 
6 to 12 months' standing. The cerebrospinal fluid showed morbid changes 
in 27 per cent, of the 15 cases of 1 to 2 years' standing. Schou notes as 
remarkable that most of the changes observed in the cerebrospinal fluid 
coincided with the second half-year of the disease. The changes found in 
the cerebrospinal fluid were, in the order of their frequency, pleocytosis, 
globulinosis (25 per cent.), a positive Wassermann (21 per cent.), and 
albuminosis (14 per cent.). 

Altogether, 133 patients with primary and secondary syphilis were 
examined by a neurologist who found partial or complete loss of the abdominal 
reflexes in 9 per cent,, exaggeration of the patellar reflexes in 20 per cent., 
and sensory disturbances of the trunk and lower limbs (of a uniform, 
radicular type) in from 5 to 10 per cent. Among patients with the triad : 
absence of patellar reflexes, lively tendon reflexes, and slight sensory 
disturbances, the cerebrospinal fluid showed morbid changes in 60 to 90 per 
cent., i. e. they were 3 to 4 times as common as in syphilitics not showing 
this triad. There would, therefore, seem to be some connexion between 
spinal meningitis and nerve symptoms. In about one-third of the cases of 
primary and secondary syphilis headache was present and was almost 
invariably associated with an increased intraspinal pressure. Optic neuritis 
was found in 3 per cent, of 443 cases of recent syphilis, and disturbances of 
the auditory mechanism in about 14 per cent, of 135 cases. Curiously 



63 ABSTRACTS 

enough, the cerebrospinal fluid seldom showed morbid changes in these 
cases — a fact suggesting that there is no connexion between lesions of the 
eye and ear and spinal meningitis. 

To investigate the course of early syphilitic meningitis, Schou repeated 
lumbar puncture at intervals of a half to two months and found that, in 53 
patients in the second stage, cerebrospinal fluid which originally showed 
morbid changes invariably showed diminution of these changes or their 
complete disappearance after treatment. But when it was normal to begin 
with, it subsequently showed morbid changes in a certain number of cases 
in spite of, or possibly because of, treatment. In 9 cases of primary disease 
examined again after an interval of a half to two months, the second lumbar 
puncture showed that a negative finding on the first occasion is very often 
followed by a positive finding on the second, although in the interval specific 
treatment has been vigorously pushed. In other words, certain changes in 
the cerebrospinal fluid tend, like Wassermann's reaction in the blood, to 
develop in spite of treatment. At one time the effect of this tendency was 
labelled ' neuro-recurrence ', but it really is the expression of the further 
development of a slight attack of syphilitic meningitis. In 39 cases, 3 
' re-punctures ' were made about a year after infection, and they showed 
that, whether the cerebrospinal fluid be ' positive ' or ' negative ' in the 
secondary stage, it will as a rule be ' negative ' after a year. But, in a few 
cases, it will still be markedly ' positive ', although, as a rule, the patient 
notices no effects thereof. Four ' re-punctures ' in 20 cases in which the 
disease had lasted 2 to 5 years showed the same phenomenon ; in a certain 
proportion of cases latent syphilitic meningitis persists. 

Discussing the proposition that these cases, in which the cerebrospinal 
fluid is abnormal, subsequently terminate in general paralysis and other 
nervous diseases of syphilitic origin, Schou remarks that this can hardly 
happen to all, for on clinical evidence only 10 to 15 per cent, of all cases of 
syphilis develop these late syphilitic lesions. The cases he suspects as being 
most liable to develop general paralysis, &g., are those in whicli the cerebro- 
spinal fluid shows morbid changes directly after infection. There were 12 
such cases among 500, i. e. 2-5 per cent. A second class of case which would 
probably be peculiarly liable to genera^l paralysis, &c., would include those 
in which morbid changes in the cerebrospinal fluid persisted or relapsed. 
There were 6 such cases out of 60, i. e. 10 per cent. Adding this percentage 
to the 2-5 per cent, already referred to, he gets a ratio of 12-5 per cent. 
This, he points out, tallies with the ratio suggested by clinical evidence. 
He admits, however, that this selection of candidates for general paralysis, 
&c., is based on purely hypothetical grounds, and only systematic neurological 
examinations of many syphilitics conducted over a considerable period can 
control his hypotheses. C. L. 

BORDET, J., et CiucA, M. Exsudats leucocytaires et autolyse niicrobienne 
transmissible. [Leucocytic exudates and a ti*ansmissible bacterial auto- 
lysin.] Compt. rend. Soc. de hiol, 1920, 83, 1293. 

BORSIIT, J., et CzuCA, M. Le bacteriophage de d'Herelle, sa production et son 
interpretation. [The production and interpretation of d'Herelle's bacterio- 
phage,] Compt. rend. Soc. de hiol., 1920, 83, 1296. 

How are variations carried on to descendants to reproduce the characters 
of species 1 There must be a factor, induced by some external influence. 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 63 

which acts directly on a cell to cause a variation. When this factor is 
produced by the cell itself and operates continuously, it is easy to under- 
stand how a variation is established, so lonsi; as the causative external 
influence continues. When, however, this external influence only operates 
for a short time and then ceases after having excited the intracellular 
factor, we must assume that this factor is capable of regular rejuvenation 
from generation to generation in order not to lose its original energy. If 
the factor of variation could not propagate itself the variation would cease. 
In practice it must be presumed that the factor, in order to carry on its 
effect upon the cell, must be renewable by the variation it induces. 

Suppose, ' now, that the cell is a microbe and that the intracellular 
factor inducing variation is an active substance produced by the microbe as 
a result of the fleeting stinmlus of an external influence. We must deduce 
that the microbe must transmit the aptitude to form this substance to its 
descendants. If we further imagine that this substance is diffusible in 
a culture medium, the mere contact of a medium in which such a microbe 
has grown will confer the same variation upon allied microbes placed in the 
medium, and these in their turn to others, and so on ad infinitum. If the 
variation relates to the life or death of the microbe, it will be seen that the 
species may propagate indefinitely an aptitude, for instance, for autolysis. 

If a guinea-pig is inoculated intraperitoneally with several doses of 
B. coli, the peritoneal fluid, when added to a normal culture of the same 
species, will confer upon it the power of autolysis, which is transmissible 
from culture to culture. The microbe in such a clarified culture may be 
killed by heat, but still the power of transmission of autolysis remains. 
The technique is as follows : the exudate from the guinea-pig is placed in 
a tube of broth and the few surviving microbes grow therein. The culture 
is now heated to 58° C. for 30 minutes and then diluted with several 
volumes of broth, reinoculated with B. coli and incubated for 24 hours at 
37" C. and 2 or 3 days at room temperature. The culture tends to become 
clearer rather than more opaque. If this is now sterilized by heat, it is 
found either to prevent growth of B. coli or to lyse it if it has already 
occurred. Thus the species has developed the hereditary power of autolysis. 

When a culture has been lysed a few bacteria still remain alive and 
when subcultured on to broth these grow very feebly, but when on to agar 
they may be trained to grow well. Such an agar culture has altered 
characters and does not lose its transmissible lytic power. It is more 
pathogenic for the guinea-pig than the original strain and is less readily 
phagocytosed. Further, 1 c.c. of an autolysed and sterilized culture injected 
into the peritoneal cavity of a guinea-pig will protect it from a dose of 
B. coli which kills a control in 8 hours. 

In the second paper the authors point out that these phenomena explain 
the lytic action described by d'Herelle (and previously by Twort. — Reviewer) 
and ascribed by him to a living filter-passing virus which preyed on the 
microbes in a culture (vide Medical Science, 1920, 2, 182j. P. F. 

Thomsen, O., and WuLPr, F. Experimental studies of the mode of action 
of antimeningococcal serum. Acta nied. Scandhuivica, 1920, 54, 65. 

The sera used by the authors were monovalent, prepared by injecting 
horses and rabbits with meningococci derived from Danish cases. 94 per 
cent, of these cases were of one serological type and dift'ered from any of 



64 ABSTRACTS 

those described by Gordon in this country. The serum had a marked 
protective effect for mice and guinea-pigs if injected with or before the 
bacteria. 

In order to arrive at an estimate of the therapeutic value of a sample 
of serum, it is necessary to know which immune factor is responsible for 
cure. Kraus and recently, in this country, Gordon have favoured the endo- 
toxic factor, but the authors do not agree that an endotoxin is in question. 
They hold that meningococci do not multiply within the bodies of laboratory 
animals and that death occurs according to the volume of injected cocci as 
a consequence of poisoning by bacterial proteins. 

When living meningococci are injected into the peritoneum of mice or 
guinea-pigs, they rapidly pass from the cavity into the blood-stream, and 
after 3 or 4 hours none are left. When the injection is intravenous the 
number in the blood-stream is rapidly reduced and they are found in the 
spleen, liver, and bone-marrow undergoing phagocytosis or autolysis, which 
latter leads to the poisoning of the animal. If, on the other hand, meningo- 
cocci are injected into the peritoneum with serum, very few pass into the 
blood and these only just after injection. The animal is not poisoned. 
Similarly after intravenous injection the blood is found to be sterile after 
a few minutes. 

To account for these phenomena, the authors were unable to find 
evidence of bacteriolysis. The reduced number of colonies on plating was 
due to agglutination and not to death of the cocci. Actually a marked 
agglutination occurs in the peritoneum, and this prevents the absorption of 
the cocci into the blood. After a short time these agglutinated cocci are 
phagocytosed, or immediately if leucocytes have been brought artificially 
into the cavity by a previous injection of aleuronate. This process does not 
actively kill the cocci, but they probably die out within the leucocytes by 
autolysis. The intracellular site of this autolysis accounts for the immunity 
of the animals against poisoning. After intravenous injection the same 
agglutination and phagocytosis occurs within the blood-stream, especially in 
the capillaries where the cocci are impacted. 

The protective action of the serum is thus due both to agglutination 
and opsonization, the agglutinated cocci being more easily caught than if 
they remained as single units. The subsequent autolysis of the cocci, taking 
place within the leucocytes, does not lead to an intoxication of the animal. 
The endotoxic extracts of Kraus owe their toxicity to debris of meningococci, 
and the protective action of serum is due to an agglutination and phago- 
cytosis of the d(^bris. P. F. 

WAiiiiGBEir, Abvid. Acute leukaemia in pregnancy ; an argument against 
the theory of infections origin of the disease. Acta med. Scandinavica, 1920, 
54, 133. 

A very interesting and well-reported case of the rare combination of 
acute leukaemia complicated with pregnancy. The patient, aged 29, 
developed on October 28, 1919, a pain in the gums and observed a discoloured 
patch on the mucous membrane. The patch increased and she felt weak, 
and by November 6 was admitted to the Surgical Clinic in Upsala with the 
diagnosis of noma. A large lesion was found involving the gums and tongue, 
but there was no enlargement of glands or spleen. A blood examination 
showed 4,070,000 red corpuscles, 70 per cent, of haemoglobin, 10,800 leucocytes. 



i j 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 65 

of which 6.2-4 per cent, were of the large mononuclear (lymphoblastic) type. 
The neutrophils had sunk to 1-2 per cent. A few myelocytes were also 
seen. From the sudden onset, the gangi-enous stomatitis, the fever, and the 
blood-picture the diagnosis of acute leukaemia was made. Of great interest 
is the fact that a year and a half prexiously she had suffered from 
haematemesis and several blood counts had been made, the last of which, on 
March 26, 1918, i.e. 19 months prior to the present illness, showed only an 
anaemia. She had been quite well until October 28, 1919. Daily 
examinations of her blood were made and showed a prog)-essive deterioration 
from the count given above (November 6) until November 20, when the 
figures were 900,000 reds, 30 per cent, haemogloljin, 48,000 leucocytes, of 
which lymphoblasts numbered 87-8 per cent., lymphocytes 11-2 per cent., 
neutrophils 1 per cent., eosinophils 0-2 per cent., and myelocytes 0-2 per 
cent. On November 10 the patient, being in the 8th month of pregnancy, 
was delivered of a female child, and although there was some temporary 
improvement in her condition she died 11 days later. At the necropsy the 
clianges in the viscera were slight, there was no enlargement of lymphatic 
glands. The marrow was of a pale brownish-red gelatinous appearance, and 
was mainly composed of large round non-granular cells of a lymphoblastic 
type. The normal structure of the lymphatic glands was obscured owing 
to the extensive infiltration of lymphoblasts among which some eosinophilic 
myelocytes were also found. The hepatic capillaries contained many 
lymphoblasts which were also found infiltrating the capsule of Glisson. The 
normal structure of the spleen was obliterated by the lymphoblastic and 
myelocytic infiltration. The necrotic part of the tongue was not infiltrated. 
A searching examination of the tissues and organs of the child led the 
author to the conclusion that they were normal, at any rate not leukaemic. 
The author was able to find only three similar cases in the literature, viz. 
those of Askanazy (1893), Petersen (1914), Lindbom (1919), and he regards 
this as pointing to a non-infective origin of acute leukaemia.^ Reference is 
also made to the possible occurrence of acute leukaemia in newly-born 
children as reported by Pollmann (1897) and Lomell (1905). In both these 
cases the mothers were not affected with the disease. Obrastzow (1890) has 
recorded a case of acute leukaemia in a nurse who, shortly before, had 
attended a patient who died of the disease. W. B. 



McIntosh, J. Transmission of experimental encephalitis lethargica in 
series in monkeys and rabbits, with notes on a spontaneous infection in a 
monkey. Brit. J. Exper. Path., 1920, 1, 257. 

The successful transmission in series of experimental encephalitis 
lethargica to monkeys and rabbits has completed the experimental proof 
necessary to show that the disease is caused by a living virus. The 
spontaneous case recorded above is additional proof. In the second passage 
the inflammatory lesion was not quite so strictly localized. This is appar- 
ently due either to some change in the virus or to the lesion not being so 
advanced. The greater involvement of the cord is in keeping with the more 
diffuse nature of the brain lesion. -P- ^ • 



IV. 



66 ABSTRACTS 

Gbamen, K. Om Wildbolz" egenurin-reaktion for konstaterande av aktiv 
tuberkulos. [Wildbolz's auto-urine test for active tuberculosis.] Hygeia, 
1920, 82, 673-781. 

Gramen has carried out Wildbolz's auto-urine reaction on about 40 cases 
of surgical and about 10 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis at the St. Goran's 
Hospital in Stockholm. Some healthy persons were used as ' controls '. In 
about 20 cases of definitely active tuberculosis, the reaction was positive, 
irrespective of the site of the tuberculous lesion. Among the cases in which 
surgical tuberculosis was more or less latent, the reaction was negative in 
about 50 per cent., and doubtful or faintly positive in the remainder. 
In some cases in which the disease was apparently healed, and also in some 
of the healthy ' controls ', the reaction was positive ; but Gramen discounts 
this evidence against the reliability of the test, pointing out that absence of 
clinical symptoms in apparently healthy persons does not exclude activit}^ 
of a small focus of tuberculosis. His verdict on the whole is confirmatory 
of Wildbolz's findings. C. L. 

MAXTLAirD, H. B., Cowan, Maby L., and Detwezleb, H. "K. The aetiology 
of epidemic influenza: experiments in search of a filter-passing vlruB. 
Brit. J. Exper. Path., 1920, 1, 263. 

During an outbreak of epidemic influenza at Toronto in the spring 
of 1920, 17 typical cases and 10 healthy controls were investigated to 
obtain evidence regarding a filter-passing organism as the cause of the 
disease. Whole blood, filtered plasma, filtered laked corpuscles, whole and 
filtered sputum and nasal washings, filtered empyema fluid, and filtered 
tracheal mucous membrane were used for animal inoculation. Guinea-pigs 
were principally used, but rabbits and mice also. Mice were found unsuit- 
able. After inoculation the guinea-pigs and rabbits did not become ill, but 
showed, when killed, a constant type of haemorrhagic lesion in the lungs 
which has been described by Bradford, Bashford and Wilson, and Gibson, 
Bowman, and Connor, and construed by them as indicating experimental 
influenza in animals. There was also present a proliferative endothelial 
change as mentioned by the former group of authors. It was not always 
apparent to the naked eye, and was evidently of different origin from the 
haemorrhage, although sometimes associated with it. By reinoculation with 
filtered blood and lungs from such abnormal guinea-pigs, these lesions were 
repeated up to seven reinoculations. The same lesions and the same per- 
centage of affected animals were found after inoculation with filtered blood 
from healthy persons. They were also present in apparently healthy guinea- 
pigs from their stock and breeding pens and in pigs that came to them from 
other laboratories, none of which had been inoculated. Attempts to obtain 
cultures of a filter-passing organism by special methods were unsuccessful. 
The animal lesions reported have no relation to the aetiological agent of 
epidemic influenza in man. Their aetiology is uncertain and is being 
investigated. P. F. 

Wolf, C. G. L. The influence of the reaction of media and of the presence 
of buffer salts on the metabolism of bacteria. Brit. J. Exper. Path., 1920, 1, 
288. 

The effect of moderate concentrations of disodium hydrogen phosphate 
(3 per cent.) on the growth of B. coll, Vibrion septique, B. ivelchii, B. sporo- 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 67 

geiies, and B. histolyticus in _o-lucose peptone has been investigated. The 
efFeet of acid potassium phthalate and sodium pyrophosphate on the growth 
of B. coli was also ascertained. 

In all cases the bufier salt either partially inhibits gas production 
or produces a lag. If the fermentation be very prolonged, the volume 
of gas may finally approach that obtained from a non-buffered medium. The 
effect of phosphates on gas production is most pronounced in the case 
of actively saccharolytic organisms, but is also definite with proteolytic 
bacteria such as B. sjjorogenes and B. hidolyticus. 

The effect of phosphates on the nitrogen metabolism is not pronounced. 
On the whole the formation of amino-acids and ammonia from a medium 
containing peptones, polypeptides, and amino-acids is not increased. 

In the case of the saccharolytic organisms the acid production appears 
to be increased when buft'er salts are added to the medium. This bears out 
some of the results which have been obtained w4th similar organisms when 
fermentation takes place in the presence of calcium carbonate. 

The final reaction of the fermentations is affected by the presence 
of buffer salts in the sense that in no case did the medium become so acid in 
the presence of bufier salts as it did when these salts were absent. 

The toxin formation in Vibrion se^ptique cultures is influenced by the 
presence of a buffer salt— sodium phosphate. The toxin had a higher 
potency than the control made without the salt. It is shown that toxins 
may be kept potent for long periods of time in the presence of sodium 
phosphate under conditions which would quickly destroy the toxicity of 
a product made in an unbufiered medium. 16 P. F. 

CoLtip, J. B. The effect of surgical anaesthesia on the reaction of the 
blood. Brit. J. Exper. Path., 1920, 1, 282. 

(1) The rate of elimination of water, acid and basic phosphates, and 
ammonia by the kidney, in periods before, during, and after anaesthesia, has 
been determined in a number of cases. (2) The acidity of the urine as 
estimated by this method is not materially altered during surgical anaesthesia. 
(3) A decrease in the C„ of the blood during surgical anaesthesia is not 
indicated. (4) The acidity of the urine may be decreased during anaesthesia 
liy the induction of hyperpnoea. (5) It is suggested that during surgical 
anaesthesia two processes, which are mutually antagonistic, are active, one 
the ' acidotic process ' of Haggard and Henderson, due directly to disturbance 
in metabolism as a result of anaesthesia, the other the ' over- ventilation pro- 
cess ', Whether the Ch of the blood falls, rises, or remains unchanged during 
surgical anaesthesia would therefore depend upon the relative intensities of 
these two processes. (Ch is the hydrogen-ion concentration). P. F. 

TuRNBULi., H. M. Glycogenic infiltration of the liver of laboratory 
rabbits. Brit. J. Exper. Path., 1920, 1, 310. 

The histological changes seen in ordinary microscopic preparations of 
the rabbit's liver when infiltrated with glycogen after a suitable meal resemble 
closely those of a severe parenchymatous degeneration. The danger of 
mistaking in animal experiment these physiological changes for manifesta- 
tions of degeneration is illustrated by an account of the findings in a series 
of experiments in which pairs of rabbits were inoculated respectively with 

F 3 



68 



ABSTRACTS 



contaminated water and with salvarsan dissolved in contaminated water. 
Incidentally, attention is drawn to the promising field offered by glycogenic 
infiltration of the liver of the rabbit for the experimental study of changes 
in the nucleus during physiological activity of the hej)atic cell. 

P. F. 

MsNTEir, Sil. L. Variations in the benzidin peroxidase reaction depend- 
ing on fixative, physiological activity, and type of animal. Brit. J. Exper. 
Path., 1920, 1, 225. 

(1) The Graham benzidin peroxidase reagent, consisting of a 0-5 per 
cent, solution of benzidin in 75 per cent, alcohol plus 0-2 per cent, hydrogen 
peroxide, produces a yellow-brown colour in the granules of mj-elogenous 
cells in human blood, and is diagnostic for man. (2) The polymorphonuclear 
leucocj^tes of blood of lower animals studied differ from those of human 
blood in their reaction to the Graham reagent in that only a small percentage 
of them develop the characteristic yellow colour. These positively reacting 
cells are probably eosinophilic. (3) In a 0-5 per cent, solution of benzidin 
in 75 per cent, alcohol free from hj'drogen peroxide practically all of the 
myelogenous cells of the guinea-pig, dog, white mouse, white rat, and rabbit 
give the characteristic coloured granular reaction. Addition of hydrogen 
peroxide to this solution tends to inhibit the development of the yellow 
colour, which disappears from all except one or two cells when the concen- 
tration of the peroxide is increased to 1 per cent. (4) Bj^ varying the 
concentrations of the alcohols in the Graham reagent a series of colours 
ranging from deep brown through the j^ellows and the yellow-greens to blue 
may be obtained in granules of human pus aspirated from empyemic cavities. 
As these samples of pus age the colour reactions are lost. Pus in which the 
leucocytes become more degenerated give a negative reaction. (5) The blue 
reaction of pus-cells may be duplicated by exposing blood-films to weak 
concentrations of acid, previous to treatment with benzidin solutions. 

P. F. 

Russell, B. E.. G., and Woglom, W. H. The respiratory exchange of sur- 
viving mouse tissues, normal and neoplastic. Brit. J. Expcr. Path., 1920, 1, 
244. 

Respiratory quotients were obtained for surviving normal and tumour 
tissues of the mouse by suspending emulsions in alveolar air in the Barcrof t 
blood-gas apparatus. The results agreed very closely in successive experi- 
ments with each normal tissue. Greater variability was found with 
tumours. 



Normal. 






Tumour. 




Kidney .... 


. 0-883 + 0.002 


t 1 37 S . 




. 0.941 + 0-010 


Liver .... 


. 0.813 + 0024 


?.1 206 . 




0-868 ±0.039 


Mamma .... 


. 0.914 + 0.027 


2fl 63 . 




0.818 + 0.014 


Submaxillaiy gland 


. 0.841 + 0.024 


^p 72 . 




0.951 ±0018 


(Total embi-yo 


. 1.3-1.1) 




0.719 ±0.031 


(Mouse embryo skin 


. 1.0) 


(S 4, 155 . 




0.674±0.013 



The tentative conclusion is drawn that the more rapidly growing, 
undiflferentiated tumours draw their energy from carbohydrate, the more 
slowly-growing from fats. P. F. 



1 1 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 60 

Dbaostedt, L. R. The effect of Streptococcus hemolyticus infectiou on the 
reaction of the blood of rabbits. J. Infect. Dis., 1920, 27, 452. 

This investigation was carried out to determine whether there is 
a change in the reaction of the blood during streptococcus infection, and 
whether, if there is a change, it is of sufficient magnitude to play any part 
in the course of the infection. Blood was collected from the marginal vein 
of the ear of a series of 30 normal rabbits. It was oxalated, dialysed 
throuo-h collodium sacs and the hydrogen-ion concentration of the dialysate 
was determined by the method of Levy, Rowntree, and Marriott. The range 
was found to be between Ph 7-6 and Pu 7-75. Strains of Streptococcus 
haemolyticus were injected into a series of rabbits intraperitoneally, and 
daily observations were taken of the general conditions, temperature, 
weight, and reaction of the blood. The maximum acidity observed during 
life was ?„ 7-3. When it is recalled that />'. haemolyticus can grow in 
a medium with serum until the acidity reaches Ph 4-63, the author concludes 
that the development of acidosis per se in an acute infection can play no 
inhibitory part in the progress of the infection. W. B. 

Meadeb, p. D., and Robinson-, G. H. Biological and physical properties 
of the haemotoxin of streptococci. J. Exper. M., 1920, 32, 639. 

The production of haemolysin (haemotoxin) by certain streptococci has 
been the subject of a great deal of experimental study. The present authors, 
working with streptococci obtained from cases of empyema, have investi- 
gated particularly the effect of filtration, adsorption, centrifugalization, and 
shaking on the haemotoxin. Likewise they studied the influence of the 
composition and the reaction of media on the production of haemotoxin. 
They consider that it is a labile substance affected detrimentally by filtration 
or by shaking. It is adsorbed by both organic and inorganic compounds. 
It is obtained from bouillon having a Ph value, at the time of testing, of 
7-2 to 5-3. The authors consider that it exists free in the culture medium 
and that for its production two substances, at least, are necessary. One is 
phosphorus, while the other was not determined with precision. The 
unknown sul)stance was present in considerable quantity in blood-serum 
and infusion of kidney, but it was neither albumin nor globulin metaprotein, 
primary or secondary protease nor peptone of the medium. The substance 
was found to be removed to a considerable extent by filtration through 
kieselsruhr. W. B. 

Gay, F. p., and Morrison, L. F. Experimental streptococcus empyema. 
II. Attempts at dye therapy. J. Infect. Dis., 1921, 28, 1. 

In a previous communication (vide Medical Science, 1920, 2, 357) one 
of the present authors, Gay, in association with Stone, described the 
experimental production, in rabbits, of empyema from the injection of 
Streptococcus pyogenes and the production of an active immunity from the 
use of vaccines. Continuing this line of work the present paper of Gay and 
Morrison deals with the bactericidal action of dyes on streptococcus, and 
especially the therapeutic value of dyes which exhibit powerful bactericidal 
properties in vitro. Thirty different dye-stuffs were tested for bactericidal 
powers on streptococci in broth culture as well as in pus. Eight of these 
in dilutions of 1 : 20,000 or more killed the cocci in both fluids. The 
bactericidal titre was greater in broth than in pus with two exceptions. 



70 ABSTRACTS 

Acriflavin killed streptococci in pus in a dilution of 1 : 200,000, while in broth 
the titre was 1 : 20,000 ; proflavin destroyed the cocci in both fluids at 
a dilution of 1 : 200,000. Experimental empyema in rabbits was produced 
by injecting 0-2 c.c. of a 24-hour-old broth culture of a passage strain of 
Streptococcus pyogenes into the right pleiiral cavity. Between passages the 
culture was kept in the ice-box. The therapeutic experiments consisted in 
the injection of the dye into the pleural cavity on the day following the 
introduction of the culture. The dyes employed were safFranin, janus green, 
solid green, methadone blue, new fast green 3 B, and acriflavin. In spite of 
the fact that the doses injected were larger than appeared to be theoretically 
necessary to sterilize the pus, and although there was no evidence of 
decomposition of the dye-stuff, the life of no animal thus treated was 
prolonged. W. B. 

Richards, J. H. Eacteriologic studies in chronic arthritis and chorea. 
Part I. Arthritis. J. Bad., 1920, 5, 511. 

This is a very abridged account of ' part of a study of chronic arth- 
ritis undertaken to determine whether any constant cultural or immuno- 
logic streptococcus was associated with this disease '. The investigator 
defines, by exclusion, the type of joint affection dealt with, but by his own 
definition the joints included constitute not one but many types of disease 
as this is understood clinically. In all, 104 patients were examined. Blood 
cultures were made in all these and Slreptococciis viriclans was identified in 
14. No other bacterium was found, and the controls examined gave negative 
results. The information with regard to this part of the investigation is 
more complete than that given regarding any subsequent part. Controls 
are not mentioned subsequently in the account of the investigation, and 
even here it is not stated how many controls were employed. 

Complement fixation tests were also done in the whole series. The 
antigen used was the unkilled, thoroughly washed, salt-ground, bacterial 
emiulsion, the dilution being determined by estimating their nitrogenous 
content. Positive results were obtained in 68. 

Cultures were taken from the fluid from joints in 54 individuals, this 
being done during an acute exacerbation, and an attempt was made to 
obtain fluid also from the periarticular tissues. Of these 54, Streptococcus 
viriclans was isolated in 4, but no information is given of the presence or 
absence of other organisms. 

The faeces were examined by the Gram stain in all the cases. Strepto- 
cocci were found in 42 and of these Streptococcus viriclans was identified in 4, 

The gums of all the members of the series under observation M^ere 
examined bacteriologically, the pus being obtained from a pyorrhoea or 
from the socket of a freshly drawn tooth, and >S'. viridans was found to be 
present in 50, Again no mention is made of healthy controls. 

The tonsils, whose secretion was cultivated in all of the 104 cases, gave 
a positive result for *S'. viridans in 40. Certain sinuses, the prostate, the 
pelvis of the kidney, and the Fallopian tubes accounted for 9 positive 
cultures of this streptococcus. Presumably the foci mentioned in the last 
group were examined only in those individuals where the clinical evidence 
pointed to the possibility of infection, but no definite information is available 
on this point. The question is nevertheless an important one, as, not 
infrequently, joint troubles co-exist with an accidentally discovered focus of 
infection in one or other of these situations. 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 71 

The results, on analysis, are of themselves sufficiently remarkable, for 
of 104 patients examined only 9 showed an entire absence of association 
witli Streptococcus viridans. They are still more remarkable when we 
consider the relative infrequency and lack of pathogenicity of this particular 
micro-organism. They are, liowever, arresting, if we may infer that the 
investigator's cases were taken indiscriminately in accordance with his own 
classification, because this would not include only the so-called infective 
type of chronic arthritis, that group to which some would confine the term 
' rheumatoid arthritis ', occurring before middle life and showing many 
affinities with other diseases of known bacterial origin. It would embrace 
also not only types which, clinically at least, show very little evidence of 
being infective, but even certain joint diseases which are almost certainly 
non-bacterial. It is true that, in his introductory classification, the author 
divides chronic arthi'itis into those cases which are ' non-bacterial in origin ' 
and those which are ' associated with bacteria in origin '. This, however, is 
a mere begging of the question, for there is no definite proof that any 
belong to the latter group with the almost sole exception of tubercular and 
the gonococcal joints. 

Further, if one judges by the recorded ages of the patients selected for 
the purpose of this investigation, very few are included which belong to the 
class already mentioned whose clinical resemblances to bacterial diseases 
are relatively pronounced. 

The report, however, is obviously a highly condensed one. Without 
an accurate clinical description of each individual examined, in the existing 
chaotic state of chronic joint classification, such records are not of very 
much assistance either to the clinician or to other investigators. 

R. S. W. 

Avery, O. T., and Cullen, G. E. Studies on the enzymes of pneumococcus. 
I. Proteolytic enzymes. II. Lipolytic enzymes : esterase. III. Carbo- 
hydrate-splitting enzymes : invertase, amylase, and innlase. J. Exper. 31., 
1920, 32, 547, 571, 583. 

The first paper is concerned with the study of the proteolytic enzymes 
of pneumococcus. These enzymes are intracellular, and are capable of 
hydrolysing (to some extent) intact protein, and especially peptones, the 
latter with striking avidity. Sterilization as a rule was performed by 
autoclaving for 20 minutes at 15 lb. pressure. Ph values were determined 
colorimetrically, with the series of indicators outlined by Clark and Lubs. 
Total nitrogen determinations were made by Kjeldahl's method, while 
amino-nitrogen was determined by van Slyke's nitrous acid method. 
Peptide nitrogen, viz. that in the— CO.NH — linkings was determined by 
splitting them into amino-acids by hydrolysis and then finding the increase 
in amino-nitrogen. 

The optimum reaction for hydrolysis is Ph 7 to 7-8, which also 
represents the optimum for the growth of pneumococcus. The terms 
' protease ' and ' peptonase ' are used, but with no assumption as to whether 
proteolysis and peptolysis are due to two separate enzymes or are two 
activities of the same enzyme. Solutions of intracellular substance of com- 
parable enzymic activity may be prepared by dissolving the bacteria in bile, 
in sodium choleate, or by mechanical and autolytic disintegration of the 
cell. The rapidity with which peptone is hydrolysed is proportional to the 



72 ABSTRACTS 

concentration of the enzyme. The enzyme is sensitive to heat ; an exposure 
for 10 minutes at 100° C. destroys its activity. If the acidity is increased 
to Pn 5, the acid death-point of pneumococcus, it suspends activity, but 
does not destroy the enzjaiie, for the activity is restored by a readjustment 
to Ph 7-8. Attenuation of virulence to one-millionth of its original strength 
had no measurable quantitative effect on the enzyme activity. 

In the second paper evidence is put forward to show that pneumococci 
possess also an endolipase of marked activity. The substrate used to 
demonstrate the lipolytic action was tributyrin. In no instances were 
antiseptics used as preservatives in the digestion mixtures, while sterility of 
all enzyme-substrate solutions was proved by subculture. The ordinary 
method of adjusting the substrate to approximate neutrality with phenol- 
phthalein, and then to determine by titration the amount of acid produced 
by the enzyme action, was not adopted. The authors found the optimum 
hydrogen-ion concentration for lipolysis, and then maintained this reaction 
by suitable buffer solutions. This buffered substrate maintains optimum 
conditions for enzyme action with a minimum of inhibition due to the acid 
products of hydrolysis. The enzyme -containing solutions were obtained by 
dissolving pneumococci in bile, or by extraction by other means. The 
optimum reaction above mentioned was about Ph 7*8, agreeing again with 
the optimum for the growth of pneumococcus. If the enz3^me is heated for 
10 minutes at 70° C. its activity is destroyed. Attenuation of the virulence 
of the pneumococcus had no measurable effect on enzyme activity. Enzyme 
solutions preserved at refrigerator temperature retain their activity for 
weeks. The possible relation of the endolipase to the mechanism of bile 
solubility is discussed. 

In the third paper the authors investigate the action of the intra- 
cellular carbohydrate-splitting enzymes, amylase, invertase, and inulase. 
The avidity with which pneumococcus attacks certain carbohydrates is 
manifest in the accelerated growth and increased acid production of 
organisms cultivated in the presence of these substances. Acids are produced 
in culture media from starches and glucosides, as well as from mono- and 
di-saccharides. The simple expedient of dissolving the bacterial cells in bile 
and testing the resultant solution for the presence of enzymes as carried out 
above for proteolytic and lipolytic activity was here found unsatisfactory. 
This was due to the fact that bile in the concentration necessary to effect 
bacterial solution inhibits completely the activity of the enzymes which 
convert sugar and starch. As a result, the authors disintegrated the 
pneumococcal cells by suspending them in balanced phosphate solution of 
Ph 6-2, and hastening physical disruption by repfeated freezing and thawing 
of the bacterial suspension. It was found that the enzymes present could 
act on sucrose, starch, and inulin. Determinations of COo content were 
made by van Slyke's apparatus. Qualitative tests for reducing sugar were 
carried out with Benedict's solution, while qualitative determinations 
were made by Benedict, by rotatory power, or by the gravimetric copper 
method. The iodine colour test was used for the hydrolysis of starch to 
dextrins. Sterility controls were used in all cases. The invertase and 
amylase of pneumococcus are active within the limits Ph 5 to 8, with an 
optimum at Ph 7'0. This range corresponds closely with limiting hydrogen- 
ion concentrations which define growth of the organism in the presence of 
carbohydrate. Attempts to determine the presence of an enzyme or enzymes 
capable of fermenting dextrose and producing acid, an active characteristic 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 73 

of the growing cell, were unsuccessful. The authors conclude that the 
enzymes described are not true secretory products of the living cell, but are 
of the nature of endo-enzymes, since their activity can only be demonstrated 
when cell-disintegration has occurred. W. A. M. S. 

Thomsen, O., and Chbistensen, S. Bidrag til kendskabet af pneumococtyper. 
[A contribution to the study of the types of pueumococci.] Jfosp.-Tid., 
1920, 63, 729-39. 

Thomsen and Christensen have found by agglutination tests that the 
types of pueumococci described by Americans as Types I, II, and III, are 
identical with types occurring in Denmark. The marked differences between 
these types were demonstrated on mice ; a highly virulent culture of 
pueumococci was thought to belong to Type I only, as it was agglutinated 
by I serum but not by II or III serum. It was, therefore, anticipated that 
0-1 to 0*2 c.c. of I serum would protect against ()-05 to 0-1 c.c. of a 24-hour- 
old, highly virulent bouillon culture. But the mice invariably died, and 
the blood, spleen, and peritoneal exudate teemed with pueumococci. 

It was found that all the colonies obtained from this source belonged 
to Type III. Thus, the culture, supposed to contain only Type I, had 
evidently become infected with Tj-pe III pneumococci : but these had formed 
such a small proportion of the pneumococci in the culture that they showed 
no visible agglutination by III serum. When a strictly pure culture was 
obtained by Burri's method of culture from a single pneumococcus, then 
0-2 c.c. of the corresponding serum protected mice against 0-05 to O'l c.c. 
of a 24-hour-old bouillon culture. 

To ascertain whether Type III was absolutely unattected by I serum, 
solutions of 24-liour-old bouillon cultures of pure I and III types were made 
up to 0-5 c.c. by the addition of 0-2 c.c. of I serum plus physiological saline 
solution. Table I shows the effects of intraperitoneal injections of varying 
quantities of Types I and III cultures into 16 mice. It was found that 
0-2 c.c. of I serum protected against 0-05 c.c. of Type I culture, whereas 
such a minute dose as 0-0000001 c.c. of Type III caused fatal infection, 
acting in the same way as on mice given no serum. The conclusion drawn 
from these experiments was that the various types of pneumococci are as 
different from each other .serologically as the other micro-organisms to 
be found in the sputum. Hence the necessity for type-specific serum in the 
treatment of pneumococcal infections. 

In order to learn how small a proportion of one type in a mixed culture 
of Types I and III would be demonstrable by agglutination, solutions con- 
taining the types in different proportions were made from equally dense 
bouillon cultures of Types I and III, and were tested with I and III serum. 
It was found that, when one type formed only 20 per cent, of the mixture, 
it was incapable of agglutination, and this was not demonstrable till the 
type in minority represented at least 40 per cent, of the mixture. When 
the two types were present in equal quantities, agglutination was equally 
well-marked with I and III serum. There was a tendency, demonstrated 
in different ways, for Type I to outgrow Type III during passage from one 
mouse to another by intraperitoneal injection. This difference in the 
behaviour of the two types was shown by the following experiments. 

Six mice were given intravenous injections of various quantities of Tj'pe 
III. Six other mice were given intraperitoneal injections of the same 



74> ABSTRACTS 

quantities. It was found that the intravenous injections were considerably 
less toxic than the intraperitoneal injections. But when this experiment 
was repeated with Tj^pe I, there was no difference in the effect of intravenous 
and intraperitoneal injections. This difference in the behaviour of Types I 
and III was not demonstrable when highly \nrulent were replaced by 
only slightly virulent cultures. Probably the greater resistance of the 
mouse under certain circumstances to intravenous, as compared with intra- 
peritoneal, injections may be traceable to the blood containing more bacteri- 
cidal or growth-inhibiting substances than the peritoneal fluid. 

Using Burri's method for isolating single pneumococci, Thomsen and 
Christensen introduced into the peritoneal cavity of two mice 3 and 5 pneumo- 
cocci respectively, belonging to Type I. Both micedied,af ter 2 days, of pneumo- 
coccal septicaemia, with Type I in the blood. The same experiment with 5 
and 4 pneumococci of Type III caused no infection. More than 4 or 5 
couples of pneumococci could not be counted with accuracy, but it was found 
that at least about 20 pneumococci, counted by Wright's method, of Type III 
were required to provoke infection by peritoneal injection. These experi- 
ments, again, suggest that a greater degree of virulence can be achieved for 
Type I than for Type III. Type I differed markedly from Types II and III 
in the slightness of the precipitation by its homologous serum of a bouillon 
culture freed from bacteria by centrifugalization. The precipitation of 
bouillon cultures of Types II and III by II and III sera respectively was 
marked, that for Type II being slightly greater than that for Type III. 

C. L. 

Dumas, J. Sur la presence du bacteriophage dans Tintestin sain, dans la terre 
et dans Teau. [On the presence of bacteriophage in the healthy intestine 
in soil and in water.] Compf. rend. Soc. cle hiol, 1920, 83. 1314. 

d'HebeIoXiE, T. (1). Sur le microbe bacteriophage. [On the bacteriophagic 
microbe.] Compf. rend. Soc. de biol, 1920, 83, 1318. 

d'HebelIiE, F. (2). Sur la nature du prineipe bacteriophage. [On the nature 
of the bacteriophagic principle.] Compt. rend. Soc. de biol, 1920, 83, 1320. 

BABI.ET, J. Sur le prineipe bacteriophage de d'Herelle. [On the bacterio- 
phagic principle of d'Herelle.] Compt. rend. Soc. de biol, 1920, 83, 1322. 

Debbe, R., et Haguenau. Quelques particularites du ' phenomena de 
d'Herelle '. [Some peculiarities of the ' d'Herelle phenomenon '.] Compt. 
rend. Soc. de biol, 1920, 83, 1348, 1368. 

WoLLMAN, E. (1). A propos de la note de MM. Bordet et Ciiica. (Phenomene 
de d'Herelle, autolyse microbienne transmissible de J. Bordet et M. Ciuca et 
hypothese de la pangenese de Darwin.) [Concerning the note of Bordet and 
Ciuca. (d'Herelle's phenomenon, transmissible microbic autolysis of 
Bordet and Ciuca and Darwin's theory of pangenesis.] Compt. rend. Soc. de 
biol, 1920, 83, 1478. 

WoiiiiMAir, E. (2). Sur le phenomene de d'Herelle. [On the phenomenon of 
d'Herelle.] Compt. rend. Soc. de biol, 1921, 84, 3. 

SAI.IMBENI. Sur le bacteriophage de d'Herelle. [On d'Herelle's bacterio- 
phage.] Compt. rend. Soc. de biol, 1920, 83, 1545. 

The fundamental observations on which is based d'Herelle's idea of 
the existence of a ' bacteriophagic ' microbe which produces a lysis of 
B. dysenteriae Shiga have already been reviewed in this journal [Medical 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 75 

Science, 1920, 2, 182). In the same review attention was directed to the 
work of Kabeshima, who disputed d'Herelle's main contention that the 
'bacteriophage' was living, as he found that it sustained without injury 
a temperature of 70° C. Kaheshima considered that it was probably of 
the nature of a catalyst which caused nucro-organisms to produce autolytic 
ferments, these ferments acting as catalysts to other bacteria. In this way 
the lytic or bacteriophagic process can be carried on from generation to 
generation. Twort, wlio was in fact the first to recognize the bacterio- 
phagic phenomenon (1915), had a similar idea. Upon all new subjects in 
science, a litej-ature, good and bad, rapidly accumulates, and this is now 
happening with regard to the ' phenomenon of d'Herelle '. It is taking one 
of two directions, (a) new facts illustrating bacteriophagic phenomena, 
(6) new views explaining these phenomena. Some of the recent communi- 
cations are here considered. 

Dumas describes the bacteriophagy of B. dysenteriae Shiga and B. coll, 
from products obtained from persons who never had intestinal disease. 
He also found ' bacteriophage ' in the intestine of guinea-pigs, and, believing 
it to be widely disseminated, examined and found it in soil and in different 
waters. Thus, on adding 150 c.c. of water to 150 c.c. of bouillon and placing 
the mixture in the incubator for 24 hours, he found that the filtrate from 
a Chamberland bougie is lytic when tested on B. dysenteriae or B. coli. 

d'Herelle (1), in a short note, defends his previous position in opposition 
to Kabeshima, and maintains that the alleged solubility of ' bacteriophage ' 
in ether is not a reality. In a second note he considers in particular the 
idea of Kabeshima that the action consists essentially of a catalyst and 
a proferment, the latter being present in or produced by the bacterium, 
while the former is derived from the host. d'Herelle thinks that the trans- 
mission from generation to generation must be due to a living agent 
endowed with powers of reproduction. 

Debre and Haguenau examined 81 samples of faeces from 63 persons, 
and, having prepared the bacteriophagic materials by filtration, as usual, 
tested them on dysentery, paratyphoid, typhoid, and colon bacilli. In 
6 cases of acute dysentery the intestinal filtrate was active three times. 
In 16 cases of enteric fever it was also found three times. It was also 
present in material from one case of diarrhoea, one of cancer of the stomach, 
one of rheumatic fever, one of phthisis, and two cases of peritonitis. On 
the other hand, Debre and Haguenau found no evidence of bacteriophage 
in filtrates from the stools of infants healthy or ill, breast- or bottle-fed. 
They also affirm that the bacteriophagic extracts are not always of the 
same activity in different persons or even in one and the same person at 
different times. Seventeen ' strains ' of bacteriophage studied by them were 
all active on B. dysenteriae Shiga. While the bacteriophage acts in a 
medium, such as bouillon or serum, it is inactive if applied to an emulsion 
of Shiga's bacilli suspended merely in salt solution. 

An important communication of Bordet and Ciuca on this subject has 
been separately reviewed in this number of Medical Science. In a short 
note Wollman recalls the resemblance between Bordet's views and the old 
doctrine of pangenesis by Darwin. Salimbeni points out that facts, similar 
to those established by d'Herelle, are known in connexion with myxo- 
mycetes and myxobacteria, which only live in association with certain bacteria 
and, having grown, cause lysis of the said bacterium. He cites the case of 
Dlctyostelium mucoroides, which lives in association with B. Jluorescens. 



76 ABSTRACTS 

From cultures of D. mucoroides, Pinoy obtained a ferment which was lytic 
for B. fluorescent. Salimbeni thinks that the d'Herelle phenomenon is 
really due to some stage in the history of a pleomorphic organism. He 
carried out observations on the lysis of B. dyseiiteriae Shiga by ' bacterio- 
phage ', examining the changes induced in a van Tieghem chamber. He 
found, in addition to the dysentery bacilli, a number of small, round or 
slightly elongated bodies. The latter were often seen in direct contact 
with the bacilli. They germinate and set at libertj'' small masses of proto- 
plasm which for a time remain attached to the bacilli. Having ultimately 
freed themselves, the protoplasmic masses enlarge and show one, rarely two, 
vacuoles, and throw out pseudopodia and, as he affirms, become myx- 
amoebae. These changes can also be studied in stained preparations. 
Salimbeni provisionally suggests the name of Myxomyces skiga'phagus for 
his myxamoeba. In a note A. Pettit states that Dumas, whose research is 
referred to above, on examining his cultures in the light of Salimbeni's 
report, found that a number of the tubes contained a myxamoeba. 

In a later communication, Wollman (2) has made some interesting 
experiments to determine the nature of d'Herelle's phenomenon. If one 
add a trace of a living culture of Shiga's bacillus to a diluted bacteriolysate 
it is observed that there is a great increase in the bacteriolytic power, and 
this power is preserved for a long time, even in the absence of living Shiga 
bacilli. Wollman then studies what the effect would be if the bacilli were 
separated by a membrane which would be permeable to a ferment-like body 
but impermeable to bacteria like B. dyf<erderiae. Such a membrane may 
be made in the form of collodium sacs. These are prepared in the ordinary 
way and are connected with a small glass tube plugged with cotton wool, 
the sacs havino; been sterilized in water in the autoclave at 110° C. The 
water which has diffused into their interior having been removed by a 
pipette, is replaced by bouillon inseminated with a trace of B. dyseiiteriae, 
and the charged sac is lowered into a tube of bouillon to which has been 
added 10 di^ops of an active bacteriolysate. If one adds a drop of this 
bouillon-diluted bacteriolysate to a living culture of Shiga's bacillus and 
implants the mixture on agar, at once or later, areas of lysis make their 
appearance. With very permeable collodium sacs charged with B. dyseii- 
teriae in the interior, lysis takes the place of the bacilli, from which, 
it is contended, there must have been a passage of the bacteriophagie 
element through the collodium. In the interior of the sacs Salimbeni is 
stated to have found elements such as he had previously reported. 

With less permeable sacs (4 per cent, collodium) employed in the same 
manner as above, it was found that the bacteriophage in the bouillon, i. e. 
outside the sac, increases in activity, l:)ut there is no lysis of B. dyseiiteriae 
in the inside of the sac, a result which is interpreted as being due to the 
fact that the bacteriophage has multiplied outside the sac but has not 
penetrated into the interior. Wollman considers that this experiment 
renders untenable the view that the process is a modification of the bacillus 
as suggested by Bordet and Ciuca. W. B. 

1 NiNNi, C. Eicerclie svdla flora del tenue intestine di piccoli erbivori, special- 
I luente in rapporto alia presenza in esso del £. coli. [On the flora of the small 
I intestine of small herbivora, with special reference to the presence in it of 
\ B. colL] Fathologica, 1920, 12, 242. 

Investigations were carried out on healthy and diseased guinea-pigs 



I 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY -(1 

and raljbits, and showed the following results : (1) the addition of 0*2 pur 
cent, of glucose to 1 per cent, peptone water is sufficient to obtain a pro- jjjf/l/}/, 
duction of indol in 24-hour cultures of B. coll. (2) Such an addition allows /' / '^yJ 
one to ascertain the presence of B. eoli in many instances (stomach of' 
liealthy guinea-pigs and rabljits) in which it would have not been identified 
by means of the ordinary methods. (3) BaciUus coli, which cannot be 
identified by any means in the duodenum of healthy guinea-pigs and rabbits, 
is always found in irreat quantities if the animals are even slightly diseased, 
•^ C.d.F. 

Davison, W. Divisions of tlie so-called Flexner group of dysentery 
baciUi. J. Exper. M., 1920, 32, 651. 

The author briefly records the results he obtained in the examination 
of a large number of strains of dysentery bacilli of the Flexner type. He 
tried to group the strains by agglutination and fermentation tests, and 
while aJTreeinii' with the recent Eno-lish workers that there are divisions of 
the Flexner group, he considers that they are ill-defined and do not appear 
to be sufficiently distinct to warrant the use of separate names. He tliinks 
that all mannitol-fermenting dysentery bacilli should be called B. dysea- 
teriae Flexner and the subdivision noted. The subdivision should be either 
by carbohj^drate fermentation or by agglutination with monovalent rabbity 
serum, but not by both, as they do not coincide. W. B. 

Dz Macco, G. Sulla efficacia del nutrosio nel terreno nutritivo di Drigalski- 
Conradi. [On the influence of nutrose in the culture medium of Drigalski- 
Conradi.] SperimeniaJe. Arch, di Hot, 1920, 74, 71. 

The author has studied comparatively the growth of B. typhosus, 
B. ixiralypltosus A and B, B. cull communis, and B. clysenteriae (Shiga and 
Flexner strains) in the Drigalski-Conradi culture medium prepared with 
and without nutrose. From many painstaking measurements it resulted 
that only the colonies, both superficial and large, of B. typhosus, cultivated 
in Drigalski's agar with nutrose, are somewhat larger than those seen in 
the same medium but without nutrose. All other bacteria investigated 
grew into colonies of the same size. Hence the general conclusion that the 
addition of nutrose to the Drigalski-Conradi medium is not necessary for 
the irrowth and identification of the bacterial species mentioned above. 

C. d. F. 

Fred, E. B., and Petersout, W. H. The fermentation of xylose by bacteria 

of the aerogenes, paratyphoid B and typhoid groups. J. Infect. Bis., 1920, l^ 

27, 539. 

Teague and Morishima, among others, have shown that the pentose 
xylose is fermented by B. typhosus without gas formation, by B. para- 
typliosiis B with gas, and is not attacked by B. jMTatyphosus A. The 
present authors have made a study of the actual substances formed, in- 
cluding in their series of bacteria B. aerogenes, which also produces gas. 
With this latter organism carbon dioxide and ethylic alcohol were found to 
represent about 75 per cent, of the sugar consumed. The main products of 
the fermentation of xylose by B. paratyphosiis B are formic, acetic, butyric, 
lactic, and succinic acids, ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, these 
products representing about 92 per cent, of the original sugar. The 



78 ABSTRACTS 

feriiieiitation of xylose by B. ty2jhosus is far from complete, not more than 
one-fourth of the sugar being attacked. Only small quantities of carbon 
dioxide are formed. The greater part of the fermented xylose is repre- 
sented by succinic acid, although alcohol, formic, acetic, and butyric acids 
are among the other products. The medium employed in these researches 
consisted of a fresh yeast water extract containing 0-5 per cent, dibasic 
potassium phosphate and 0-5 per cent. Difco peptone. The amount of 
xylose added was 2 per cent. W. B. 

Ornstezn, M. Zur Bakteriologie des Schmitzbazillus. [On the bacterio- 
logy of the bacillus of Schmitz.] Ztsclir. f. Hyg. u. InfektionsTirayikh., 1920, 
91, 152. 

During the war K. E. F. Schmitz described an organism closely 
resembling B. dysenteriae Shiga, but differing from it in its ability to form 
indol and in the fact that it is not agglutinated by Shiga serum. Schmitz's 
bacillus also gained notoriety through the statement of its discoverer that 
pure cultures underwent remarkable transformations in that they became 
converted into B. typhosus, B. 'paraty2:)hosus B, B. dysenteriae Shiga, i?. coli, 
B. coli Tiiutabile, B. faecalis alkaligenes, and even other bacteria. The present 
author, Ornstein, has made an elaborate study of Schmitz's bacillus based on 
the examination of 31 strains, 8 of which were isolated in the Hygienic 
Institute in Frankfurt, where the work was carried out, while 23 strains 
were obtained from Schmitz. The author considers that Schmitz's bacillus is 
a well-characterized species, and in his hands none of the conversions into 
typhoid or other bacteria, as described by Schmitz, occurred. In the course 
of the investigation two bacteria were encountered which were liable to be 
mistaken for the bacillus of Schmitz. The first of these is named by the 
author Bacillus fallax, a name which has no standing, seeing that it was 
already used by Weinberg and Seguin, 1915, for a thoroughly characteristic, 
obligate, spore-bearing anaerobe. Ornstein's B.fcdlax differs from Schmitz's 
bacillus in being able ultimately to ferment saccharose. It also turns 
litmus whey of a deeper blue colour and is antigenically distinct. The 
second newly-described micro-organism it is proposed to call Bacillus 
inconstans on account of its variable behaviour in the presence of dextrose. 
Occasionally it acts on this sugar with gas formation. At other times it is 
unable to do so. Antigenically it is also distinct. On saccharose-fuchsin- 
sulphite-agar plates B. fallax (Ornstein) and B. inconstans both show 
mutations like B. coli onutabile. According to the author, Schmitz's bacilli 
in the living state do not show acid agglutination although killed cultures 
are very variable. B. fallax and B. inconstans as a rule both show marked 
acid agglutination in living as well as in dead cultures. Difficulties were 
experienced in preparing high grade agglutinating sera against Schmitz's 
bacillus, although in the presence of such sera all the strains of the bacillus 
behaved alike. Anti-Schmitz serum possesses complement-fixing properties 
in combination with cultures of the homologous organism, but none in the 
presence of B. fallax or B. inconstans. The experiments which the author 
cites indicate that in all probability B. inconstans is not a well-defined 
species. The pathogenic properties of Schmitz's bacillus on animals were 
not striking. W. B. 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 79 

DoiiD, H., und FiscHEB, W. Ein Fall von natiulich erworbener, Ixizilliirer 
Dysenterie beim Ilunde mit gleichzeitiger Schistosomiasis, Ankylostomiasis 
und Filariosis. [A case of naturally acquired bacillary dysentery in the 
dog with simultaneous schistosomiasis, ankylostomiasis, and filariasis.J 
Centralhlf. JBalteriol. (&c.), Abt. I, 1920, 85, 198. 

A report on the occurrence of bacillary dysentery in a young male 
German pointer in Shanghai. The animal was observed to be ill and to be 
passing mucus and blood in its liquid stools. An examination revealed the 
presence of vegetative amoebic forms, eggs of Schistosoinain japirnlcum 
and Ankylostomu.on, while in its blood microfilariae were found. On the 
ground of finding amoebae, emetin was given subcutaneously, but the animal 
became rapidly worse and died in a few^ days. At the autopsy typical 
Shiga bacilli were found, the anatomical changes showing a diffuse acute 
pseudo-membranous inflammation over the whole intestine, large and small. 
The amount of actual ulceration was, however, comparatively slight. The 
intestine was also infected with Schistosomuni and Ankylostomum, and 
Dlrojilaria immitis w^as also found in the blood. Nephritis and hyper- 
trophy of the heart completed tlie anatomical picture. Entamoeba his- 
tolytica was not found. The authors suggest that the animal was probably 
infected from human dysenteric faeces, as these dogs are extensively used 
for Imnting game in the low-lying grossly contaminated ground of the 
Yang tse and the Hwang pu rivers. W. B. 

EiSEAMP, E. H., and Fabk, L. EI. Fate of micro-organisms introduced 
into isolated loops of the intestine. J. Infect. Bis., 1921, 28, 67. 

In this research dogs were employed. The abdomen being opened, 
a ligature was placed round the duodenum immediately below the pylorus. 
The duodenum was then flushed out w^th warm salt solution introduced 
through a hypodermic needle inserted immediately below the ligature. The 
salt solution having been gently forced along by a milking movement, a 
20 to 30 cm. loop of the empty duodenum was isolated between ligatures, 
the loop always including the bile and pancreatic openings. Jejunal loops 
were isolated in a similar manner. Emulsions of various bacteria were 
injected into the loops, and after gentle massage a control sample was 
removed and counted for bacteria. The abdomen was then closed, and 
after a period of 2 to 12 hours the animals w^ere killed and the contents 
of the loops again examined to see what changes had taken place in the 
numbers of the bacteria wdiich had been previously introduced. The results 
were based on the examination of 26 animals. Many of the bacterial 
cultures employed were of saprophytic type, but pathogenic organisms like 
B. typhosus, 8. aureus, Streptococcus, and B. anthracis were also employed. 
It was found that many of the microbes introduced had been destroyed. 
By a study of the bacteria other than those experimentally introduced, the 
authors concluded that the destruction is not due to any antagonism of the 
bacteria normally found in the bow^el. They think, indeed, that there is 
another and distinctive antibacterial mechanism, the nature of which, at 
present, is unknown. W. B. 

Beckwith, T. D., and Lyon*, R. H. The viability and growth of B.typbosus 
in bile. J. Infect. Bis., 1921, 28, 62. 

A very large literature exists on the eflfects of bile and bile salts on 
members of the colon-typhoid group of micro-organisms. The present 



80 ABSTRACTS 

authors have again dealt with the subject, and have endeavoured to find 
out whether B. typhosus is viable in bile and whether it can multiply freely 
in this medium. Seven samples ot' bile were tested, five being human, one 
from the rabbit, and one from the ox. Known quantities of typhoid 
culture were introduced into bile, and plate-cultures were made at suc- 
cessive intervals up to as long as 48 hours. The results showed that 
B. typhosus is long lived in human, rabbit, or ox bile. Introduced into 
sterile ox bile it is subjected at first to marked bactericidal activity on the 
part of the medium, by which a large number of bacilli are destroyed. 
This is followed by an evident lag, and finally there is a slow but pro- 
gressive proliferation. W. B. 

LiTCK, V. M., and Meyer, K. F. A spontaneous epidemic among labora- 
tory rabbits caused by a paratyphoid B bacillus related to the rodent 
group. J. Infect. Bis., 1921, 28, 27. 

This is an account of a small epizootic, in laboratory rabbits, due to 
a paratyphoid organism belonging to the animal paratyphoid group. The 
details which are of interest to laboratory workers should be consulted in 
the original. It may be pointed out, however, that the micro-organism 
isolated did not belong to the human paratyphoid group from an anti- 
genic point of view. The fact that it was able to produce a toxin may 
be of importance in connexion with outbreaks of food-poisoning in man 
from the consumption of rabbit. Hitherto the chief, if not the only, 
instance of this has been the occurrence of paratyphoid in four persons, 
including a child of 4 months, which was described by MacConkey in 
1906 (/. Hyg, 6, 570). By cultural and agglutinating experiments he 
showed that the microbe isolated from a piece of the suspected rabbit and 
from the spleen of the child, who had only partaken of a small quantity of 
the gravy, was closely related to B. aertrycke and B. paratyphosus B. 

W. B. 

Behmeb, W. Beitrage zur Biologie und Biochemie des Bacillus proteus und 
Versuclie zur Isolierung pathogener Mikroorganismen aus proteushaltigem 
Material mittels Agarplatten mit Karbolsaurezusatz bzw. Eichloffblauplatten. 
[The biology and biochemistry of B. proteus and attempts at the isolation 
of pathogenic bacteria from Proteus-contaminated material by means of 
agar plates containing carbolic acid or Eichloff-blue.] Arch. f. Hyg., 1920, 
89, 295. 

The author made an exhaustive examination of 23 strains of Proteus. 
The primary object of the work, however, was to elaborate a satisfactory 
technique whereby various bacteria could be isolated from mixtures con- 
taining Proteus. Hitherto the most satisfactory method has been that of 
Schaetfer, who found that 2 c.c. of a 5 per cent, solution of carbolic acid per 
100 c.c. of agar afforded a medium on which Proteus grew as isolated well- 
defined colonies instead of spreading over the whole culture surface and 
making isolation of other bacteria almost impossible. Carbolic acid medium 
has, however, drawbacks, for certain bacteria will not thrive upon it. A 
substitute is described by the author under the name ' Eichloff-blue '. This 
term is meant to indicate that the medium is blue from litmus and is made 
of an extract of a proprietary article, from skimmed milk, manufactured by 
Eichloff in Greifswald. The medium is identical with that of Drigalski 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 81 

and Conradi except that, instead of meat extract, the extract of EichlofF is 
employed. On ' Eichlotf-blue ' plates Proteus colonies are smaller than on 
carbolic agar and are well defined, and it possesses advantages in that 
certain organisms which will not grow on carbolized media will grow well 
on the new medium suggested. B. anthracis will not grow on either 
medium. W. B. 



Amoss, H. L., Gates, F. L., and Olztsky, F. E. Simplified production of 
antimeningococcic serum. J. Exper. M., 1920, 32, 767. 

Tliis paper deals with attempts to produce a more efficacious anti- 
meningococcic serum and considers the fundamental basis on which anti- 
meningococcic sera have hitherto been prepared. It is now thoroughly well 
established that the general term meningococcus really covers a group of 
closely related micro-organisms and is not a fixed antigenic entity. So long- 
ago as 1909 Dopter separated meningococci from parameningococci, and this 
differentiation was further extended to two other groups by Gordon, who 
separated four different types. The practical question from a therapeutic point 
of view is whether antimeningococcic serum should be made with one or 
many antigenic tj'pes. For example, the antimeningococcic serum of the 
Rockefeller Institute has been made as polyvalent as possible, cultures to 
the number of 51 having been employed in its manufacture. The present 
authors have now studied antimeningococcic sera made with a few or 
actually a single strain of meningococcus and have compared the agglutina- 
tion reactions with those of the polyvalent serum of the Rockefeller Institute, 
in which a laro-e number of strains have been utilized in the immunization. 
They found that horses injected with an antigen limited to five, three, or 
one strain of culture yielded sera with a range of agglutinins covering in 
high dilutions practically all the stock strains used in making the polyvalent 
serum. 

Very striking difterences were observed, for whereas the agglutinating 
power of the highly polyvalent serum remained unimpaired afiter storage 
for a year, a monovalent serum fell off" greatly in this period, especially witli 
regard to secondary or subsidiary agglutinins. A serum made with five 
strains, viz. a regular meningococcus, a parameningococcus, and three inter- 
mediate meningococci approached the Rockefeller polyvalent serum, and at 
the end of a year still agglutinated 39 of 41 strains tested. Absorption 
tests also brought out striking differences in the nature of the polyvalent 
and monovalent sera which had appeared to be identical in simple agglutina- 
tion tests. The homologous strain on triple absorption was able to exhaust 
the monovalent serum completely, but was unable to remove from the 
polyvalent serum agglutinins to which 30 out of 44 different strains were 
able to react. In addition to specific agglutinins, a monovalent serum 
contains a wide range of common or secondary agglutinins, but these tend 
to disappear on keeping. The difference between specific and secondary 
agglutinins is only apparent in absorption tests. In a serum produced by 
the injection of a large number of strains the agglutinins are mostly specific 
and differ in some way from the secondary agglutinins which make their 
appearance in sera wliich have been produced with one or a few strains. 
The authors did not determine whether the two types of sera had different 
therapeutic powers. W. B. 

IV. G 



82 ABSTRACTS 

Anderson, John F. An improved method for the production of anti- 
meningococcic and other serums. J. Infect. Dis., 1920, 27, 482. 

Hitherto the production of antibacterial sera has been associated with 
considerable difficulties, among which may be mentioned the prolonged 
period required and the loss of animals from toxic or other causes. The 
author has had a large practical experience, and discusses in particular the 
anaphylactoid phenomena witnessed in horses during immunization against 
meningococci for therapeutic purposes. He appears to have got over 
this difficulty by the use of antigens washed, free of poison, in salt 
solution, the injections, which are intravenous, being made immediately after 
the bacteria have been so treated. The severe and even fatal reactions 
after intravenous inoculation are apparently due to the presence of some 
toxic substance and are not really manifestations of a true anaphylactic 
character. The scheme of immunization suggested provides for four 
successive intravenous injections with intervals of three days, the treatment 
being commenced with dead bacteria which after the fourth injection is 
changed to living cultures. W. B. 

De Witt.Lydia M. "Weight curves of tuberculous guinea-pigs. /. Infect. 

Bis., 1920, 27, 503. 

The authoress draws attention to the fact that in most of the experi- 
mental work on the chemotherapy of tuberculosis the apparently beneficial 
results of treatment are based on increased duration of life, favourable 
influence on weight and diminished distribution and progress of the disease 
in the animals employed. The present paper is an attempt to determine 
whether the weight curves of guinea-pigs inoculated with tuberculosis 
constitute a satisfactory basis for the expression of an opinion on the 
therapeutic value of any drug. The weights of normal guinea-pigs, 
tuberculous untreated and tuberculous treated guinea-pigs are given in 
tables and in curves. Normal guinea-pigs of approximately the same age 
and weight, and living under the same conditions run a uniform weight curve. 
This curve is,' however, easily modified by changes in diet, acute infections, 
and other variations in the conditions of life. Normal male guinea-pigs of 
approximately the same age and weight, inoculated with the same doses of 
the same strain of T.B. and maintained under the same conditions subse- 
quently run a fairly uniform and typical weight curve. This may therefore 
be employed in testing the effects of various methods of treatment and is 
a more sure guide than the duration of life. Most therapeutic remedies 
tested, even although so non-toxic that they did not exert an influence on 
the duration of life, or on the weight curves of normal guinea-pigs, tend 
to produce a material alteration in the type of the weight curve. This 
alteration consists in the main of a diminution in height of the ascending 
curve and an increase in length of the descending curve. W. B. 

MetaIiNXKOW, S. L'immunite naturelle et acquise chez la chenille de Galleria 
mellonella. [On natural and acquired immunity in the larva of Galleria 
mellonella.] Ann. de VInst. Pasteur, 1920, 34, 888. 

For a number of years Metalnikow has made experiments on the effect 
of introducing diverse strains of tubercle bacilli into the larvae of Galleria 
'mellonella — the bee moth. He described the existence of a powerful 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 83 

phagocytic mechanisiu liy means of which the creature was enabled to deal 
with colossal doses, which were without etiect. Some of the more recent 
work of Metalnikow and Fiessinger were reviewed in this journal (Medical 
Science, 1920, 2. 575). There it was pointed out that Fiessinoer had shown 
that althouo-h there was abundant evidence of intense phagoc3'tosis in the 
larva, the tubercle bacilli were not necessarily killed, for after a sojourn of 
eight hours in the larva they were still pathogenic for the guinea-pig. The 
present communication of Metalnikow is virtually a resume of his previous 
work with certain additions. He gives a full account of the phagocytosis 
and capsule. formation whereby the tubercle bacilli become segregated and 
immobilized, and he points out that the brown masses formed in this process 
may persist from the larval to the imaginal state. With regard to the 
destructive powers of the phagocytes, he quotes experiments on three guinea- 
pigs inoculated with the contents of larvae which, five days previously, had 
been injected with a large quantity of living T.B. Only one of the guinea- 
pigs died of tubercle, and he thus infers that at least a portion of the 
introduced bacilli must have been killed. Among other observations in his 
interesting paper Metalnikow cites the fact that, although tetanus and diph- 
theria toxins are powerless to injure the larvae, snake venom or ox bile, even 
in minute quantities, are almost instantly fatal. Mammalian red corpuscles 
were harmless, even of heroic doses. In spite of multitudes of experi- 
ments Metalnikow has never found evidences of the formation of any 
antibodies in the larvae operated upon. Although Proteus cultures are 
extremely fatal to larvae, they are so only on injection into the interior of 
their bodies. Animals infected with or dead from Proteus are incapable of 
starting an epizootic when placed among the healthy. VV. B. 



EOKGSTED, EI.XZABETH. Vergleichende Untersuchungen liber die Methoden 
von Herman und von Ziehl-Neelsen zur Farbung von Tuberkelbazillen. [The 
comparative value of the methods of Herman and Ziehl-Neelsen for stain- 
ing tubercle bacilli.] CentralU. f. Bakteriol. (&c.), Abt. I, 1920, Orig. 84, 513. 

In 1889 Martin Herman recommended for staining tubercle bacilli 
a mixture of crystal violet, alcoliol, and ammonium carbonate. The violet 
and alcohol constituted one solution and before use w^as added to the solution 
of ammonium carbonate. Nitric acid and 95 per cent, alcohol were used as 
the decolorizing agents. In 1908 Herman modified his method and 
recommended a mixture of 1 part of a 3 per cent, solution of cr3'stal violet 
in 95 per cent, ethylic alcohol and 3 parts of a 1 per cent, watery solution of 
ammonium carbonate. The strain was heated for 1 minute at boiling-point. 
Decolorization was brought about by 10 per cent, nitric acid, followed by 
95 per cent, alcohol. As a counterstain, eosin (1 per cent.) was used. Many 
workers have used this method as it stands or with trivial modifications, 
and in general have found it gives a higher percentage of positive results than 
the Ziehl-Neelsen method. The present authoress has employed it, along- 
side the Ziehl-Neelsen method, in the examination of 1,2U0 specimens of 
sputum of which 345 were positive. Of these 29 were positive only by 
Herman's stain and 8 were positive only by the Ziehl-Neelsen method. 
The number of T.B. in 136 specimens w^ere alike with both stains. In 125 
cases there were most bacilli with Herman's and in 47 more with the Ziehl- 
Neelsen method. W. B. 

a 2 



84 ABSTRACTS 

LiCKTENSTEiN', STEPHANIE. Ein Fall von spontaner rroselituberculose. [A 
case of spontaneous tuberculosis in the frog.] Centralhl. f. BaJcteriol. (&c.), 
Abt. I, 1920, 85, 249. 

In the course of experiments on frogs the authoress found one with 
a nodule on the liver. Smears therefrom showed masses of acid-fast bacilli 
like T.B. Pure cultures were easily obtained, and were found to produce 
a miliary form of tuberculosis disseminated everywhere, although usually 
more sparse in the lungs. Death took place in 3-8 weeks. Cultures were 
also lethal in about 12 weeks to Molge cristata. There is a discussion on 
the literature of frog tuberculosis. W. B. 



BIOCHEMISTRY 

Dbummond, J. C, and Cowabs, K. H. Researches on the fat-soluble 
accessory factor (Vitamin A). VI. The effect of heat and oxygen on the 
nutritive value of butter. Bio-Chem. J., 1920, 14, 734. 

The authors corroborate the results reported in this number by 
Hopkins by showing that destruction of fat-soluble vitamine takes place 
through oxidation. C. G. L. W. 

HoFEXirs, F. G. (1). The effect of heat and aeration upon the fat-soluble 
vitamine. Bio-Chem. J., 1920, 14, 725. 

Fats are purified in various ways in order to make them edible, and 
some discussion has taken place as to the efiect of heat on their vitamine 
content. The author shows that fat-soluble vitamine is quite resistant to 
heat, withstanding a temperature of ISO"" C. for four hours if protected from 
air. If exposed to a temperature of only 80° C, and air is bubbled through 
the fat at the same time, destruction of the vitamine proceeds with con- 
siderable rapidity. Even exposure of the fat in thin layers to the air at 
room temperature results in its losing its capacity for promoting growth. 
The vitamine is prone to oxidation by atmospheric oxygen. 

C. G. L. W. 

Hopkins, F. G. (2). Note on the vitamine content of milk. Bio-Chem. J., 
1920, 14, 721. 

In his original paper on growth factors, Hopkins showed the effects of 
adding quantities of milk so small that the}^ could not possibly influence 
the total amount of food given, and therefore it was necessary to look for 
some unsuspected substance in this type of food. Mendel and Osborne 
found it difficult to repeat these results. On repea.ting his older results, 
Hopkins found that there are certain seasonal variations which permit the 
growth factor to be exercised at one time and not at another. Where the 
difference comes in has not been definitely ascertained. C. G. L. W. 

Stefkeitsozt, M. a note on the differentiation of the yellow plant pig- 
ments from the fat-soluble vitamine. Bio-Chem. J., 1920, 14, 715. 

A good deal of interest has been attached to the physiological signifi- 
cance of the yellow colouring matters found in certain plants such as 



BIOCHEMISTRY 85 

carrots, which have been found to be identical with the yellow colours in 
body fat, corpus luteum, &c. It has been suggested that this substance was 
practically the same as the fat-soluble vitamine. In order to settle this 
question Miss Stephenson prepared the colouring matter in a fairly pure 
condition from a large quantity of carrots. This preparation proved 
effective in promoting growth in rats. When, howevei*, pure carotene was 
prepared from the roots and fed in the same concentration as above, growth 
did not take place as in the first experiment, and the animals suffered from 
keratomalacia. The removal of the yellow pigment from butter fat did not 
interfere ^vi.th its growth-promoting qualities. While carrots contain 
a irrowth factor, this substance is certainly not identical with carotene. 

C. G. L. W. 



ZiLVA, S. S. The action of ozone on the fat-soluble factor in fats. Bio- 
amn. J., 1920, 14, 740. 

Ozone inactivates the fat-soluble growth factor in fats. Ultra-violet 
rays did not itnpair the activity of the preparation. C. G. L. W. 



Drummond, J. C, GoLDZNG, J., ZiLVA, S. S., and Coward, K. H. The 
nutritive value of lard. Bio-Chem. J., 1920, 14, 742. 

Lard has always been signalized for its lack of fat-soluble vitamine in 
contradistinction to other animal fats. The authors have endeavoured to 
determine the cause of the deficiency, for it might be due to the nature of 
the food used for fattening, or to the method of preparation for household 
use. Five groups of animals were placed on diets with various vitamine 
content. The final w^eights of the animals varied from 84 pounds on 
a deficient diet to 150 pounds with a full diet with grass. After killing, 
the fats from the slaughtered animals were incorporated in the diets of rats. 
The fats from the deficient animals were deficient in vitamine. Those which 
had received a full diet with grass contained a store of vitamine. The 
deficiency is therefore partly due to the method of fattening in this country. 
The second cause of loss is due to the method of manufacture of lard, which 
is exposed in the process to high temperature and oxygen. 

C. G. L. W. 



Daniels, A. L., and LouGKiiiir, R. Deficiency of heat-treated milks. 
J. Biol. CJicm., 1920, 44, 381. 

The authors found that milk, if raised quickly to the boiling-point, and 
kept there for one minute only, was quite adequate for growth. However, 
they could not get normal growth in rats upon milk pasteurized for 35-40 
minutes, or treated in other ways which involved rather prolonged heating. 
As the vitamines (fat-soluble and water-soluble) seemed to be intact, they 
looked for other deficiencies, and came to the conclusion that the error in 
the milk, exposed to prolonged heat, was an inorganic one. The calcium 
salts were rendered more or less insoluble, so that the animals were being 
starved of calcium phosphates. The results are now being applied to infant 
nutrition. R. A. P. 



86 ABSTRACTS 

McCann, W. S. An observation of the effect of a protein meal given to 

a man at the end of an 8-day fast. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. ^- Med., 1920, 
17, 173. 

After a fast of 8 days a man was given a meal consisting of 350 grm. 
of meat and 10 grm. of butter. Very low respiratory quotients were 
obtained, viz. 0-687 and 0-681. These are what one finds in severe diabetes. 
The author explains these quotients by assuming that the carbohydrate 
portion of the protein is stored up in the depleted organism as glycogen. 
In diabetes the glucose is excreted; under the above circumstances it is 
stored up. C. G. L. W. 

LusK, G. Additional experiments showing the production of fat from 
protein. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. 6)- Med., 1920, 17, 171. 

By direct and indirect calorimetric estimations it was shown that after 
a Ifirge meal of meat a dog retained carbon which could only be deposited 
in the form of fat. C. G. L. W. 

Bradley, H. C, and Felsheb, H. Studies of autolysis. VI. The effect 
of certain colloids upon autolysis. J. Biol. Chem., 1920, 44, 553. 

There is always interest attaching to the process oi autolysis, by which 
a tissue undergoes spontaneous disintegration after death. There is a 
suggestive relation between autolysis and normal katabolism. The authors 
have found that the autolysis of such substances as beef -liver is in general 
markedly accelerated by acid. There are extant some observations by 
Ascoli and Izar to the effect that colloidal sols of metals, such as silver and 
gold, exercise a marked accelerating effect upon autolysis. These observa- 
tions seemed to suggest an interesting relation between the colloidal state 
and enzyme action, and appear to be an exception to the rule of acceleration 
by acid. Unfortunately, upon repeating the work of Ascoli and Izar, the 
authors cannot obtain any of the effects which they have reported. 

R A. P. 

TiSBAi.!., P. F. Estimation of the phenolic substances in urine. J. Biol. 

Chem., 1920, 44, 409. 

A good history of the research upon phenolic substances in urine is 
given in this paper. Using an ether extraction method for the estimation 
of the total phenolic substances in urine, results are obtained 50 per cent. 
lower than those recorded by Folin and Denis. The amount of volatile 
phenols (phenol and para-cresol) found by Tisdall's method agrees with the 
values obtained by Mooser and Hensel. It is suggested that the discrepancy 
between Tisdall's results and those of Folin and Denis is due to the presence 
in the urine of unidentified bodies which react with their reagents. The 
compounds are partly present in the free state and partly formed by the 
action of strono- mineral acids on the urine. R. A. P. 



o 



Wish ART, M. B. Experiments on carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes. 
III. The permeability of blood corpuscles to sugar. J. Biol. Chem , 1920, 
44, 563. 

The author finds in dogs no specific alteration of the distribution of 
sugar between the blood-plasma and corpuscles in experiments with 



BIOCHEMISTRY 87 

different quantities and modes of administration of glucose, different degrees 
of pancreatectomy and diabetes, lipaemia, acidosis, exercise, cold, or different 
renal thresholds. The concentration of sugar in the corpuscles is normally 
lower than that in the plasma, and holds for several animal species examined. 
[It is curious that the author does not seem to be aware of a paper 
published by Falta and Richter-Quittner (Medical Science, 1920, 2, 94), in 
which it was shown that, normally, corpuscles contained no sugar. Sugar 
passed into the corpuscles owing to a change of permeability produced in 
the collection of the blood sample, unless it was collected by treating with 
hirudin and pentrifuging rapidly. No mention is made here of the method 
of collection.] R. A. P. 

EiFF, H. A. Variation in the cholesterol content of the serum in pneu- 
monia. J. Biol. Cliem., 1920, 44, 215. 

The substance cholesterol seems to have a mysterious relationship to 
many important body processes. For instance, diminutions in the cholesterol 
content of the nerves have been found to occur in acute inflammatory con- 
ditions ; there are further obscure connexions between the antitoxin and 
antihaemolytic content of serum and the cholesterol content. The author 
gives a rather full history of w^ork on cholesterol in these connexions. In 
this contribution he has studied the cholesterol content of serum in cases of 
pneumonia, using Bloor's methods. Though the figures show somewhat 
large variations, there seems, in pneumonia, to be a fall in the cholesterol 
content of the serum in the early stages of the disease. This is followed 
by a rise in cholesterol content during the period of convalescence, and for 
a short time after the period of resolution. Subsequently there is a return 
to the normal. It is considered by the author that the primary decrease in 
cholesterol is due to an absorption of the substance by the leucocytes and 
subsequent transport by them to the seat of inflammation. Here it acts as 
an antitoxic substance neutralizing toxins, and possibly exerting antigenic 
properties. In ordinary acute toxic infections, the utilization of cholesterol 
is proportional to the severity of the disease. The intervention of empyema 
in pneumonia disturbs the normal serum picture. R. A. P. 

Lewis, D. S., and Mason, E. H. The diastatic ferments of the blood. 

/. Biol Chem., 1920, 44, 455. 

Magendie (1846) showed that blood could split starch to dextrose and 
glucose. In 1867, Michael Foster reported a diminished excretion of 
diastatic ferment in diabetic cases, pointing out that the diastatic power of 
urine was not due to bacteria. Diastases are universally distributed in the 
body (pancreas, salivary gland, liver, blood, lymph, muscles, and kidneys). 
After complete removal of the pancreas the blood diastase quickly drops, 
returning, however, to its normal level in 4-5 days. This fact indicates that 
the pancreas is not the only supplier of diastase in the body. The interesting 
question is whether the blood diastase is connected with the hyperglycaemia 
of diabetes and nephritis or whether its presence in the blood is to a certain 
extent accidental. Research upon this point has been rather contradictory. 
Several observers have found no relation between disease and blood diastase, 
while others, such as Myers and Killian, have reported a series of diabetic 
cases showing a close relation between the level of blood diastase and the 
severity of the disease. The authors here find that the normal diastatic 



88 ABSTRACTS 

index is between 14 and 25, showing very little change in relation to food. 
In diabetes, they cannot find any constant increase in blood diastase. In 
cases of nephritis, though there are variations in the amounts of the 
ferments, there is no real relation between the severity of the lesion and 
the diastatic index, R. A. P. 

McLisAir, F. C, IVEubbay, H. A., Jr., and Heitserson, L. J. The variable 
acidity of haemoglobin and the distribution of chlorides in the blood. 

Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol 6>- Med., 1920, 17, 180. 

Completely deoxygenated blood was exposed to various tensions of 
carbon dioxide, first in an atmosphere with oxygen present and then in an 
atmosphere free from oxygen. 

The whole blood was then analysed for oxygen and carbon dioxide free 
and combined, and the serum analysed for carbon dioxide and chlorides. 
The atmosphere to which the blood was exposed was analysed for carbon 
dioxide and oxygen. The conclusion reached from the experiments is that 
whenever the heterogeneous acid-base equilibrium is disturbed the new 
equilibrium is established by the migration of acids in and out of the cells, 
and about two-thirds of tliis acid is hydrochloric acid. The haemoglobin 
displays diflerent degrees of acidity at varying oxygen tensions. The 
buffer action of the serum under physiological conditions as compared with 
isolated serum is increased at least ten times by the change in the acidity 
of haemoglobin. C. G. L. W. 

HORiucHi, Y. studies on blood-fat. I. Variation of the blood-fat con- 
stituents of rabbits under normal conditions. II. Lipaemia in acute 
anaemia. J. Biol. Chem., 1920, 44, 345. 

Boggs and Morris showed how experimental lipaemia (increase of fat 
in the blood) could be produced in rabbits by drawing 15 to 45 c.c. of blood 
from them daily. This paper deals with the increase in the several fatty 
constituents (including lecithin and cholesterol) induced in rabbits by small 
daily bleedings and by one large bleeding. Rabbits fed on fatty and fat- 
free diets have been compared. Bleeding caused a very large increase in the 
fatty constituents of the blood ; in one case, that of an acute anaemia 
produced by a single large haemorrhage of 45 c.c, the whole blood looked 
like chocolate cream. With regard to the duration of this type of lipaemia, 
a maximum is reached at the end of 72 hours after the bleeding. After 
this, the blood fat declines. The author considers that the increase is due 
either to food fat or tissue fat accumulating in the blood, support for this 
view coming from the more ready appearance of fat in the blood in the 
animal fed on a fatty diet. The increase in lipoids occurs in the plasma 
and not in the corpuscles in the case of rabbits, a slightly difierent result 
from that obtained b}^ Bloor when working on certain human diseases. 
In explanation of the phenomenon, attention is drawn to a decrease of the 
amount of lipase in blood-serum found by Sakai. Haemorrhage may 
interfere both with the production of lipase by the pancreas and with the 
lipolytic activity of the liver and other organs. R. A. P. 

Imbie, C. G., and Graham, S. G. Fat content of embryonic livers. 

J. Biol Chem., 1920, 44, 243. 

The paper is a contribution to the question of the function of the liver 
in fat metabolism. It has been found that when fatty infiltration of the 



BIOCHEMISTRY 89 

liver is produced by the injection of sucli substances as plilorrhidzin the 
accumulating fat tends to be comparatively highly saturated, resembling in 
iodine value the fat of the connective tissues. On the other hand the fat 
entering into the structure of the cell has a high iodine value. This is 
taken to mean that there is a mobilization of fat from the subcutaneous 
tissues in these cases. 

Using young guinea-pigs, Imrie and Graham have shown that at 
a certain stage of embryonic development a fatty inliltration takes place in 
the embryonic livers without change in the fat content of the maternal 
liver, or difference in iodine value from the maternal liver fat. Consequently 
such fat cannot have been mobilized directly from the tissues. An explana- 
tion suggested is that the fat has been previously desaturated by the 
maternal liver or other tissues. The fat is used within 2 or 3 days after 
birth, and so is presumably a ready store. If tissue fat is mobilized in the 
pregnant animal by the injection of phlorrhidzin, an accumulation of fat of 
loiv iodine value (like tissue fat) accumulates in the embryonic liver. This 
may be independent of any similar change in the maternal liver. The 
experiments are s.uggestive, but do not really settle where desaturation of 
fat in these cases takes place. R. A. P. 

Lynch, V. Chemistry of the whitefish sperm. -/. Biol CJtcm., 1920, 44, 319. 

Of the chemistry of the head of the spermatozoon not much is known and 
is bound to be interesting ultimately from manj^ points of view. The dried 
sperm heads of the whitefish were found b}^ Lynch to contain about 70 per 
cent, nuclei and 30 per cent, protamine. All the phosphorus, 6 per cent... 
was combined with the nucleic acid. The protamines gave a xanthoproteic 
reaction, but did not give the test for tyrosin, cystin, or tryptophane. If 
true, it would suggest that these latter amino-acids are not essential to life. 

R. A. P. 



CUZ.X.IS, W. C, and Hewsr, E. E. The ' ammonia coefficient ' of pregnancy. 
Bio-Chem. J., 1920, 14, 757. 

In a case of pregnancy terminating successfully without induced labour, 
the ratio of ammonia to total nitrogen rose to 77*9 per cent. This ratio is 
higher even than the well-known one of Nebelthau of 66 per cent. The 
total acid part of nitrogen at the time was vevy small (2-1 grm.). 

There appeared to be no relationship between the vomiting and the 
coefficient. The results confirm earlier observations in the same field by 
Ewing and Wolf {Amer. Journ. Ohst. 1907, 55, 289). C. G. L. W. 

WiiiSOiT, D. W. Studies in pyrimidine metabolism. Proc. Soc Exper. Biol. 
4- Med, 1920, 17, 179. 

When uracil nucleoside is administered to rabbits there is often more 
nitrogen excreted in the urine than can be accounted for by the nucleoside. 
The same happens with a mixture of cytosin and uracil nucleoside. 
Increasing quantities of uracil appear in the urine, or simpler complexes 
containing the uracil gi'oup are fed. The conclusion may be drawn that in 
the metabolism of yeast nucleic acids the pyrimidine group is early changed 
in such a way as to yield urea. C. G. L. W. 



90 ABSTRACTS 

Barbour, H. G., and Babetz, L. H. Temperature changes induced by 
gum acacia injections in normal and fevered animals. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. 
4- 3Iecl, 1920, 17, 209. 

The pyrexia induced by injection of pactopeptone and B. coH, and by 
puncture of the corpus striatum, was depressed by the injection of solutions of 
7-0 per cent, gum acacia. The effect is fleeting. A small rise in temperature 
takes place in normal animals after its injection. C G. L. W. 

MAI.TA1TEB, F., and Hofpe, E. N. Osmosis as a factor in the local 
accumulation of leucocytes in the body. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. ^- 3Ied., 
1920, 17, 216. 

Chemical forces have generally been held responsible for the chemotaxis 
of leucocytes. It is asserted by the authors that the forces which come into 
play are physical. Leucocytes were found to move in the direction of the 
osmotic force and opposite to the direction of the difiusing substances in 
solution. This motion is explained as being due to the greater permeability 
of leucocytes for water, and the fact that their total mass is negligible as 
compared to their content of water. C. G. L. W. 

ChepIiIIT, H. a., and B.ettger, L. F. Studies on intestinal implantation 
of Bacillus acidophilus. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. ^- Med., 1920, 17, 192. 

B. acidophilus is found in the intestinal tract normally in very small 
numbers. If two grammes of lactose or dextrin be given to rats for two to 
six daj'S, a complete transformation of the flora takes place which is strongly 
dominated by B. acidophilus. This also takes place with human subjects. 
The administration of 300 grm. of lactose or dextrin led to an almost 
complete suppression of all other viable bacterial tj'pes. The change may 
also be brought about by giving milk soured by the organism. A non-gas- 
producing flora is obtained thereby. The effect was much more pronounced 
than with B. hulgaricus. C. G. L. W. 

GuDEBNATSCH, J. F., and Bagg, H. J. Disturbances in the development 
of mammalian embryos caused by radium emanation. Proc. Soc. Exper. 
Biol. 4- Med., 1920, 17, 183. 

By the injection of 5 millicuries of radium emanation, contained in 
a small amount of saline solution, into pregnant and non-pregnant rats, no 
monstrosities were produced, but a definite effect was seen on foetal and 
placental tissue. The embryos are killed, and, instead of being aborted, 
remain attached to the uterine wall and are gradually absorbed. When the 
foetuses were removed peculiar haemorrhagic areas were noticeable along 
the dorsal mid-line. These extravasations take place in the vessels of the 
subcutaneous connective tissue and along the meningeal sinuses. Numerous 
haemorrhagic areas were found in the uteri and especially in the ovaries. 
Weak doses of radium emanation did not produce any macroscopically 
visible efi'ects on the maternal tissues. The embryonic differentiating 
tissues were affected. This fact may be of some biological significance, for 
it is known that radium rays have a decided effect on fast-growing tumour 
and cancer tissues. C. G. L. W. 

MUEI.I.EB, J. H. Observations on bacterial metabolism. Proc. Soc. Exper. 
Biol 4- Med., 1920, 18, 14. 

By boiling a meat infusion with ' Norit ', a commercial decolorizing wood 
charcoal, it will be found that the medium which was capable of growing 



BIOCHEMISTRY 91 

haemolytic streptococci no longer supports growth. By adding 1 per cent, 
peptone to the treated medium growth again ensues. The substance in 
question wliich is removed by the charcoal, is precipitated by mercuric 
sulphate. The chemical nature of the substance has not been determined. 

C. G. L. W. 

Churchman, J. W. The cause of the parallelism between the Gram 
reaction and the gentian violet reaction. The isolation of gentian positive 
individuals from a suspension of a gentian negative organism {B. coli). 
Relation of gentian violet reaction to dilution of implanted suspension. 
The effect of repeated re-inoculations of gentian violet agar with gentian 
positive organisms. The selective action of gentian violet in relation to 
chemotherapy. The communal activity of bacteria. I'roc. Soc. Exper. BioL 
4- Med., 1920, 18. 17. 

The above six communications form an interesting study of the 
separation of a strain which is usually looked upon as homogeneous within 
fairly narrow limits. In the first paper it is shown that those organisms 
which are Gram-positive do not grow in agar containing the dye. To this 
rule there are about 10 per cent, of exceptions. An attempt was made to 
train B. suhtilis to grow in media containing progressively increasing 
quantities of the dye. This was unsuccessful. With a Gram-negative 
organism {B. coli) an unexpected result w^as obtained. By stroking a 
thick suspension of this organism across a divided gentian violet plate, 
the growth w^as equally profuse on each side. If, on the other hand, a dilute 
suspension was employed, the colonies on the gentian violet side became 
progressively fewer with increasing dilution. Therefore, in a suspension of 
a Gram-negative organism, only a small proportion of the individuals are 
gentian negative. It is possible to isolate the gentian positive organisms, 
and these are found to be perfectly Gram -negative. By cultivating the 
various colonies on the plain side of a divided plate it is possible to isolate 
from a gentian negative strain {B. coll) a gentian positive strain. There 
may exist within a single bacterial strain, two types of individuals which, 
though in every other characteristic identical, are quite dissimilar in their 
reaction to gentian violet. These types retain the differential characteristic 
after many transplantations. Further, if a colony which has grown on the 
gentian violet side of the plate be cultivated and re-implanted on a divided 
plate, far fewer colonies appear on the dyed side. The reason for this is 
not clear. It may be due to some sort of communal property, which 
enables bacteria, instead of pursuing individual careers, to aid each other in 
their growth and thus accomplish in large groups what they cannot accomplish 
singly. By repeated re-inoculation of a gentian violet plate with a Gram- 
positive organism, growth will take place, which did not occur in the earlier 
inoculations. Bacteriostasis is therefore a complex process, and any 
attempt to transfer the selective action of a dye on bacteria as found in 
laboratory trials to general therapeutics should take into consideration 
the effect of mass of bacteria on the dye. A strain of B. coli was isolated 
which was entirely fast to gentian violet and in large transplantations grew 
perfectly. Individual cells isolated by Barbour's method never grew. This 
would indicate that bacteria do not act as isolated individuals. They 
possess the power, in numbers, of accomplishing effects which, alone, they are 
incapable of. The nature of this community of action is at present im- 
possible even to guess at. C. G. L. W. 



92 ABSTRACTS 



RADIOLOGY AND ELECTROLOGY 

Radio -diag nosis. 

Sessa, p. Contributo alio studio roentgenologico dei caleoli biliari. [Con- 
tribution to the study of gall-stones by X-rays.] Bad'wl. med., 1920, 7, 345. 

It is due to the study and research of English and American radio- 
logists that our knowledge of biliary calculi and affections of the gall- 
bladder has increased and become more assured. Having described in 
detail his method and technique, the author discusses fully the difficulties of 
seeing the shadows of biliary calculi owing to their transparency to rays, 
and speaks of the differential diagnostic points. Two views, anterior and 
posterior, are essential, and a lateral is very useful. Those who have tried 
the gas insufflation method give varying opinions of its value. Many cases 
and illustrations are given. The interesting point emerges that with similar 
technique, apparatus as efficient and powerful as used by the English and 
American workers, and plates as sensitive, the Italian radiologists do not 
see as many gall-stone shadows as the former. The author has a percentage 
of positive results of 10 to 12, which is little above that of his Italian 
colleagues, but this does not compare with the figures of Knox, &c. The 
suggested explanation of this difference is that of racial difference in the 
patients, or perhaps difference in their food, so that the gall-stones are 
either not produced or are of more transparent composition, though the 
author does not advance this as more than a tentative suggestion. 

N. H. M. B. 

Camfo, G. Les methodes modernes pour diagnostiquer le cancer de restomac, 
[Modern methods of diagnosis of cancer of the stomach.] Arch, de enfer- 
medados del aparato digestivo, Vol. 2. (/. de radiol. et d' electro!., 1920, 4, 473. 

Of all modern methods employed for the diagnosis of cancer of the 
stomach, examination by X-rays and examination of the faeces give the 
most convincing results. 

Of the two radiological processes, radioscopj^' is superior to radiography 
because it permits movements of the organ to be observed. Nevertheless 
the photographic plate is often useful because it registers details too minute 
to be recognized at sight on the screen. Therefore, in difficult cases, one or 
two radiographs should be taken in spite of a previous radioscopic examina- 
tion having been made. If a tumour exist anywhere in the gastric mucosa, 
it modifies the shape of the organ by pressure on the mucous surface; 
either an anomaly of the contour of the stomach is observed, or a light 
zone on the dark base, according as the neoplasm is situated at the side of 
the organ or entirely on its walls. In the second case the tumour is more 
difficult to recognize ; in the first, normal obscurity is interrupted at the 
point corresponding to the lesion and the space between the zone that one 
sees and the zone which one should see, appears irregular and indented. 
In certain cases a normal image is found, but of a very reduced size, indi- 
cating total scirrhous infiltration : in other cases, the neoplasm, being less 
prominent, does not greatly distort the image of the stomach, but rigidity 



RADIOLOGY AND ELECTROLOGY 93 

of the wall and interruption of the peristaltic movements are noticeable at 
this point. 

The commonest seat of <2^astric cancer is the pyloric ref;-ion ; in most 
cases, the horizontal part of this reoion is invisible, because the retraction 
is such that the very thin line of opaque salt which passes through the 
stomach to the duodenum is not appreciable, either on the screen or on the 
plate ; it is not rare, in cases of hard growths, to see the gastro-duodenal 
orifice constantly open, and the opaque meal passing- immediately from tlic 
stomach to the intestine. This accelerated evacuation may, however, exist 
in non-malignant cases. In other cases there is true stenosis with a 
characteristic image of dilatation. 

It is also possible that an advanced p3']oric tumour may be invisible ; 
this occurs particular!}^ when there is enormous dilatation produced hy 
ulcerated stenosis of the pylorus which existed before the cancer or was 
provoked by it ; a bilocular stomach may also be found. This form of 
cancer is distinguished from the benign form of ulcer by the irregularity 
and indentations of the retracted zone. 

Hartext has shown, with the help of X-rays, the existence of cancer in 
14 per cent, of cases in which it could not be diagnosed by palpation. 
Reichel quotes 22 cases in which diagnosis was made solely by this method. 
Rosanoft" considers it to he of extraordinary value in early diagnosis. 

Of 172 cases examined by the author, 166 were directly visible by 
radioscopy ; 6 were not visible ; in 93 the tumour was more or less appre- 
ciable by palpation ; in 24 only resistance to palpation was noted ; and, in 
55 cases, neither tumour nor resistance was apparent. 

Without denying the immense importance of radioscopic examination, 
the author does not consider it to be of sufficient value to justify the 
exclusion of other means of investigation ; but it is a valuable method of 
diagnosis and is often sufficient by itself. Examination must be repeated 
several times if the result be negative or if it disagree with other signs or 
suspicions. It is, moreover, a method to be emploj-ed carefully so as to 
exclude any causes of error. S. U. L.-B. 

Hadlobiology 

MoTTBAM, J. C. The red cell content of those handling radium for 
therapeutic purposes. Arch. Radiol. S,- Electrotk, 1920, 25, 194. 

The cases were divided into (1) clinical and laboratory workers, and 
(2) porters, clerks, &c., in the building. The former show a diminution in 
the red cells, and a colour index about 1-2 ; the latter a smaller diminution 
and a colour index about 1 -0. In three cases death followed a profound 
anaemia : in these the blood-picture was that of an aplastic anaemia. In all 
cases tliere was a marked polynuclear leucopenia and absence of signs of 
regeneration. From these facts it is seen that the workers suffer seriously 
and need all possible protection. P. L.-B. 

MoTTBAM, J. C. Histological changes in the bone marrow of rats exposed 
to the Y radiations from radium. Arch. Badiol. ^- Electroth., 1920, 25, 197. 

Exposures varied from 12-460 hours : if over 48 hours the expo- 
sure was carried out intermittently for 12 hours at night. A 12 hours' 
exposure was equal to g^oth of a rad. Radiated specimens showed a 



94 ABSTRACTS 

diminution in numbers of young and darkly-staining nuclei and of nuclei 
in the anaphase : also a diminution in the number of mitoses. Pene- 
trating gamma-rays can apparently reach the bone marrow, whereas the 
comparatively soft X-ra.ys cannot. P. L.-B. 

MxiiANi, E. Azione antibatterica dei raggi secondari dei metalli colloidali. 
[Bactericidal action of secondary rays from colloidal metals.] Radiol, med., 
1920, 7, 302. 

The secondary rays must have a great importance in radiotherapy, but 
their action has not properly been studied except in the series of experi- 
ments made in Rome under the guidance of Prof. Ghilarducci during the 
last few years. These have been based on liis theory of the relation between 
wave length of rays and specific irritability of individual cells. In the 
secondary or characteristic rays we have a scale of radiations with an 
immense variety of wave lengths, which provides a means of studying the 
specificity of their actions. 

The present experiments were designed to test this activity in its 
influence on bacteria, the source of secondary rays being colloidal prepara- 
tions of metals and the bacilli B. prodigiosus. 

(1) The colloidal preparation was held near to, but not in contact with, 
the bacilli and irradiated. 

(2) The colloid was added to the agar on the plate and the strips of 
sown bacilli thereby irradiated. 

(3) The colloid was added to a broth culture and, after irradiation, the 
mixture was plated. 

(4) The colloid was mixed with an emulsion of bacilli and the suspen- 
sion was irradiated and then plated. 

The results were generallj?- negative from the bactericidal point of 
view when the secondary rays were from colloidal metals held close to or 
added to the agar of the plate. When the colloid was added to a broth- 
culture, or when the colloid and the suspension of bacilli were mixed, there 
was a slight action in the form of delayed growth and altered staining. 

In immediate contact with colloidal copper the bactericidal action was 
more marked. It was first generated by rays of 13-14 W., and increased 
with diminution of hardness of primary rays to 9 W. 

In the fourth series the development of the bacilli was completely and 
regularly prevented. With gold, silver, and palladium, at 13-9 \V., smaller 
degrees of bactericidal action were seen. Complete arrest of growth could 
not be obtained even by prolonging the duration of exposure. 

Having discussed the nature of the rays given off" by irradiated metals — 
characteristic, scattered, and corpuscular — the author considers their bearing 
on the interpretation of his experiments. The bactericidal action was 
ascribable to very soft rays only. On the other hand, a certain action 
was produced by rays of varying hardness acting on copper, but the maxi- 
mum effect — arrested development — was obtained only by using primary 
rays of 9W. The partial results with the heavy metals may be due to 
beta raj's. 

These experiments have a practical value because the future of therapy 
depends on the understanding of the problems of the possibility of giving to 
each tissue raj'S of the appropriate wave length for its individual reaction. 

N. H. M. B. 



RADIOLOGY AND ELECTROLOGY 95 



Radiothera'py 

Menard. Trois cas de grossesse apres radiotherapie pour fibrome. [Three 
cases of pregnancy after radiotherapy for fibroid. 1 Bull, et mem. Soc. tie 
chh: de Fur., 1920, Feb. {Anh. cCdectrlc. med., 1920, 28, 219.) 

The autlior declares it to be impossible to give a scientific explanation 
of the action of X-rays on fibroids. Certain fibroids do not decrease in size, 
while others completely disappear. He does not systematically seek the 
menopause, as does Beclere. In certain cases that he has had under 
observation a simple course of irradiation of the uterine mass caused the 
haemorrhagce to cease. 

(1) The patient, 43, had had four normal pregnancies. In 1915 the 
periods became more abundant, from March 1916 she was never more than 
eight days in the month without losing. Fourteen seances of radiotherapy 
were held at intervals of from three to six days. The patient became 
pregnant after six stances and the confinement was normal. 

(2) The patient, 33, began treatment in October 1916. After seven 
seances the periods became normal and lasted four days, then ceased. 
Radiotherapy was continued, one seance per fortnight. In March she was 
stated to be pregnant. The confinement took place normally in July 1917. 
Pregnancy began when the uterus had been irradiated seven times, and the 
eleven lollowing seances did not interrupt it. 

(3) The patient, 32, began treatment in September 1918, and con- 
tinued it at the rate of one seance per week. After 29 stances the periods 
were normal and then ceased. In all, 39 seances were held, and in 
September 1919 the patient was stated to be pregnant. Pregnancy began 
after 29 irradiations and six further seances were given. The confinement 
was expected in March 1920. 

Menard thinks that it is necessary to irradiate the uterus while pro- 
tecting the ovaries, although in certain cases the haemorrhage can only be 
stopped by irradiation of the ovaries. 

These three observations prove that it is often possible to save at least 
one ovar}^ since the three patients became pregnant, and in the first two, 
who came to term, menstruation reappeared at the usual interval after 
parturition. S. U. L.-B. 

Mabtindalz:, L. Intensive X-ray therapy versus hysterectomy for fibro- 
myomata of the uterus. J Arch. Radiol. S,- Electroth., 1920, 25, 97. 

In 39 per cent, of eases radiotherapy was the treatment. 

The technique is that used at the gynaecological clinic of the Freibuig 
University with slight modifications, due chietiy to the adoption of the 
Coolidge tube. Cross-fire is employed through 20-22 ports of entry, through 
18 ports over the abdomen, and 2 or 4 over the sacrum. The distance 
between the anticathode and the skin is about 18cm. The exposure is 
three minutes for each area with a Coolidge tube with hardness 8 and 
4 milliamps : this is done on two consecutive days. 

Physical signs and symptoms determine treatment as far as possible : 
if the tumour were not larger than a six months pregnancy, were inter- 
stitial, and menorrhagia the prominent symptom. X-ray was chosen. If the 
patient could not undergo an operation, by reason of her health or occupation, 



96 ABSTRACTS 

X-ray was used. If the fibroid were small and causing no symptoms, no 
treatment was undertaken. 

In most cases there are no unpleasant effects. 

In all cases of doubtful diagnosis, an exploratory laparotomy followed 
by hystereetomj^ if necessary is the best treatment. P. L.-B. 



Radium Thercvpy. 

FxNCH, A. £. H. A report of the work carried out at the Radium Institute, 
Loudon, from Jan. 1, 1919 to Dec. 31, 1919. 

Malignant Conditions. Malignant growths vary somewhat in their 
susceptibility to radium according to their nature, li D = QxT when D is 
the dosage in milligramme-hours, Q is the amount of Ra bromide in milli- 
grammes, and T is the length of exposm'e in hours, in general terms 
epiblastic growths are more favourably influenced when Q is relatively low 
and T high ; hypoblastic growths when Q is high and T low ; and meso- 
blastic growths are in an intermediate position. 

Except in cases of rodent ulcer all the cases are inoperable. 

Carcinoma of the breast. In the encephaloid type the prog-nosis is 
invariably bad. Prolonged screened exposures to the periphery occasionally 
retard the progress of the disease. The atrophic type usually responds 
well to prolonged screen exposures. 

If the skin be ulcerated healing may often be induced by 12-18 hours 
exposure with ' half strength ' applicators with 1 mm. silver screens. 

Small isolated nodules are best treated by inserting an emanation tube 
with 1 mm. silver screen from 18-24 hours. Prolonged screened exposures 
are necessarj^ for metastases in liver, lung, &c. 

Carcinoma of the uterus. In a few cases patients are treated to 
diminish fixation and aid subsequent operation. Radium treatment appears 
to exert a very beneficial effect upon carcinoma of the cervix. 

In inoperable cases, definite benefit nearly always results, and the 
progress of the disease is greatly retarded. 

The most favourable cases are patients over 50 years of age with little 
fungation and fixation ; but dissemination is always likely to occur. 

Recurrences in the vaginal wall often do well if taken early. 

In cases of cervical carcinoma of the cauliflower tj^pe, as much of the 
growth should be removed as possible : a tube of not less than 100 mg. of 
radium should be inserted with a screen of 1 mm. of silver or 2 mm. of lead. 
A silver screen in contact with the vaginal wall for more than 18 hours is 
likely to produce a fistula, but within the cervical canal this is not likely to 
occur. The exposure should be 20-24 hours and may be supplemented by 
a plate of 100 mg. or more of radium with a 2 mm. lead screen over the 
fundus. Exposures should be repeated in not less than six weeks. Small 
emanation tubes of 20-30 mg. initial activity with 0-3 mm. platinum 
screen may be inserted into circumscribed nodules in the cervix for 
12-18 hours. 

Carcinoma of the body of the uterus. Hysterectomy should always be 
performed if possible. If radium is used, a tube of not less than 100 mg 
with a 1 mm. silver screen should be inserted into the uterine cavity, and 
a plate of equal strength with 2 mm. lead screen, applied over the fundus. 



RADIOLOGY AND ELECTROLOGY 97 

Carcinoma of the tongue, 2Kilate, buccal and pharynijeal mucous mem- 
branes. As a whole they do not respond well. For pro<;nosis they are 
divided into two groups : (1) Those in wliicli acute ulceration predominates. 
(2) Those in which induration predominates. The first class do badly ; the 
second class respond better ; when the induration is circumscribed the 
insertion of a tiny powerful emanation tube with 0-3 platinum screen for 
5-6 hours brings about disappearance. Radiation of the cersical and sub- 
mental glands should be carried out as a prophylactic measure. 

Exuberant papillated growths on the buccal mucous membrane, if 
taken early, often cleai- up entirely by the insertion of powerful emanation 
tubes. 

Prolonged screened exposures in cases of long standing lymphatic 
infection with fixed and hard glands often considerably diminisli the size 
of the glands and prevent ulceration of the skin over them. 

Carcinoma of the rectum. Healthy rectal tissue is very susceptible to 
radium rays, especiall}^ in men. The most suitable growths are annular 
and situated in the upper half of the rectum : if the radium be placed in 
the lumen of the gut no proctitis is set up. In the plaque-like type of 
growth some proctitis almost invariably occurs. If there be extensive 
ulceration a preliminary colostomy should be performed. 

The routine treatment is the insertion of a tube of 100-200 mg. with 
a 2 mm. lead screen for 15-30 hours : the dose should not exceed 3,000 m<j-.- 
liours, and the exposure should not be repeated in less than two months. 
Healthy mucous membrane must be protected. 

Rodent ulcer. For this type of case radium is to be preferred to any 
other form of treatment in an untreated ulcer of recent origin. Lesions up 
to 3 cm, in diameter and not affecting bone or mucous membrane are almost 
invariably removed by one application of from 1^-3 hours with a ' full 
strength ' applicator unscreened. Treatment must be carried out well 
beyond the edge of the lesion. The hypertrophic type will take a larger 
dose than the ulcerative : with the latter it is advisable to give a larger 
dose to the borders of the growth. 

When affecting the palpebral mucosa, a rodent ulcer can usually be 
eradicated by radium, but when the ocular conjunctiva is attacked the 
prognosis is not nearly so good. 

Rodent ulcers that have been previously treated with CO^, scraping, &c., 
need careful treatment owing to the devitalized condition of the tissues. 
A prolonged exposure of 24-30 hours with a half-strength applicator and 
2 mm. lead screen gives the best results, 

A If bone has been attacked the affected portions should be removed 
Defore commencing radium treatment. 

, Carcinoma of the bladder. Treatment often gives good results, 

[especially in females, both because of the easier introduction into the 
bhidder and because a screened tube can be inserted in the vagina in appo- 
sition with the trigone. A few cases of epithelioma of the female urethra 
tave also been satisfactorily treated by the combined method. 

Carcinoma of the 'prostate. If the disease be localized to one lobe a 
jcreened silver tube should be buried in the mass, or a tube of 100 mg. 
ictivity, with 1 mm. silver screen, is placed in the penultimate section of 
a bicoude catheter which is introduced for 2 hours on five successive days. 
This may be supplemented by an exposure over the perineum and also by 
•^ tube introduced per rectum. 

IV. H 



98 ABSTRACTS 

Carcinoma of the oesophagus. Definite, but only temporary relief may 
be obtained : treatment should be carried out by a laryngologist. An 
emanation tube of* not less than 100 rag. activity with a 1 mm. silver 
screen should be used for 15-20 hours. Treatment must be continually 
repeated. 

Carcinoma of the stomach and intestines. Prolonged exposures with 
heavily screened applicators sometimes diminish pain and arrest the pro- 
gress of the disease. 

Sarcomata. Periosteal usually respond better than endosteal ; myelo- 
mata vary. Spindle-celled varieties respond best, round-celled not so 
favourably, the large round-celled are intermediate. In melanotic sarco- 
mata the primary growth may often disappear, but ultimately metastases 
appear. 

Sarcomata of the nasopharynx often disappear within a month of 
treatment. Lympho-sarcomata attacking the cervical and mediastinal 
glands usually show a marked improvement for a time, but repeated ex- 
posures are needed at intervals for 3-4 years. Ultimately the disease gains 
the upper hand. 

Endotheliomata. Most frequently seen as a parotid tumour ; radium 
treatment is often of value in inoperable cases. Unless all parotid substance 
has been previously removed, prolonged irradiation with heavily screened 
apparatus applied externally should be used. 

Non-malignant conditions. In cases of uterine fibroids, treatment with 
radium is very beneficial. The best method is to introduce a 100 mg. tube 
with 2 mm. lead screen into the uterine cavity combined with applicators 
of from 100-200 mg. similarly screened applied above the pubes for 
24-30 hours. Treatment should be repeated. There may be a premature 
menopause. The treatment of chronic metritis is the same. 

Naevi. Treatment of cavernous naevi gives excellent results if taken 
early. ' Half strength ' applicators with 0- 1 mm. lead screen should be 
used, employing cross-fire. Exposure, 30-60 mins. on three successive days, 
at about 6 weeks intervals. 

Results in cases of capillary naevi vary ; idiosyncrasy is great. Not 
more than 15 mins. exposure with a ' half strength ' applicator at first ; later, 
exposures of 1-1| hours with 0-1 mm. lead screen. There is always a 
tendency to the appearance of telangiectasis. 

Corns, warts, 'painllom.ata, and keratomata can be removed by 
exposures of 1-1^ hours with ' full strength ' applicators unscreened. Ten- 
dency to recur is slight. 

Keloids and vicious cicatrices. Radium treatment is better than 
surgical : early treatment is essential. ' Half strength ' applicators with 
1 mm. silver screen for 6 hours on 3 successive days. 

Lwpus erythematosus. Often greatly improved. ' Half strength ' apph- 
cators unscreened for 30-60 mins. at intervals of 4-6 weeks should be 
used. Treatment should be carried well beyond the borders of the lesions. 

Tuberculosis, (a) Lupus vulgaris of shin. If Finsen light fails, radium 
often gives good results, especially when the mucous membrane of the nose 
is affected. Tubes of 25-50 mg. with 1 mm. silver screen are applied inside 
the nose with a ' full strength ' applicator with 2 mm. lead screen applied 
externally ; exposure 6 hours. In ordinary skin lesions screened and un- 
screened tubes are necessary, the former for indurated and the latter for 
ulcerated areas. 



ii 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 99 

(b) Lupus vulgaris of palate and fauces. ' Full strength ' unscreened 
apparatus for 30-60 minutes is generally followed by healthy scar tissue. 

(c) Tuberculous adenitis. When the cervical triangles are affected 
prolonged exposures with heavily screened applicators are recommended. 
Pigmentation is very liable to occur. 

Exophthalmic goitre. In early stages radium does good. Prolonged 
screened treatment with 200-300 mg. is used. The first effect may be an 
exacerbation of all symptoms for 2-3 weeks. In advanced cases great 
caution is needed. 

Leucovythaemia. (a) Splenic. Radium treatment is advisable as a pre- 
liminary to operation. An exposure of 24-30 hours with 400-500 mg. 
screened with 2 mm. of lead should be employed. 

(b) Lymphatic. Radium treatment may improve the blood condition 
and general health for a time. 

Skin dit>eases. Radium does good in many chronic supei-ficial diseases. 
' Half or quarter strength ' unscreened applicators are employed for 
3-15 mius. every 2-3 weeks. 

Arthritis deformans. Recent cases of a peri-articular type are often 
benefited by the daily administration of 500 c.c. of radium emanation solu- 
tion of a strength not less than 1-5 mc. per litre. 

Report of the Chemico-Physical Laboratory. In preparing emanation 
applicators certain precautions should be taken : (1) Strong fans should be 
installed to prevent the inhalation of air diluted with emanation. (2) Rubber 
gloves should be worn when working with mercury. (3) All tubes, &c., 
containing radium, should be kept as far from human beings as possible 
when not in use. 

A comparison of the various radium salts shows that only the sulphate 
gives an efficient and permanent result. The explosion of tubes containing 
radium salts is considered to be due to incomplete dehydration of the salt. 

Report of the Research Department. The first communication dealt 
with the great and rapid leucopenia produced by exposure to radiation and 
the comparatively slow return to the normal when the worker is removed 
from the influence of the radium. The second communication dealt with 
ultra-violet radiation. Patients showing a spotty appearance under ultra- 
violet radiation appear to be more susceptible to radium radiation than 
those who are relatively unspotted. -P* L.-B. 



Electrotherapy 

DE KBArT, P. Action des courants 6lectriques sur les glandes .^ secretions 
internes et les autres tissue. [Action of electric currents on the endocrine 
glands and on other tissues.] Med. Eec, 1920, Jan., 136. {J. de radial et 
d'electrol, 1920, 4, 431.) 

High frequency currents in general application excite nutrition, destroy 
toxins, augment the excretion of COg, increase the solid residue of the urine, 
improve the nutrition of the skin, the hair, the nails, &c. In the forni of 
diathermy they warm the blood and the tissues and dilate the capillaries ; 
engorgement of the internal organs becomes less, and these are placed in 
a condition of better nutrition. At the same time the internal secretion 
glands become more active ; the most common proof of this being increased 



100 ABSTRACTS 

menstrual haemorrhage in the case of a woman. The author thinks the 
secretion may be regulated ; strong local applications of diathermy on the 
region of the implicated gland will prevent secretion, and small applications 
will excite it. 

He recommends effluvation for obtaining muscular contractions ; a 
Tesla coil is joined up with an Oudin resonator; one pole is placed upon the 
patient in the form of a large plate, the other is moved about all over 
the body. Thus is obtained a better muscular tone, a greater sensation of 
well-being, and a possible decrease in weight of 50 lb. in 60 stances. 

In cases of obesity with disorder of the peripheral circulation, cardiac 
weakness, enlargement of the abdomen, diminution of urine, the wave 
current of the static apparatus applied to the abdomen, produces con- 
tractions of striated and unstriated muscles, reduces congestion of the liver, 
improves digestion, warms the extremities, strengthens the heart, and is 
able to diminish the weight by 100 lb. 

The galvano-faradaic-sinusoidal combination is very useful in diabetes, 
gout, and in mental and nervous disorders. Applied from the back to the 
abdomen it tones up the muscles of both, improves the general condition of 
the body, benefits venous circulation (especially the portal) and lymphatic 
circulation. Reduction of weight produced by dietetic treatment has 
the drawback that it predisposes to displacement of the internal organs 
by causing the disappearance of their fatty support without re-establishing 
muscular support, while electrotherapy is free from this objection. 

S. U. L.-B. 



MEDICAL SCIENCE 

ABSTKACTS & REVIEWS 



Volume IV. Number 2 May 1921 



CONTENTS 

REVIEWS: tage 

INTESTINAL PARASITES 103 

DISEASES OF THE SKIN HO 

DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN 118 

BILIARY SURGERY 125 

CONGENITAL TORTICOLLIS 132 

INTESTINAL EXCLUSION 137 

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ELEMENTARY NERVOUS SYSTEM : ITS 

BEARING UPON SOME MODERN NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS . 141 



ABSTRACTS : 

NEUROLOGY 1*^ 

PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 152 

BIOCHEMISTRY 1*^^ 

RADIOLOGY l^X 



MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 

The viscount GOSCHEN, C.B.E. (Chairman) 

WILLIAM GEAHAM, M.P. 

The Hon. EDWARD F. L. WOOD, M.P. {Treasurer) 

C. J. BOND, C.M.G., F.RC.S. 

Professor WILLIAM BULLOCH, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

T. K. ELLIOTT, C.B.E., D.S.O., M.D., F.R.S. 

HENRY HEAD, M.D., F.R.S. 

Professor F. G. HOPKINS, D.Sc, F.R.C.P., F.R.S. 

Major-General sir WILLIAM LEISHMAN, K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.S. 

Professor NOEL PATON, M.D., F.R.S. 

SIR WALTER M. FLETCHER, K.B.E., M.D., Sc.D., F.R.S. {Secretary). 



The Council are indebted to the following for editorial superintendence in 
the subjects named : 

Medicine . . . . J. D. ROLLESTON, M.D. 

Surgery . . , . W. G. SPENCER, M.S., F.R.C.S. 

Pathology and Bacteriology W. BULLOCH, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Neurology . . . F. M. R. WALSHE, M.D. F.R.C.P. 

Radiology . . . W. S. LAZARUS-BARLOW, M.D., F.R.C.P. 

SIDNEY RUSS, D.Sc. 

Biochemistry , . . C. G. L. WOLF, M.D. 



All communications on editorial matters should be addressed to 

E. SCHUSTER, D.Sc, 
Assistant Secretaiy, Medical Research Council, 

National Institute for Medical Research, 

Haiaipst^ad, N.W, 3. 



REVIEWS 



INTESTINAL PARASITES 

McLean states that intestinal parasites are infrequent in New York 
City children living under good hygienic conditions. In examination by 
him of 308 stools from children up to 12 yesbvs of age he found that only 7, 
or 227 per cent., harboured parasites, viz. Ascaris htynbricoides or Oxyuris 
vermicularis. In 4 the presence of parasites was determined by the find- 
ing of ova, and in 3 by the presence of the parasites. 

Under the name of the tongue sign, Couillaud describes an appearance 
of the tongue met with in oxyuriasis and ascariasis, and characterized by 
enlargement of the fungiform papillae which are seen in the form of red 
points distributed over the margins of the anterior surface and tip of the 
tono-ue. According to Couillaud this sign may appear by itself apart from 
any other symptom of helminthiasis. On expulsion of the worms from the 
intestine it rapidly diminishes and disappears entirely. While possibly 
indicating a catarrhal condition of the intestine, the sign is more probably 
due either to toxaemia or to slight and repeated irritation of the intestinal 
mucosa with reflex involvement of areas innervated by intermediate bulbar 
centres. 

According to Neumann, who records two cases of oxyuriasis and one of 
ascariasis in infants, intestinal parasites, while very frequent in older children 
and adults, are rarely met with in infants. He quotes Israilten, who made 
investigations in Zurich into the frequency of intestinal parasites in man, 
and among 994 children examined found only three infants with intestinal 
parasites. 

According to the statistics of Stiles and Garrison which include statistics 
from the United States, the Philippines, India, West and Central Africa, 
Italy, England, Russia, and Germany, no entozoa were found in children 
under one year. 

An intestinal parasite which is very rare in Germany, but relatively 
frequent in infants, is Taenm cacumerlna. Its frequency in infants is 
explained by its being transmitted by the dog -flea and the close association 
so often present between dogs and infants. Taenia cucumerlna in infants 
is especially frequent in Denmark, where dogs are very plentiful. Other 
tapeworms such as T. flavopiinctata, T. saginata, T. solium and Bothrio- 
cephalus are rare in infants, and infestation by Oxyuris vermiculaHs or 
Ascaris lumhricoides is not frequent at this age. 

Hoflinann, of the Zurich University Children's Clinic, remarks that 
much more importance was attached to intestinal parasites, and especially 
ascarides, by the older writers than at present, all sorts of symptoms being- 
attributed to them, so that it is often diflficult to distinguish truth from 
IV. I 2 



104 REVIEWS 

fiction in the old descriptions. On the other hand, at the present day, 
there is a tendency to underestimate the significance of these parasites, 
though it is probable that owing to the progress of hygiene the frequency 
of these parasites and their complications has to some extent diminished. 
In districts where ascarides are extremely prevalent, such as the tropics, 
considerable importance is still attributed to them. In European countries 
their frequency varies considerably. Thus, whereas, according to Langer, 
52 per cent, of the country children in Bohemia are infested with ascarides, 
the figures in the towns are considerably lower, e. g. 4 per cent, among the 
children in Prague. Hoftmann has collected 63 cases of intestinal obstruc- 
tion due to ascarides, including 7 personal cases, 5 of which were in children 
aged from If to 9 years and 2 in adults aged 20 and 21. 

According to von Uji, who reports a case of intestinal obstruction due 
to ascarides, the occurrence and severity of the obstruction do not bear any 
relation to the number of the worms. A large number of worms is not by 
itself sufficient to cause obstruction, but overeating, errors in diet, chill, and 
strain are predisposing causes, von Uji alludes to severe cases of ileus 
verininosus collected by Nob^court, of which three were cured by operation, 
one died in spite of operation, and three died without operation. The 
diagnosis is decidedly difficult, and in most cases the condition is not 
discovered until autopsj^ or laparotomy. 

According to Crowell, who records his experiences of the parasite in 
the autopsy room during several years in Manila, Ascaris lumbricoides 
is more widely distributed geographically, and infests a larger number of 
persons, than any other known intestinal parasite. Its pathological effects 
are classified by Crowell as follows: (1) Mechanical eflfects may be caused 
by the worm in the intestine or in the course of its migrations to the bile- 
ducts, liver, pancreas, stomach, oesophagus, accessory nasal sinuses, lacrymal 
duct, Eustachian tube, external ear, larynx, and trachea ; (2) the worm is 
also of importance as a carrier of infection in its migrations to the peritoneum, 
liver, gall-bladder, and pancreas ; (3) the larvae cause broncho-pneumonia in 
experimental animals, and it is not improbable that they may do so in some 
cases in infants ; (4) the presence of a harmful toxic substance is a source 
of danger, and reflex nervous symptoms, due either to mechanical or toxic 
irritation, are also frequently encountered. 

Eberle of Offenbach, states that though over 100 cases of invasion of 
the bile-ducts by ascarides have been published, invasion of the pancreas by 
these parasites is very rare and usually occurs jjost morteni. Vierordt's 
case, published in 1904, was the first in which a definite diagnosis was made 
during life, well-marked lesions being found in the pancreas at the autopsy. 
Eberle's case, which is the third on record, occurred in a woman aged 45, 
from whom 31 ascarides were removed at the operation from the bile-ducts, 
and 35 at the autopsy, five hours after death, from the liver, pancreas, and 
pancreatic duct, as well as from the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. She 
also presented the very rare association of gall-stones and worms, only 
three examples of which have been collected by Neugebauer. 

According to Ransom, chief of the Zoological Division of the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry', recent investigations on Ascaris lumbri- 
coides have shown that after the young worms hatch in the intestine they 
do not immediately settle down, but migrate to the liver, lungs, and other 
organs, meanwhile undergoing considerable growth and development. 
Those that reach the lungs return to the intestine by way of the trachea 



INTESTINAL PARASITES 105 

and oesophagus, then settle down and develop to maturity in a suitable 
host (man, pig) ; otherwise they are soon eliminated in the faeces (rat, mouse, 
guinea-pig, rabbit), or in some liosts undergo an abortive development that 
Falls short of fertile maturity. 

Hosier, in 1867, and Lutz, in 1868, recorded the occurrence of pulmonary 
symptoms in human beings following experimental administration of ascaris 
eggs, the symptoms being very probably due to invasion of the lungs by 
the migrating ascaiis larvae. Ransom urges that the question of the 
occurrence of pulmonary sj'mptoms in human beings as a result of ascaris 
infection should receive careful attention, especially in the case of young 
children. 

Bourges records a case of acquired haemolytic jaundice which occurred 
in a young soldier infested Avith Ascaria lumhricoides. The symptoms 
gradually disappeared in the course of two months after expulsion of 29 
asearides by santonin. All other causes of haemolytic jaundice, such as 
syphilis, tuberculosis, and malaria, could be excluded, and there was no 
evidence of gastric cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, or myeloid leukaemia. 
Bourges therefore concludes that the haemolytic icterus in this case was 
due to the action of the asearides on the red corpuscles. He alludes to 
a similar case of haemolytic jaundice reported by Darre, which appeared in 
the course of ankylostomiasis and was cured after treatment with thymol. 

Lawen and Reinhardt examined 620 appendices which had been 
removed at St. George's Hospital, Hamburg, since the spring of 1914, and 
found oxyurides present in 60 cases, or 9*76 per cent. The worms were 
found twice as frequently in the female as in the male appendix. 12 of 
the affected appendices occurred in children up to the age of 14, and 48 in 
adults. The oldest patients were aged 42, 43, 46, and 62 years, and were 
all \vomen. In all but 7 cases, in which the operation showed abdominal 
lesions such as tubal pregnancy, cholecystitis, tuberculosis, &e., in addition 
to the presence of oxyurides in the appendix, the clinical picture was that of 
a mild, moderate, or, in rare cases, a severe attack of appendicitis. The 
condition is attributed by Lawen and Reinhardt to the oxyurides penetrating 
the mucous membrane and so opening up the path for a bacterial infection. 
It is probable also that the toxic action of the parasites causes a superficial 
transient inflammation of the mucous membrane. Clinically, a certain 
diagnosis cannot be made, but relatively slight objective findings, combined 
with fairly acute or chronic symptoms, is suggestive of oxyuris appendicitis. 
This diagnosis will be all the more probable if oxyurides have already 
been found in the stools several years previously. On opening the abdomen 
an abundant serous effusion is sometimes a sign of oxyuris appendicitis, 
but frequently the effusion is confined to the serous coat of the appendix. 

Furbringer of Berlin, regards the war as mainly responsible for the 
unusual prevalence of the Oxyuris vermiculdris lioth among children and 
adults within recent years. Whereas, previously', oxyurides were usually 
transmitted from children to adults, during the war the young civilian 
population had the disease transmitted to them by soldiers home on leave 
in whom infestation had been favoured by life in the trenches and barracks. 
The change in the character of the food, with the predominance of a vege- 
tarian diet, also helped to explain the unusual frequency of oxyuriasis. 

Mayer records the results of the examination of the stools or blood, or 
both, of coloured prisoners in the prisoners' camp at Wiinsdorf in 1917. 
The most striking finding was the prevalence of hookworm infection, 



106 REVIEWS 

especially among the West Africans (56 per cent.) and the Indians, 
particularly the Ghurkhas (62*7 per cent.), in marked contrast with the low- 
percentage of hookworm infection among North African prisoners (2-1 per 
cent, among 239 examined). 

In response to representations made by tlie International Health Com- 
mission of the Rockefeller Institute, the Indian Research Fund Association 
have devoted a considerable amount of attention to the subject of ankylo- 
stomiasis in India. The first inquiry started under their auspices was con- 
ducted by Lane among the labour forces employed in the tea gardens in the 
Darjeeling districts, 66-02 per cent, of whom were found to be infected with 
Necator americamis. 

Mhaskar, officer in charge of the ankylostomiasis inquiry in Madras, 
reports that the percentage of hookworm infection is nearh^ 100 in the 
four districts of Tanjore, Trichinopol}^ Madura, and Ramnad. Of the two 
species of hookworm harboured — Necatov ameriranus and Ankylostoma 
duodenale — the percentage of the former is nearly 100, while that of the 
latter varies widely, being 80 per cent, in Tanjore and 10 per cent, in the 
Madura district. Hookworm infection, though universal, was found to var}' 
in intensity in the various districts in communities. Freedom from hook- 
worm infection appeared to diminish the susceptibihty to bowel complaints. 

Megaw, professor of pathology at King George's Medical College, 
Lucknow, states that hookwoi'm infection is exceedingly prevalent in the 
United Provinces, and that nearly every one there who reaches adult life 
harbours hookworms, or has at some time harboured them. Not only does 
hookworm infection cause many deaths every year, but it produces some 
degree of mental and physical deterioration in an enormous number of 
individuals. In the aggregrate there is a very great economic loss to the 
provinces. 

Caius and Mhaskar have written a series of papers, in connexion with 
the hookworm inquiry in the Madras Presidency, on the correlation between 
the chemical composition of anthelmintics and their therapeutic values. 
Their principal conclusions were as follows : (1) Thymol is a powerful 
vermicide acting both on A nhylostoma and Necator. Any dose from 30 to 
60 grains in one portion will prove effective. Thymol has mild vermifugal 
properties. As its use does not interfere with the daily occupations of the 
individual, it is likely to find favour with the masses. (2) 01. chenopodii, 
ol. absinthii, ol. tanaceti, and ol. cajuputi are all more or less toxic, and 
cannot be recommended as anthelmintics. 

Waite and Neilson report that during 1918 the State of Queensland, the 
Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine, and the International Health 
Board of the Rockefeller Foundation conducted jointly a hookworm inquiry 
in North Queensland, and found by stool microscopy 21 per cent, of the 
the total population infected. From examination of 340 children, Waite 
and Neilson found that hookworm disease produced mental sluggishness 
and retarded mental development according to the massiveness of the 
infestation. Prolonged hookworm infestation appeared to produce cumu- 
lative mental retardation. 

Schapiro, state director of the campaign for the relief and control 
of hookworm disease in Costa Rica, states that there is a permanent 
increase in haemoglobin as the result of treatment, which is also followed 
by an increase in earning capacity, and increase in acreage cultivated, 
and a marked reduction in morbidity and infantile mortality. 



INTESTINAL PARASITES 107 

According to Brosius and Bishop, hookworm disease is ahnost universal 
among the natives of the district of Zaragoza, Colombia, 98 per cent, of the 
inhabitants being affected. All forms of intestinal parasites live and thrive in 
the same individual, no type producing conditions inimical to the life of the 
others. The writers came to the conclusion that the normal haemoMobin 
value of the blood in the natives of this region is somewhat lower than in 
temperate zones, viz. al)Out 70 per cent. In the hookworm infested popula- 
tion of Zaragoza the average haemoglobin percentage is 47, but an immediate 
rise, varying from JiO to 50 per cent., follows expulsion of the worms from 
the patient's, intestine. 

Darling, professor of hygiene in the Sao Paulo Faculty of Medicine, 
describes the work done in the Far East by the Malaya Board on the treat- 
ment of hookworm infection. The Board discovered that hookworm 
infection existed to a greater extent in the tropical east than was generally 
recognized, practically 100 per cent, of the agriculturists, who form the 
great bulk of the population, being infected. It was shown that there was 
a correspondence between the degree of infection — that is, the actual number 
of worms harboured — and the amount of blood loss or anaemia sufiered. 
A given number of worms produced more anaemia among children than 
among an equal number of women, and more anaemia among women than 
among an equal number of men. It was estimated that about 12 hook- 
worms were required to cause a loss of 1 per cent, haemoglobin. When the 
number of worms harboured was considerable, the anaemia caused was 
evident and measurable ; when only a few worms were harboured the 
blood loss might not be detectable. 

Darling states that the Malaya Board found that chenopodium was 
more effective than thymol in killing hookworm, and that it was even more 
efficacious in expelling asearis and other helminths such as oxyuris, 
trichiurus, and trematodes. The dose of 1-5 c.c. oil of chenopodium was 
highly efficient and l)ut slightly toxic, sometimes causing transient dizziness 
and vomiting. 

Smillie of Sao Paulo, found that large doses of betanaphthol (18 grm. 
for adults), which he used in the treatment of 79 cases of hookworm disease, 
caused very severe toxic symptoms in two cases and also produced marked 
changes in the blood-cells in two other cases. The drug caused considerable 
destruction of the red corpuscles, with resultant severe anaemia, icterus, 
enlargement of the spleen, liver, and gall-bladder, and haemoglobinuria. 
The leucocytes were apparently not destroyed by the drug. Smillie con- 
cludes that betanaphthol in large doses is so toxic that it cannot be 
recommended for general use in the treatment of hookworm disease. 

As the human habitat of the hookworm is the first portion of the 
duodenum with extension along the intestine in both directions in the severer 
infections, Kantor, gastro-enterologist to U.S. Army General Hospital, 
No. 14, has devised an intra-intestinal tube treatment which he claims to be 
more efficacious, safer, and, once the duodenal bucket is in place, quicker 
than the methods at present in vogue. After introduction of the duodenal 
tube, 2-3 c.c. of oil of chenopodium are injected through it, and, after an 
interval of six minutes to allow the oil to diffuse through the worm-bearing 
area, 2-o oz. of a saturated solution of magnesium sulphate are injected to 
prevent toxic absorption of the oil. 

Moog and Womer, of the Frankfort University Medical Clinic, allude 
to the prevalence of the Tricocephalus trich'iarv.s in soldiers (vide Medical 



108 REVIEWS 

Science, 1920, 1, 40.2), and report their investigations as to its incidence 
among non-combatants. As compared with a frequency of 46 per cent, 
among soldiers, the stools of 200 non-combatants showed the ova of Tricho- 
cephaliLS trichiurus in 66, or 33 per cent. In none of the cases could any 
symptoms be definitely attributed to the presence of worms. The number 
of ova in the faeces of the non-combatants was very small compared with 
the enormous amount present in the faeces of soldiers. Eosinophilia was 
found in only 8 of the 66 parasite carriers and therefore could not be 
regarded as a constant symptom. 

Mouriquand and Bertoye report an example of a syndrome which is 
little known, viz. trichocephaliasis with severe anaemia and diarrhoea. 
Such cases may be fatal, but recovery has followed so radical a method as 
irrigation of the colon with soap and water through an appendicostomy 
opening. This was successful when all else had failed. The present case, 
however, proved fatal, and the autopsy revealed myriads of the tricho- 
cephalus fixed to the mucous membrane in bunches. No definite haemo- 
rrhagic spots were seen. The blood examination showed three million red 
cells, but only 20 per cent, of haemoglobin, so that the colour index was 
0'3 — a figure seldom met with. There was an eosinophiUa of 11 per cent. 

Herzog records a case of bothriocephalus anaemia in which the blood- 
picture exactly corresponded to that of pernicious anaemia, although all the 
other symptoms of that condition, especially achylia gastrica and glossitis, 
were absent. This shows that bothriocephalus anaemia cannot be identified 
with Biermer's disease. It is obvious that the bone marrow reacts in the 
same manner to different stimuli just as other tissues do. In Herzog's case 
there was an extensive pigmentation of the skin which he regarded as 
haemochromatosis. 

BoTTBGES, H. Syndi'ome d'ictfere hemolytique acquis au eours d'une lombricose. 
Kole pathogenique des toxines ascaridiennes dans la genese du processus de 
destruction globulaire. Bull, et mem. Soc. mM. d. hop. de Far., 1920, 3^ ser,, 
44, 1491-4. 

Bbosxus, O. T., and Bishop, W. A. Diseases due to intestinal parasites in 
Colombia and their treatment. J. Am. M. Ass., 1920, 74, 1768-78. 

Caxus, J. P., and Mhaskab, E. S. The correlation between the chemical 
composition of anthelmintics and their therapeutic values in connexion with the 
hookworm inquiry in the Madras Presidency. Ind. J. M. Research, 1919-20, 
7, 429-63, 570-609, 722-6. 

CouziJCATJD, P. Le signe de la langue. Contribution h. I'^tude clinique de 
I'ascaridiose et de I'oxyurose. Theses de Paris, 1919-20, 253. 

Cboweu:., B. C. The dangers of ascariasis. Am. J. 31. Sc., 1920, 169, 380-98. 

DabIiZNO, S. T. Suggestions for the mass treatment of hookworm infection. 
Lancet, 1920, ii, 69-72. 

Ebeblb, D. Zur Askariden-Einwanderung in die Leber und die Bauchspeichel- 
drUse. Schweis. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 50, 1110-12. 

FuBBBixrasB. Uber Wurmerkrankungen. Ztschr. f. (irztl. Foi'thUd., 1920,17, 
186-93. 

HsBzoa, P. Zur Kenntnis der BothriozephalusanSmie. Mi'mchen. med. 
Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 1383-5. 



INTESTINAL 'PARASITES 109 

Hoffmann, W. Askaiidenileus, mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung des Obtura- 
tionsileus nebst Mitteilung von 7 Fallen. Monatschr. f. KinderJteilk.. 1919, Orig. 
15, 199-231. 

Kantob, J. L. The intia-intestinal tube treatment of hookworm infection. 
/. Am. 31. Ass., 1920, 73, 1181-3. 

liAXTE, C. An investigation into ank5'lostoma infection in 11,000 inhabitants of 
the Darjeehng district of India. ImL •/. 31. Research, 1916-17, 4, 274-84. 

Law£N, a., u. Beinhabct, a. Ueber das durch Oxyuriasis des Wurmfort- 
satzes und Appendicitis ex Oxyurc hervorgerufene Krankheitsbild nnd seine 
pathologisch-ariatomischen Grundlagen. 3Iunchen. med. Wchnschr., 1919, 66, 
1433-6. 

Mateb, M. Uber Stuhl- und Blutuntersuchungen bei farbigen Kriegsgefan- 
genen und die Notwendigkeit der AnkylostomabekJimpfung in Britisch-Indien. 
Arch./. Schiffs-u. Tropen-Hyg., 1920, 24. 133-9. 

McLean, S. Infrequency of intestinal parasites in young children. ./. Am. 
3[. Ass., 1920, 74. 1774-5. 

Meoaw, J. W. D. Report on hookworm infection in the United Provinces, 
Ind. J. 31. Research, 1919 20, 7, 840-63. 

Mhaskab, K. S. The prevalence of ankylostomiasis in the Madras Presidency. 
Ind. J. M. Research, 1919-20, 7, 412-28. 

MoOG, O., u. WoBNEB, H. Ueber Trichocephalus dispar bei Nichtkriegsteil- 
nehmern. Berl. Min. Wchnschr., 1920, 57, 109-10. 

MoxTBZQUAND, G., et Bebtoye. Trichocephalose a forme chlorotique grave. 
Paris med., 1919, ii, 486-8. 

Neumann, M. f ber Helminthen bei Siiuglingen. Zfschr.f. Kinderheilk, 1920, 
26, 85-93. 

Ransom, B. H. A newly recognized cause of pulmonary disease — Ascaris 
lumhricoides. J. Am. 31. Ass., 1919, 73, 1210-12. 

ScHAPZBO, L. The physical and economic benefits of treatment for hookworm 
disease. /. Am. 31. Ass., 1919, 73, 1507-9. 

SmzlIiZE, W. G. Betanaphthol poisoning in the treatment of hookworm disease. 
/. Am. 31. Ass., 1920, 74, 1503-6. 

V. XJjz, S. Ein geheilter Fall von Ileus verminosus. Jahrh.f. KinderheilJc, 
1920, 91, 274-7. 

Wazte, J. H., and Nezlson, I. L. Effects of hookworm disease on mental 
development of North Queensland school children. J. Am. 31. Ass., 1920, 73, 
1877-9. 

J. D. R. 
G. W. 



no REVIEWS 



DISEASES OP THE SKIN 



The most important event in the dermatological worM during the last 1 
six months has been the attainment of his seventieth birthday hy the 
celebrated physician Unna of Hamburg', and the occasion was appropriately 
commemorated by the publication of a special number, on September 8, of the 
Dermatologische Wochenschrift, the journal which was founded by him in 
collaboration with Hebra and Lassar under the name of Monatehefte fiir 
praktische Dermiatologle in 1882, and which has ever since largely been 
supported by him and his numerous followers. The special number reveals 
his enormous energy and the wonderful variety of aspects under which his 
genius has manifested itself. 

A contribution to the chemistry of the skin of some importance is 
made by Strauss, who has investigated the composition of keratin. He 
emplo3^s Unna's method of splitting it by the action of sulphuric acid and 
hydrogen peroxide and dissolving as much as possible of the product with 
ammonia. The insoluble residue designated Keratin A he finds common to 
all varieties of keratin. The soluble portion when acidified yields a pre- 
cipitate Keratin B which varies according to the variety of keratin 
investigated, e. g. nails, horn, hoofs, hair, &c. Albumoses are also found in 
the filtrates. There is no reason to believe that the refractory behaviour of 
keratin is in any way proportional to the amount of sulphur contained in it. 

Apart from this there has been nothing of striking moment published 
on dermatological subjects. Many workers are struggling to solve the still 
elusive problems presented by the common diseases of the skin. There 
seems to be an increasing tendency to regard psoriasis as an infective 
disorder. Bory, for example, defends this theory very strongly, he quotes 
several cases where it has apparently been propagated by contagion, and he 
also points out that the most successful remedies are parasiticides, associated, 
it is true, with reducing agents. Lennhoft' has attempted inoculation 
experiments and has inoculated psoriatic subjects with matter from their 
own lesions, and in about 15 per cent, of his attempts has been successful. 
Control situations inoculated with scales from the author's own healthy 
skin did not in any case develop the disease. The majority of people he 
regards as immune to the disease, and therefore, he did not attempt to 
inoculate them. Adamson. (1) thinks that keratodermia blennorrhagica, 
which is always associated with gonorrhoeal arthritis, is merely a form of 
psoriasis. He points out that the psoriasis associated with all forms of 
arthritis is often of the rupioid type, with scales heaped up into horny cones, 
while again in many cases of keratodermia blennorrhagica it is detailed that 
the patient had psoriasis on other parts of the body. In some cases it is 
diflicult to diagnose between the two conditions. He therefore concludes 
that keratodermia blennorrhagica is merely a special form of psoriasis. The 
description of a case of this condition by Isaac, in the same number of the 
British Journal of Dermatology as Adamson's paper, certainly supports the 
latter's theory. 

Eczema. In America several observers have been trying to establish 
a relationship between eczema and the sensitization of the skin to certain 
proteins in the food. Strickler and Goldberg made extracts of proteins 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN 111 

from many foods and injected patients with them in the hope of getting 
reactions in various dermatoses, but their results were indefinite ; so were 
those of White, who also found that 28 patients whose eczema was of the 
dry variet}^ had an excess of fat in the faeces, while 4 patients with moist 
eczema had an excess of starch. Ramirez also tested 78 cases of eczema for 
protein sensitiveness with 30 positive results, and 10 of these were cured b}' 
removing the faulty protein from the diet. Nevertheless, he concludes that 
only a small proportion of eczema cases are anaphylactic. So far this line 
of research has not yielded striking results, hut the Americans are still 
hopeful. Montgomery and Culver jwint out that there are sevei'al varieties 
of eczema of the vermilion border of the lips, some of which are serious and 
maj^ become the starting-point of cancer. They strongly recommend 
treatment with radium. Galewsky (1) states that many cases of eczema of 
the forehead are caused by the leather substitutes in hat linings containing 
nitrocellulose and cre.sol. Moro writes on sudden death in eczema; he says 
that it always occurs between February and April, and thinks that the 
sympathetic nervous system is hypersensitive at this season. He thinks 
that the external treatment of infantile eczema may be dangerous if too 
successful. The seasonal variations in various skin diseases are also 
discussed by Bettmann, but after much deliberation he is only able to arrive 
at the conclusion that the totality of cosmo-meteorological conditions aft'ect 
the human organism in the most complicated way. 

The constant ettbrts made to improve the treatment of chronic sepsis of 
the skin are exemplified by Galewsky (2), who writes in praise of ' Sta- 
phar ', which is a staph jdococcic vaccine from which poisonous constituents 
have been eliminated and which consequently can be given in extremely 
large doses. It corresponds to the detoxicated vaccines which are now being 
prepared in Great Britain. Montel recommends the local application of 
dressings of antistreptococcic serum in cases of erysipelas and lymphangitis, 
while Becher advocates the use of a 10 per cent, solution of oil of turpentine 
in olive oil in almost all septic conditions of the skin, also in eczema, buboes, 
and pruritus. But most observers agree tliat on the whole the collosol 
manganese gives as good results as anything in the treatment of obstinate 
furunculosis. 

The whole subject of lichen and lichenification has been exhaustively 
discussed by Dind who upholds the thesis that lichen planus and all its 
modifications, together with the lichen simplex chronicus of Vidal or neuro- 
dermatitis, are the same disease. His arguments are (1) that the histological 
features in all are of the same character ; (2) that both conditions may occur 
either simultaneously or in succession in the same patient ; (3) that in eacli 
type the course and characters of the eruption point to a parasitic cau.se ; 
(4) that both types of lesion are very amenable to treatment with arsenic, 
especially intravenous injections of arsenobenzol. It may also be mentioned 
that Bonnet and ]\[orenas advocate large doses of cacodylate of soda in the 
same conditions. On the other hand Thibierge strongly supports the idea 
that lichen planus is quite distinct from lichen simplex and its modifications. 
Pigmentation of the skin. With and Kissmeyer have studied the 
eftect of Kght baths on patients with vitiligo. They find that at first the 
vitiligo becomes more visible, but that subsequently a macular pigmentation 
appears on the patches, which may continue spreading after the light baths 
have ceased. The vitiligo patches at fii-st react to the light baths with 
a stronger erythema than the normal skin, but little by little the patients 



112 REVIEWS 

are able to stand a quantity of light to which formerly they reacted with 
erythema not only upon the normal but also upon the non-pigmented areas 
of the skin. Consequently they infer that the organism is capable of 
protecting itself against light in other ways besides pigmentation. Vitili- 
ginous skin does not give the dopa-reaction, but where the new macules of 
pigmentation occur there is an intense dopa-reaction chiefly in the cubical 
cells of the basal layer. They regard vitiligo as an exhaustion dermatosis 
caused by the using up of the dopa-oxydase by some unknown stimulant. 
Their results support the view that all skin pigment is formed in the 
epidermis, not in the deeper layers. Wassermann discusses the fact that 
the soldier's skin often becomes deeply pigmented, especially in the dark, 
races. He thinks that not only exposure but also the food available on 
service may contribute towards this. Post-mortem pigmentation of the 
skin is dealt with by Neubiirger. He shows that the human skin darkens 
after death, especially those parts which are normally inclined to be darker. 
The cause of death makes no diflference unless it be Addison's disease or 
another condition which augments pigmentation during life. These are 
succeeded by increased post-mortem pigmentation. The pigmentation is 
independent of bacteria but needs free oxygen. It is derived from the 
epidermis and is produced by the oxidation of ' dopa ' or dioxyphenylalanin, 
in life carried out by a ferment in the cells of the basal layer. In fact his 
results agree with those of With and Kissmeyer. 

Tuberculosis. Vogel describes a case of tuberculosis cutis vegetans, 
Cranston Low and Logan publish a fatal case of lupus erythematosus in 
which tuberculous lesions were found at the autopsy, Kiendl gives a warning 
against the use of tuberculin in lupus erythematosus and also states that 
the administration of quinine may be followed by a temporary exacerbation 
of the eruption, while Adamson (2) writes to point out what excellent 
results may be obtained in the treatment of lupus vulgaris by the use of 
that old remedy liquid acid nitrate of mercury, both on the skin and also 
the mucous membranes, with and without ulceration. His results, which 
others have since confirmed, make it appear strange that for so long this 
caustic has been allowed to fall into desuetude. 

Fungoid infections. Up to recently small-si^ored ringworm was 
a rarity in Austria, but it has now been introduced by children returning 
from western Europe, where they have been boarded out in order that they 
might escape the terrible economic conditions of Austria. Stein, therefore, 
has a paper on the differential diagnosis between large- and small-spored 
ringworm of the scalp. There is nothing very new in it, but it is interesting 
to note that he recommends perhydrol as having more penetrating power 
than other drugs. Nathan has studied the production of antibodies in 
trichophytic infections. His conclusions are indefinite ; he states that 
immunity phenomena occur in these infections and may be demonstrated 
sometimes, but not with regularity, not only by cutaneous allergy and 
immunity, but also by the presence of antibodies in the blood. Noir^ points 
out some of the precautions that must be taken in the X-ray therapy of 
ringworm of the scalp, especially the importance of not having the tube too 
far away from the scalp. This necessity is often unrecognized. 

Herpes zoster. Stern reports the case of a highly neurotic man who 
had a recurrent eruption on his right buttock and occasionally on his lips, 
also swellings of the glands and an attack of facial paralysis. Probably 
a case of herpes febrilis. Bacmeister reports a case where the patient 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN 113 

apparently infected two other people with herpes zoster by shaking hands 
with them. This is intcrcstino-, in view of recent tendency to associate 
herpes zoster with varicella. 

Urticaria. A case of urticaria tuberosa (Willan) is published by Reiche, 
cured l)y atophan. Hoffinann discussed the peculiarities of the urticaria 
produced by flea-bites. Ward points out that acute fevers are often 
followed by an attack of urticaria. 

Scabies. Daul)it advocates the use of soluble sulphur in the form of 
the polysulphide of calcium, as being more rapid than the conventional 
methods. The danger of dermatitis he thinks can be easily avoided. Pozzo 
publishes a case of ' Norwegian scabies ' in a bed-ridden boy afflicted with 
tuberculosis from which he subsequently died. Dubreuilli describes an 
epidemic of an infective pruriginous eruption occurring among the Ton- 
kinese and Annamites imported into France during the war. It was 
characterized by papules, like those of prurigo or strophulus, which on 
disappearing left a little brown macule. The eruption was mostly upon 
the lower part of the body and in the lumbar region. It was certainly 
not scabies. Glandular enlargement was common ; no parasites were 
found. In hospital a cure was rapidly eflfected by a weak tar and sulphur 
ointment. 

O'Donovan (1) records an interesting outbreak of dermatitis due to 
handling figs infected with a mite which was identified with Carpoglyphvs 
2)assularum, one of the sarcoptidae, but apparently unrecognized previously 
in this country as a cause of dermatitis. 

Scleroderma. A long paper is produced by Adrian and Roederer on 
aftections of the joints in scleroderma, with full consideration of the literature 
of the subject. The cases are divided into three groups : (1) in which the 
atfection of the joints is primary and succeeded by scleroderma ; (2) in 
which joints and skin are attacked simultaneously ; (3) in which the skin is 
attacked first and subsequently the disease extends to the joints. Cases 
are almost all in females. There is a close connexion between scleroderma 
and polyarticular chronic rheumatism and certain anomalous forms of 
tubercle. The aetiology is completely obscure and no useful therapeutics 
are known. Nevertheless, in many cases the prognosis is fair. Izar 
publishes a case of generalized scleroderma so extensive as to threaten the 
life of the patient, a little girl aged 7, which was completely cured by 
injections of hypophysin and pituitrin given on alternate days. 

Erythromelalgia. Kunstmann describes a case of this disease which, 
owing to obstinate ulceration, had to submit to amputation of a leg, in which 
no pathological alteration, either of the blood-vessels or nerves, could be 
found. On the other hand, a patient of Chatellier was more fortunate, for 
she was cured of the same disease by a single injection of a quarter of 
a milligramme of adrenalin. 

Fellag^ra. Probizer discusses the astonishing fact that during the war 
pellagra almost disappeared from the Trentino. This shows that it is not 
caused by misery, want, or psychic disturbances, nor by the Slmuliuin. The 
true cause of the freedom from pellagra was the high cost and difficulty of 
getting maize. He points out that now that the war is ended it is necessary 
to enforce the various laws against the sale of diseased maize. 

Alopecia areata. Sabouraud now supports in an ingenious paper, 
perhaps somewhat tentatively, the theory that this disease is an abortive 
form of congenital syphilis. 



114 REVIEWS 

Myiasis. A case of ' creeping disease ' occurring in Paris and cured by- 
excision is reported by Darier (1). 

New growths. Quite a number of papers have been written on these. 

Darier (2) records an interesting case of the precancerous dermatosis of 
Bowen in an old man in whom almost all the skin of the face was affected. 
The disease ran a rapid course and was quite uninfluenced by X-rays. 

Savatard (1) (2) (3) has three communications, one a very interesting 
one on the earlj^ diagnosis of epithelioma of the skin, which is often missed 
in its initial stages. He also publishes a case of leiomyoma or multiple 
tumours composed of smooth muscle-cells derived from the arrectores pili 
and a case of the rare fibroma simplex. Lenormant describes a case of the 
extraordinary condition known as cutex verticis gyrata in which almost the 
whole scalp was transformed into a thick, fatty and malodorous cap lined 
with deep furrows. It was greatly improved by operation, and reduced to 
such dimensions that it could be effectually concealed by a wig. 

Darier and Halle publish an interesting case of a naevus derived from 
the branchial clefts, containing crypts lined with cylindrical epithelium, 
which the authors regard as intradermic branchial fistulae, and Audry 
records the case of a child who presented two tumours of the scalp 
which contained brain tissue although shut off" from the cerebral contents 
by the closure of the cranial sutures. He calls the condition ' aifevo- 
encdphalome '. 

Tar cancer is discussed independently by O'Donovan and Kuntzel, who 
arrive at very similar conclusions, namely, that the incubation is prolonged, 
that the commonest site is the scrotum, that the type of growth produced is 
not very malign,ant, being late in involving glands, and with very little, if 
any, incHnation to metastasis. Henestenberg records a ease of acanthosis 
nigricans with carcinoma of the internal organs and destruction of the left 
suprarenal body. Satani records a case of extra-mammary Paget's disease 
in the axilla, treated surgically. Civatte and Yigne discuss the treatment 
of the sarcoid of Boeck-Darier by intravenous injection of salvarsan. 
Although it is amenable to this treatment, they still hold that this sarcoid 
is tubercular in origin. Degrais and Bellot recommend that X-ray epithe- 
liomata in X-ray workers should be treated with radium. They record 
three successful cases. Nanta and Paudru describe a case of lymphadenoma 
associated with severe pruritus, and finally Merk has a fanciful paper in 
which he ascribes Recklinghausen's disease, adenoma sebaceum, and tuberous 
sclerosis to infection with some dicotyledonous plant, the ghost of the 
structure of which he is able to make out in serial sections ! 

Cryotherapy. Lortat-Jacob is not satisfied with the conventional 
methods of applying carbon dioxide snow to the skin^ and advocates the 
employment of a ' cryocautery ', i. e. a vessel tipped with copper, in which 
the snow is formed into a solid freezing mass with acetone. He claims the 
advantage of more accurate apposition and more intense freezing effect. 

Ravaut and Gallerand advocate the treatment of leukoplacia by carbon 
dioxide snow ; they cured a case thereby. But it is painful when applied to 
the tongue, although on the buccal mucous membrane it is excellent. 

Electrotherapy. Tomkinson recommends screened doses of X-rays in 
the treatment of Oriental sore, and thinks that the unsatisfactory results 
sometimes obtained in this disease may be due to the use of unfiltered rays. 
Eitner recommends for the electrolysis treatment of hypertrichosis the 
very fine wires used to preserve the lumen of hypodermic needles instead of 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN 11.5 

ordinary steel needles, which nowadays are ditiieult to get of sutlicient 
fineness. 

Adamson, H. G. (1). Keratodermia blennorrhagica : is it a form of psoriasis? 
nrit. J. Dernmf. 4- Syph., 1920, 32, 183-7. 

Adamsoit, H. G. (2). On the treatment of lupus vulgaris by the liquid acid 
nitrate of mercury. Brit. M. J., 1920, ii, 123-4. 

AdriaKi C, et ROEDEBES, J. Les arthropathies au cours de la sclerodermie. 
Ann. de dermat. ct si/ph., 1920, 6e ser., 1, 299-319, 341-59, 395-424. 

Audry, C. Naevo-encephalome. Ann. de dermat. et sypli., 1920, 6« ser., 1, 

.■;(;9-74. 

BacmeiaTSR, a. Die Ansteckungsfidiigkeit des Herpes Zoster. Miinchen.med. 
Wchnschr., 1920. 67, 721. 

Becher, H. t'ber TerpentinOlbehandlung (Klingmiiller) mit besonderer Beriick- 
sichtigung ihrer Anwendung in Dermatologie. Dermat. Wclmschr., 1920, 71, 
459-09, 481-6. 

Behm, K. Formaliniither bei Intertrigo und anderen Hautkrankheiten des 
Kiudesalters. 31iinchcn. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 1173-4. 

Bettmann. Ueber jahreszeitliche Schwankungen von Hautkrankheiten. 
Miinchen. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 656-7. 

BoDiN, E. Note sur quatre cas d'acrodermatite suppurative continue d'Hallo- 
peau. Ann. de dermat. et syph., 1920, 6^ ser., 1, 193-8. 

BoiTNET, L. M., et MORENAS. Les hautes doses de cacodylate de sonde dans 
le traitement do I'eczema et quelques prurigos. Lyon med., 1920, 129, 771-4. 

EoRT, M. L. A propos de letiologie de psoriasis. Progres med., 1920, 3® ser., 
35, 281-5. 

CHATEZ.LIER, L. Erythromelalgie adrenaline. Ann. de dermat. et syph., 1^20, 
6e ser., 1, 261-4. 

CrvATTE, A., et Vzgne, P. A propos du traitement de la sarcoide de Boeck- 
Darier. Ann. de dermat. et syph., 1920, 6'^ sen, 1, 254-60. 

Cranston Low, R., Logan, W. B., and Rutherford, A. A fatal case of 
lupus erythematosus, with autopsy. Brit. J. Dermat. ^- Syph., 1920, 32, 
253-62. 

Darier, J. (1). Cas de Creeping Disease [Larva migrans) contracte ii Paris. 
Ann. de dermat. et syph., 1920, 6® ser., 1, 113-20. 

Darzeb, J. (2). Le cancer de la dermatose precancei'euse de Bowen. Ann. de 
dermat. ct syph., 1920, 6^ ser., 1, 49-61. 

Darier, J., et Hai.le, J. Branchiomes cutanes benins. Ann. de dermat. ct 
syph., 1920, 6e ser., 1, 1-12. 

Daubzt. Traitement pratique et rapide de la gale par la methode d'Ehlers- 
Milian. Arch. med. beiges, 1920, 73, 393-7. 

Degrais, p., et BeiJiOT, A. Curietherapie des radiodermites epithelioma- 
teuses professionnelles. Presse med., 1920, 28, 364-5. 

DzND, M. Essais sur les lichens et la lichenification. Ann. de dermat. et syph., 
1920, 6e ser., 1, 273-98, 321-40. 

DUBREUZLH, W. Prurigo epidemique chez les Asiatiques importes pendant 
la guerre. Ann. de dermat. et syph., 1920, 6® ser., I, 13-16. 



116 REVIEWS 

EzTNEB, E. Zur Hypertrichosis-Behandlung. 3Ied. Klin., 1920, 16, 361. 

GaIiEWSXY, E. (1). Ijber das Stirnekzem infolge Hutlederei-satz und seine| 
Ursache. Dcrmat. WcJmschr., 1920, 70, 353-4. 

GaIiEWSXY, E. (2). tJber die Behandlung von Pyodermien und alinlichen Affek- 
tionen mit 'Staphar' (Maststaphylokokkeneinheitsvakzine nach Strubell). Dermat 
WcJinscJir., 1920, 71, 599-602. 

Heitestenbebg, W. Ein Fall von Acanthosis nigricans mit Carcinose innerer 
Organe. 3Ie(l Klin., 1920, 16, 785-6. " ^ 

HoFFMAinr, E. Ueber Flohstiche und die Urticaria pulicosa. Deutsche med. 
irc/msc/ir., 1920, 46, 1025-6. -^ 

Isaac, C. L. Case of keratodermia blennorrhagica in a woman. Brit. J. Dermat. 
4- Sypli., 1920, 32, 195-6. 

IzAB, G. Ii)ofisi e sclerodermia. Riforma med.. 1920, 36, 482-6. 

Eabgeb, p. Beobachtungen an Kindern mit trockener Ilaut. Deutsche med. 
Wchnschr., 1920, 46, 827-8. 

EzENDi., W. Zur Behandlung des Lupus erythematodes. Dermat. Wchnschr., 
1920, 70, 322-8. m 

EissMETEB, A. Studies on pigment with the Dopa-reaction, especially in cases 
of vitiligo. Brit. J. Dermat. J- %;/i., 1920, 32, 156-62. 

Ebeibich, C. Epithelschlacken. Dermat. Wchnschr., 1920, 70, 225-7. 

KuNSTMANW. Zur Frage der Erythromelalgie. Dermat. Wchnschr., 1920, 71, 
745-51. 

KuKTTZEii, O. Uber Paraffinkrebs. Dermat. Wchnschr., 1920, 71, 499-511, 
525-31. 

Lennhoff, C. Inokulationsversuche bei Psoriasis. Berl. klin. Wchnschr., 1920, 
57, 782-3. 

Leitobmant, C. La pachydermie vorticellee du lion chevelu. Ann de dermat, 
et si/ph., 1920, 6e ser., 1, 225-43. 

LoBTAT, Jacob. La cryotherapie en dermatologie. Progres med., 1920, 3® s6r., 
35, 303-6. 

Malhebbe, H. Contagion conjugale de I'epidermophyton inguinal. Ann. de 
dermat. et syph., 1920, 6^ ser., 1, 205-7. 

Mebe, L. Das Wesen der Recklingshausenschen Neurofibromatose, des Ade- 
noma sebaceum und der tuberosen Sklerose. Med. Klin., 1920, 16, 808-12. 

MoNTEZ., L. H. Traitement les lesions cutanees d'origine streptococcique par 
le serum antistreptococcique en badigeonnages in loco. J. de med. de Bordeaux, 
1920, 91, 319-2L 

MONTOOMEBY, D. W., and Cxjz.veb, G. D. Eczema of the vermilion border of 
the lips. Med. Bee, 1920, 98, 141-3. 

MoBO, E. Uebererregbarkeit des vegetativen Nervensystems im Friihjahr und 
Ekzemtod. Miinchen. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 657-9. 

Naxtta, a. Lymphadenome de la bouche et granulome alveolodentaire. Ann. 
de dermat. et syph., 1920, 6e ser., 1, 199-204. 

Nanta, a., et Baudbu, L. Sur le prurit decalvant lymphadenique. Ann. 
de dermat. et syph., 1920, 6« ser., 1, 145-66. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIK H7 

Nathan, E. Zur Kenntnis der Immunitatsvorgjinge bei der Triohopliytie de3 
Menschen. Dcnnaf. Wchnschr., 1920, 71, 439-48. 

Neuburger, K. Ueber postmortale Pigmentbildung der Haut. Miinchen. 
mc'l. Wchnsrhr.. 1920, 67, 741-3. 

NicoLAO, S. A propos du Pityriasis rubra. A^m. dc dermat. el si/ph., 1920, 
(3<^ ser., 1, 265-6. 

Noire, H. A. propos de la radiotherapie des teignes pratiquee selon la naethode 
de Kienboch-Adamson. Ann. de dermat ct si/pk, 1920, 6^ ser., 1, 360-3, 

O'DoNOVAN, W. J. (1). Dermatitis due to Carpoglyphus passularum. Brit. J. 
JJu-maf. 4- SijpJi., 1920, 32, 297-8, 

O'DoirovAir, "W, J, (2). Epitheliomatous ulceration among tar workei-s. Brit. 
J. Dermat. 4" Syph., 1920, 32, 215-28, 245-52. 

Fozzo, A. Un caso di ' scabies norvegica '. Moryayni, 1920, 62, Archiv. 114-20. 

Probizer, G. Die Pellagra im Trentino nach dem Kriege. Dermat. Wehnschr., 
1920, 71, 751-4. 



Ramirez, M. A. Protein sensitization in eczema. Arch. Dermat. 4- Syph., 
1920, 2, 365-7. 

Ravaut, p., et GalIiErand. Placard de leucoplasie de la muqueuse buccale 
detruit par une seule application de neige carbonique. Ann. de dermat. et syph., 
1920, 6e ser., 1, 161-4, 

Keiche, F, Urticaria tuberosa (Willan). Miinchen. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 

1044, 

Sabouraud, R. Sur 1 etiologie de la pelade. Ann. de dermat. et syph., 1920, 
6p ser,, 1, 177-92, 

Satani, Y, Case of extra-mammary Paget's disease occurring in tlie axilla, 
associated with condylomata acuminata in the external genitalia. Brit. J. 
Dermat. 4- Syph., 1920, 32, 117-25. 

Savatard, L. (1). The diagnosis of early epithelioma of the skin. Brit. J. 
Dermat. cV Syph., 1920, 32, 375-80. 

Savatard, L. (2). Leiomyoma. Brit. J. Dermal. 4' ^!/2^h., 1920, 32, 
229-32, 

Savatard, L. (3). Fibroma simplex. Brit. J. Dermat. 4' Syph., 1920, 32, 
126. 

ScHREUS, B. T. Die Behandlung der Furunkulose mit Eontgenstrahlen. 
Mdnchen. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 1169-70. 

Steizt, R. O, Die Differentialdiagnose zwischen Mikrosporie und oberflachlicher 
Trichophytie des behaarten Kopfes, Wien. Id in. Wchnschr., 1920, 33, 815-18. 

Stern, A. Ueber Eigenthiimlichkeiten des Herpes Zoster (Rezidive, Kombina- 
ti<m mit Facialislahmung, Aequivalente). Deutsche med. Wchnschr., 1920, 46, 
832. 

Stowers, J. H. A case of Delhi boil or sore. Brit. J. Dermat. 4' '^VPh-, 
1920, 32, 263-5. 

Strauss, E. Die Cheraie der Hornsubstanzen. Dermat. Wchnschr.. 1920, 70, 
337-48. 

StrickXiER, a., and Goldberg, J. M, Anaphylactic food reactions in derma- 
tology. J. Am. M. Ass.., 1916, 66, 249-52, 

IV. K 



118 REVIEWS 

TOMKixrsoK, J. G. X-ray therapy in Oriental sore. Brit. M. J., 1920, ii, 397. 

Thibiebge, G. Conception generale du lichen de Wilson. Paris me'd., 1920, 
ii, 385-9. 

VoOEZ., C. Tuberculosis cutis vegetans. Dermat. WchmcJir., 1920, 71, 559-63. 

Wabd, E. The occurrence of urticaria after specific fevers. Brit. M. J., 
1920, ii, 279. 

WASSEBMAmr, S. rber auffallende Hautverfiirbungen bei Kriegern. Wien. 
med. Wchnschr., 1920, 70, 1691-7, 1739-44. 

White, C. J. Two modern methods to be employed in the treatment of 
chronic eczema. J. Am. M. Ass., 1918, 68, 81-6. 

With, C. Studies on the effect of light on vitiligo. Brit. J. Dermat. ^- Syph., 
1920, 32, 145-55. 

H. D. 



DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN 

In the first number of a new journal, Anales de Farasitologia y 
Hematologia, published in Madrid, Asua deals at length with diseases of 
the spleen. 

The spleen has physiolooical, defensive, and compensatory reactions. 
The physiological reactions include («) formation of lymphocytes and large 
mononuclears, (b) destruction of red and white cells, and (c) inhibitory 
effect on bone-marrow function, shown by the appearance of Howell-Jolly 
forms in the blood if the spleen be removed, and by a diminution in the 
resistance to salt solutions of red cells subjected to the influence of the 
spleen. There are further excitor effects on nitrogen, carbohydrate, and fat 
metabolism, and less evident effects on digestion. 

Defensive reactions are the formation of macrophages, myeloid meta- 
plasia leading to increased output of polymorph phagocytes and also forma- 
tion of bactericidal substances. Sarcomatous metaplasia is included as a 
defensive reaction, and also the mj^eloid metaplasia seen in some anaemias. 

The true compensatory function is that evidenced by splenomegaly in 
various endocrine defects. 

Asua then passes on to a classification of blood diseases designed to 
bring out the position of those in which the spleen is most afiected. In his 
first group of anaemias, primary haemopathic anaemias, that due to loss of 
blood stands alone. The second group corresponds to the myelophthisic 
anaemias of some authors and is styled the group of primarj?- myelopathic 
anaemias. It contains the anaemias of multiple myeloma, leukaemia, &c. 
The third group, haemomyelotoxic anaemias, includes most of the commoner 
varieties. There are first those of exogenous causation, e.g. following 
administration of blood poisons or the toxins of acute infective disorders. 
Secondly are the endogenous, including anaemias which are merely a part 
of the general debility attending chronic disorders either neoplastic or infec- 
tive, and thirdly, a group of endocrine disorders. Dependent on splenic 



DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN 119 

disorder, which is thus elevated to a position of primary aetiologieal impor- 
tance, we have Banti's disease and haemolytic icterus, while chlorosis is 
included as depending on ovarian abnormality. Pernicious anaemia fills the 
tliird group ot" haemomyelotoxic anaemias, those of complex causation. 

The polycythaemias are also classified, first, into the compensatory and 
the pathological. Compensatory pol^'globuly includes the spurious form seen 
in emphysema, and the true (as depending on blood destruction) as seen in 
some cases of poisoning by haemolytic drugs. Pathological polyglobuly is 
seen in Vaquez's disease and in some cases of tuberculosis, after splenectomy, 

&'C. 

The remainder of this long paper is devoted by Asua to consideration 
of the clinical aspect of diseases of the spleen. He considers that Banti's 
disease and haemolytic icterus are joined b}* a series of intermediate cases, 
and groups them together as hypersplenic disorders. The contraiy group, 
asplenia, does not correspond to any recognized clinical entity, but two 
cases are given of which one may have been hydatid of the spleen. Defect 
of spleen function might, of course, be recognized by the absence of signs of 
its physiological functions already detailed, and it is evident that the 
removal of inhibitory influences of the bone-marrow leading to polycyth- 
aemia bulks largely in Asua's mind. 

This paper is somewhat restricted in scope, and includes no notice of 
leukaemia, Gaucher splenomegaly, or other diseases of this group, but Asua 
has certainly collected a vast amount of information with regard to the in- 
fective and endocrine disorders as affecting spleen function, and this is fully 
and lucidly set forth. 

Splenic anaemia. Mayo propounds the thesis that splenic anaemia 
is a clinical entity, i. e. a syndrome which occurs when the spleen is fibrosed, 
no matter what the original cause of the fibrosis may have been. He con- 
siders that the spleen destroys an increased number of red cells when it is 
fibrotic, and that the marrow fails to make up the loss. A chronic anaemia 
results, which can be remedied by removal of the spleen. 

Aschenheim considers that splenic anaemia of infancy, the von Jaksch 
syndrome, is a definite morbid entity due to an inherent weakness of the 
haemopoietic organs. He admits that rickets has a great share in the 
disease, but would appear to hold that it could not produce it if the inborn 
weakness were not present. 

Abscess of the spleen. Cutler reports a case of abscess of the spleen 
following otitis media, and gives references to the literature. The case is of 
interest, amongst other reasons, because there was very slight leucocytosis 
until the abscess burst, when the resulting peritonitis caused a large 
increase. This accords with the views of Audain on the significance of 
leucocytosis. 

Gaucher's disease. Sappington reports a case of Gaucher's disease in 
a man of 50 who died from gunshot wounds administered by the police. 
There was no history of ill-health, but very little could be ascertained about 
the patient's antecedents. At autopsy it was noticed that the liver ' ex- 
hibited what looked like a moderate chronic hepatitis ', and the retroperi- 
toneal glands were moderate)}' enlarged. The spleen ' was in general soft 
. . . but scattered all through it were firm nodules more apparent to the 
palpating finger than to the eye ... on section, the firmer areas were not 
plainly discernible . . . the general colour was normal '. The spleen was sub- 
mitted to Mandlebaum for examination, wdio pronounced it typical of 

K 2 



120 REVIEWS 

Gaucher's disease. Sappington throws out the suggestion that the disease 
is perhaps more frequent in Jews. Chemical investigation did not reveal 
the presence of lipoids. 

In an important paper Mandlebaum and Downey conclude that none 
of those pathological or experimental conditions which present a superficial 
resemblance toGaucher's disease are realljMdentical or even closely analogous. 
Their observations show that the ' Massv ' cells characteristic of Gaucher 
splenomegaly are derived from the reticulum, although a possible origin 
from endothelium as well is not quite disproved. These cells never contain 
anisotropic bodies, myelin substances, or neutral fats, as may occur in dia- 
betes with lipoidaemia, il'C. Moreover, these cells are by no means of the 
definite oval type usually insisted on. They are to be regarded as reticular 
cells suffering a particular ' glassy ' change, and vary in shape and attach- 
ments from the normal reticular cell in which changes are just beginning to 
the free oval or circular cell, whose uses in bodily economy are probably at 
an end. 

Mandlebaum and Downey believe that the disease is caused by some 
metabolic disturbance, l)ut hazard no suggestion as to what caused the 
metabolic disturbance which caused the disease. They give a full biblio- 
graphy. 

Sarcoma of the spleen. According to Duchemin, who records a fatal 
case, primary sarcoma of the spleen is very rare. Only about 24 cases have 
been published, of which 11 Avere not discovered until the autopsy. Of 13 
treated by splenectomy 4 died as the result of the operation, and of the 9 
survivors 4 died of a recurrence, 1 was lost sight of, and 4 made a good re- 
covery. In Duchemin's case the disease had a rapid course without char- 
acteristic symptoms, being manifested first by moderate enlargement of the 
spleen and anaemia, and then by cachexia. A diagnosis of malarial spleen 
was made owing to the definite action of quinine. But the improvement 
produced was mainly local and not general, whereas in malaria just the 
opposite occurs. Duchemin suggests that this discordance in the clinical 
sjanptoms may facilitate the diagnosis between a malarial spleen and a 
malignant growth. 

Tuberculosis of the spleen. According to Giffin (1), who records an 
illustrative case in a girl aged 16, so-called primarj^ tuberculosis of the spleen 
is not exceedingly rare. It is impossible to say that it is ever strictly pri- 
mary, for it is almost always certain that an original focus was formerly 
present elsewhere in the body, though no evidence of tuberculosis may be 
found at the time of examination. The disease may produce an anaemia of 
the haemolytic type, and splenectomy, as in Giflfin's case, may result in com- 
plete cure. Secondary tuberculosis of the spleen, which is quite common, 
is usually miliary in type and very rarely caseous. GitHn is of opinion that 
from the standpoint of diagnosis tuberculous splenitis should be considered 
in every case with marked splenomegah', in which the findings are not 
clearly those of some other disease. 

The spleen in abdominal cancer. According to Richard, who devotes 
his Lyons thesis to the subject, the size of the spleen in abdominal cancer 
does not appear to have attracted much attention. From a study of the 
literature he comes to the following conclusions : (1) In cancer of the 
stomach the spleen is atrophied. The exceptional cases in which its size is 
increased are due to secondary infection in the ulcerated neoplasm, con- 
comitant disease or involvement of the spleen by the cancer. (2) The spleen 



DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN 121 

is atrophied iu massive cancer of tlie liver, eiilaro;ed in adeuo-carcinoiiia 
with cirrhosis, and not affected in secondary carcinoma of the liver. (3) 
There is no general rule as regards the size of the spleen in cancer of the 
extrahepatic bile-ducts, or in cancer of the pancreas, but the spleen is 
usually enlarged in cancer of the head of the pancreas and diminished in 
size in cancer of the body and tail of that organ. (4) Cancer of the large 
intestine, especially of the sigmoid flexure, is accompanied by atrophy of 
the spleen. (5) The spleen is enlarged in new growths of the kidiiey, 
but atrophied in those of the uterus. (6) Secondary cancerous growths in 
the spleen may occur, but are rare, Richard having found only seven 
examples among 214 cases of abdominal cancer. 

Various forms of splenomegaly. In an article published on March 31, 
1919 entitled ' War Splenomegaly ? ' Luccarelli states that for more than 
a year he has met -with, enlargement of the spleen in a considerable 
number of soldiers without being able to connect it with any present or 
past disease such as malaria, enteric fever, spirochaetosis haemorrhagica, or 
trench fever. The following explanations are suggested : (1) a toxic state 
of intestinal origin due to the food and the character of the life at the front, 
including nervous impressions, emotions, fear, &c. ; (2) an abortive form 
of trench fever; (3) the presence of the Spirochaeta ictero-haemorrhagiae 
or other unknown organisms or causes. 

In an article on the Wassermann reaction and chronic splenomegaly, 
Weil records 12 cases of chronic splenomegaly, in seven of which a positive 
Wassermann reaction was obtained, although there was no evidence of 
syphilis, inherited or acquired. Antisyphilitic treatment had no effect on 
the splenomegaly or the Wassermann reaction, but caused an aggravation 
of the general condition. The positive reaction could not be regarded as 
due to the splenic lesions, as in three of the five negative cases leukaemia 
was present. Weil suggests that the positive reaction was due to some 
unknown parasite. 

Bradford describes an obscure and rare disease of which he had seen 
only about three examples. It was characterized by a febrile illness closely 
resembling enteric fever and lasting several weeks, during \vhich the spleen 
slowly increased in size to that reached in ordinary splenomedullary 
leukaemia, from which the cases differed in that after an illness of several 
weeks the pyrexia declined and the spleen slowly returned to normal. The 
y)lood-exami nation showed a condition similar to that of splenic anaemia, 
a diminution of the red cells and a considerable leucopenia. Repeated 
examination of the blood and stools failed to reveal any organisms of the 
enteric group, and the Widal reaction was uniformly negative. 

Tuohy reports an unusual case and is unable to find anything similar 
in the literature. The salient features were leucocytosis and splenomegaly. 
The leucocytes reached as high as 65,000 before &plenectomy and 240,000 
afterwards. The patient w^as a w^oman of 40 and complained when first 
seen of acute symptoms referable to perisplenitis. So far there is little in 
the case to differentiate it from leukaemia, but the differential count was 
remarkable in that there were 99 per cent, of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 
No mention is made of any myelocytes or abnormal cells of the white series, 
but there was a mild degree of anaemia with a few nucleated red cells. The 
patient w^as lost sight of, but reports showed that her health improved after 
operation. Four months later she was re-admitted with influenzal pneu- 
monia and died before any investigation could be made. 



122 REVIEWS 

In a paper entitled ' Persistent eosinophilia with hyperleucocytosis and 
splenomegaly ', Giffin (2) describes a case which seems to be unique in 
medical literature. It therefore requires detailed notice. A man, aged 31, 
presented himself for examination in the year 1913. Then, and at various 
later dates, he suffered from symptoms referable to obliterative pericarditis, 
e. g. oedema of legs and signs of heart failure, and these should probably be 
traced to a prolonged fever terminating in pneumonia from wliich he 
suffered eight years previously. At the same time he suffered from a series 
of symptoms similar clinically to those of some cases of Hodgkin's disease, 
viz. general enlargement of glands, splenomegalj^ pruritus, and eosino- 
philia. A lymph gland removed from the axilla showed ' a moderate 
inflammatory reaction. The germ centres were intact ; a marked endo- 
thelial hyperplasia was present. Eosinophil polynuclears were quite 
numerous and a few scattered eosinophilic myelocytes were to be found.' 
For a full year the patient remained in very fair condition with the 
exception of mild anaemia of the chlorotic type and persistent eosinophil 
leucocytosis. Repeated search for all sorts of parasites was negative and it 
was decided to perform splenectomy. This was done and the patient 
benefited considerably, but the glandular enlargement persisted and the 
leucocytosis became enormous, on one occasion 208,000 -svith 83 per cent, of 
eosinophils. 

Two years after splenectomy pruritus developed and was thenceforth 
a source of trouble, and six years after coming under obser\'ation he died of 
pneumonia. 

The spleen at operation showed Malpighian bodies intact but not 
numerous, marked cellular hyperplasia and slight increase in fibrous tissue. 
Eosinophils were very numerous but eosinophil myelocj'tes very few. The 
bone-marrow at autopsy was hyperplastic and contained great numbers of 
eosinophil leucocytes. The erythrogenic function seemed to be almost com- 
pletely in abeyance. The liver showed ' cirrhosis of a mild grade ', but no 
further details are given. There were also present fibrous pleuritis and 
pericarditis and perihepatitis. There had been very marked perisplenitis 
at operation. 

Giffin states that Stillman reported a similar case in 1912 and refers 
to one or two cases of Hodgkin's disease which were in various ways 
analogous to his own. He was unable to suggest any diagnosis, but con- 
siders that the splenectomy was responsible for the high figure reached by 
the white cell count. 

Levy-Franckel records two cases of splenomegaly following injection of 
neosalvarsan. The patients were a boy aged 13 with lupus, and a soldier 
with psoriasis, in both of whom the Wassermann reaction was negative and 
there was no evidence of syphilis. Leukaemia and pseudo-leukaemia could 
be excluded by examination of the blood, and the subsidence of the spleno- 
megaly after cessation of the treatment negatived the diagnosis of primary 
tuberculosis or cancer of the spleen. Levy-Franckel therefore concludes 
that the splenomegaly was due to the neosalvarsan, although no previous 
cases of splenomegaly due to this cause have been recorded. 

After preliminary remarks on the difficulties in diagnosis presented by 
all cases of splenomegaly, Beckmann points out that in no disease are these 
more evident than in haemolytie icterus. 

He considers the increased fragility of the erythrocytes as an all- 
important diagnostic point, and it occurred to him that where the diagnosis 



DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN 123 

was still in doubt owing to the absence of increased fragility, this sign might 
be produced by provocative methods similar to those used in malaria. 

He therefore exposed two patients to the direct rays of the sun, gave 
alternate hot and cold douches and massage over the spleen, and finally 
a dose of X-raj-s. By these means in two cases he reduced the resistance 
of the red cells so that whereas they had formerly resisted haemolysis until 
a dilution of 0-34 per cent, saline was reached, they now suffered complete 
haemolysis in 0-38 per cent. The diagnosis was thus established. 

In two other cases already exhibiting fragility there was no change 
under the same provocation. He considers that the fragility of the red 
cells is due to substances in the circulation and not to inherent marrow 
defect, and discusses at some length published views on this point. 

The patient seen by Losio had been under medical care on several 
occasions, and the question of malaria was raised at an early date, but no 
confirmatory evidence was found. He had been treated by X-rays and 
iron and arsenic— each time with but temporary benefit. The Wassermaun 
reaction was negative, as was the family history. Clinically the diagnosis 
of haemolytic icterus was fully established. 

Very free venous anastomosis rendered the operation one of no small 
difficulty. Microscopically the spleen showed no very marked changes 
beyond congestion and thickening of the trabeculae. Pigment in any form 
was but slightly in evidence. The arteries, however, were much thickened, 
the intiraa being particularly affected. The patient made a good recovery, 
but the fragility of the red cells had not returned to normal when the blood 
was last examined. 

The family studied by Biffis consisted of four generations ; in the first, 
three, in the second, four, and in the third, three were sufferers from 
haemolytic splenomegaly of the common familial type. In the fifth genera- 
tion were five children, descended from three of the previous generation, 
but inheriting the abnormalities of their parents in a partial but recog- 
nizable degree. Of these five children there was not in every case oppor- 
tunit)^ for a complete examination. The details elicited were as follows : 

Palmira, aged 7. Debilitated, headache ; pain in the left side of the 
abdomen ; fever ; gastric disorder ; diarrhoea ; numerous small glands ; no 
icterus of the conjunctivae ; lungs normal ; apical systolic bruit ; liver and 
spleen not palpable ; blood examination refused. 

Germana, aged 15, sister of above. No icterus; numerous glands; 
infantile appearance ; spleen enlarged ; liver not enlarged ; thorax normal ; 
blood examination refused. 

Emilio, aged 15, student. Good general condition, but pallor evident ; 
numerous small glands ; spleen palpable and hard ; no anaemia, but 3-5 per 
cent, of reticulated reds and slight anisocytosis ; resistance normal ; serum 
contained urobilin and agglutinated the red cells of his sister. 

Anastasia, aged 12, sister of the above. Pallor; epistaxis; icterus of 
conjunctivae ; several small glands ; apical systolic bruit ; lungs normal ; 
spleen felt to be hard and painless on deep inspiration ; haemoglobin 60 per 
cent. ; 4-5 per cent, reticular cells ; fragility normal ; auto-agglutination of 
her own red cells present and of those of her brother and of her uncle. 

Alessandro, aged 13. Indigestion; pain in left hypochondrium ; 
diarrhoea ; pallor ; many small glands ; liver enlarged ; spleen not enlarged ; 
trace of icterus ; haemoglobin 8 per cent. ; 3 per cent, of reticular cells ; no 
urobilin or bilirubin in serum. 



124 REVIEWS 

Biffis enters fully into the theoretical considerations to which these 
cases give rise. 

Keisman records a case of splenogenous thrombopenia in a girl aged 17, 
who for several years had suffered from increasing enlargement of the 
spleen with marked retardation of physical development. Signs of a haemo- 
rrhagic diathesis soon appeared, the first evidence of which was severe 
epistaxis, which was followed by haemoptysis and bleeding from the gums. 
Rapid recovery followed removal of the spleen. The blood picture before 
operation was that of secondary anaemia associated with the haemorrhagic 
diathesis and thrombopenia. After splenectomy a definite leucocytosis up 
to 14,000 appeared, and the number of blood-platelets within 6 hours of the 
operation increased from 45,000 to 224,000. Not only did the haemorrhages 
disappear, but an increase in weight and general development took place, 
and menstruation which had hitherto been in abeyance appeared. 

Splenectomy. According to Kleeblatt, splenectomy is indicated in 
isolated miliary tuberculosis of the spleen, in all processes associated with 
increased haemolysis, such as haemolytic jaundice, hypertrophic cirrhosis of 
the liver, the first and second stages of Banti's disease, and, as a last resort, 
in the third stage. In pernicious anaemia the operation has a temporary 
success. Splenectomy is contra-indicated in portal thrombosis and in ail 
processes caused by primary portal congestion and in polycythaemia. 

Bellingham Smith reports the case of a boy who had undergone 
splenectomy five years previously and was in good health. The symptoms 
at the time of operation had been splenomegaly, leucopenia, and general 
debility. The Wassermann test was positive, and the liver was seen to be 
cirrhotic at operation. As antisyphilitic treatment had been quite useless, 
the excellent result from splenectomy is the more noteworthy. Bellingham 
Smith also mentions a case of acholuric jaundice in which the operation 
was fatal from the supervention of pneumonia. 

McConnell is to be congi-atulated on reporting a fatal case of splen- 
ectomy for cirrhosis of the liver, i. e. a failure and one of those cases which 
is so often more instructive than a success. The considerations which led 
to operation are discussed fully and are eloquent of the ever widening 
sphere of the operation of splenectomy. 

AscHENHEiBS. Zur Frage der Anaemia sj^lenica infantum. Deutsche med. 
Wchnschr., 1920, 46, 323. 

AsuA, F. J. Funciones del Bazo — hipersplenia y asplenia. Anal, de ParasHol. 
y Hematol, 1919, 1, 31-130. 

BscKMAmr, E. tJber atypische Fulle von hamolytischem Ikterus. Beutscfies 
Archivf. klin. Med., 1919, 130, 301-14. 

Biffis, P. Splenomegalia emolitica famigliale. PolicUn., 1919, 26 {Se^. Prat.), 
393-409. 

Bbadfobb, J. R. Lumleian lectures on the clinical experiences of a physician 
during the campaign in France and Flanders, 1914-19, Lancet, 1920, ii, 535-40. 

CUTI.EB, E. C. Abscess of the spleen. J. Am. M. Ass., 1920, 75, 1712-5. 

DucHEMiN, B. Sur un cas de sarcome primitif de la rate. Theses de Paris, 
1919-20, 149. 

GiFFiN, H. Z. (1). Tuberculosis of the spleen. 3Ied. Clin. -A^. America, 1919, 
3, 765-71. 



DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN 125 

GiFPiN, H. Z. (2). Persistent eosiuophilia with liyi>erIeucocytosis unci spleno- 
megaly. Am. J. M. Sc, 1919. 158, 618-29. 

Eeisman, M. Spleiiogene Thrombopenie (essentielle Tlirombopenie, Frank) ; 
hiimorrhagische Diathcse ; Heilung darch Milzexstirpation ; Splenoniegalie 
Typus Gaucher ; Bemerkungen zur Milzfunktion. Med. Klin., 1921, 17, 72-4. 

Ki.E£Bi.ATT, F. Die Indikationen zur Milzexstirpation be! den Splenomegalien. 
3IiincJicn. mcd Wchnscht:, 1919, 66, 1291-2. 

Levy-FbancksIi, a. Les splenomegalies post-arsenobenzoliques. Bull. Soc. 
cle thenip., 1920, 4^ ser.. 25, 248-51. 

Losio, L. Aproposito di un case singolare di ittero emolitico splenomegalico 
operato di splenectomia. FoUclin., 1919, 26 {Se^. Med.), 410-24. 

LuccABEi.x.1, V. Splenomegalia di guerra? Morgagnl, 1919, Archiv. 61, 
94-6. 

Manslsbaum, F. S., and Dowztey, H. Tiie histopathology and biology of 
Gaucher 's disease (large-cell splenomegaly). Folia Haemaf., 1916, 20, 139-202. 

Z^ATO, W. J. Splenic anaemia. Contributions to Medical and Biological Eesearch, 
dedicated to Sir W. Osier, 1919, 2, 991-1001. 

McCoNNEiJ., A. A. Splenomegaly and jaundice — splenectomy. Practitioner, 
1920, 104, 278-89. 

RzcHABD, L. Du volume de la rate dans les cancers abdominaux. Theses de 
Lyon, 1919-20, 102. 

Sappington, S. W. Gaucher's disease. J. Am. M. Ass., 1920, 75, 105-6. 

Smith, E. B. Splenectomy for splenomegalic cirrhosis, Proc. Roy. Soc. Mcd., 
1919, 13 (Sect. Child. Dis.), 22-4. 

TuOHY, E. L. A case of sjilenomegaly with polymorphonuclear neutrophil 
hyperleucocytosis. Am. J. M. Sc, 1920, 160, 18-24. 

Weii., p. E. La reaction de Wassermann dans les splenomegalies chroniques. 
Bidl ct mi'm. Soc. mi'd. d. hop. de Par., 1919, 3^ ser., 43, 111-5. 

G. W. 
J. D. R. 



BILIARY SURGERY 

The number of communications on biliary surgery which continue to 
appear show the extent to which operative treatment has developed. 
Nevertheless there are no generally accepted criteria between the cases 
suitable for medical treatment by purgation and those in which 
operative treatment is indicated. It is probable that in the majority 
of cases of biliar}' disease medical treatment is continued until chronic 
jaundice, sepsis and malignant disease produce complications too far 
advanced for successful surgical interference. The drainage of the gall- 
bladder has proved unsatisfactory, is generally condemned, and avoided 
whenever possible. Excision of the gall-bladder has become the most 
frequent operation. When performed on early cases, there may be said to 
be no danger of death. C. H. Mayo reported 2,460 cholecystectomies 



136 REVIEWS 

following cholecystitis in the course of three years with a mortality of 
1-8 per cent. ; Maccarty reported the examination, between 1913-1919, of 
4,998 gall-bladders removed at the Mayo Clinic, the pathological changes 
described being of a relatively early kind. Against this must be set the 
experience of city hospitals, admitting cases suffering from acute com- 
plications involving the pancreas, liver, peritoneum, heart, &c. An 
unsatisfactory feature of these early cholecystectomies is that in a certain 
proportion there is a relapse after some months, when it may be found 
necessary to establish an anastomosis. Then the premature excision of the 
gall-bladder may be a matter of regret. 

It is continually repeated that an analogy between the appendix vermi- 
formis and the gall-bladder affords a justification for the excision of the 
latter. It is needless to point out the diii'erences between the two. Patients 
over fifty who have long been under medical treatment for chronic jaundice, 
however slight and intermittent, are likely to die after operation owing to 
recurrent capillary haemorrhage and degeneration of the myocardium. 
Septic complications spread both to the peritoneum and to the hepatic veins. 
The longer the biliary disease has lasted the more likely is it that the 
pancreas is involved. Also after 40 years in 5 per cent, or more of long- 
standing cases lualig-nant disease supervenes^ and in only a very few has it 
been possible to remove the new growth. 

Auatomy and physiology. The gall-bladder, by its glands, forms 
mucus to mix with the bile ; its muscular coat and nerve-supply furnish the 
mechanism for its rhythmic contractions, the flow in the ducts being aided 
to a certain extent by inspiration. The function of the gall-bladder may 
therefore be described as of no great importance, and in the majority of cases 
it can be dispensed with. This still leaves open the question whether 
in a minority of cases there is full compensation for its loss. 

An important anatomical point is the junction between the hepatic 
and cystic ducts to form the common bile-duct. Whilst the length of 
the pancreatic and retroduodenal segments of the common bile-duct are 
anatomically constant there is variation as to its origin and in the length of 
the supraduodenal segment. Pallin has traced these variations to the end 
of the second or commencement of the third month of foetal life. The 
typical junction is constituted by the secondary hepatic ducts joining into 
one hepatic duct which is about 2-5 cm. in length. This unites with the 
cystic duct at an acute angle. But the hepatic duct may be prolonged and 
the cystic duct run parallel with it before uniting, so that there may be 
hardly any supraduodenal segment of the common bile-duct. The hepatic 
duct may then have a length of 5 cm. The cystic duct may not run 
parallel but have a spiral course so that its junction with the hepatic duct 
is in front. 

The cystic artery arising from the hepatic passes behind the hepatic 
duct to approach the cystic duct from above and behind. 

The ligature of the cystic duct at its termination without infringing 
on the common duct and without leaving a segment of the cystic duct 
behind as a blind pouch, also the separate ligature of the cystic artery to 
prevent recurrent haemorrhage, cannot be carried out with certainty when 
excising the gall-bladder, unless this junction of the ducts is first exposed 
to view, e.g. by the method recommended by Behrend, noted below. 

Those animals which have no gall-bladder have developed in the wall 
of the common bile-duct muscular tissue, also elastic fibres which enables 



BILIARY SURGERY 127 

the duct to dilate and contract, wliilst the discharge of bile is regulated by 
the sphincter at the papilla. Hence, in order to compensate in man for the 
loss of the gall-bladder, the common bile-duct must be able to act as in 
animals, and the function of the sphincter papillae must be unimpaired. 

Pathology. Gall-stones are so often found in the gall-bladder in tlie 
course of post-mortem examinations that theii- presence is, by many 
physicians, still held to be of hardly any importance. On the other hand, 
it is widely held that, however slight, gall-stones always show their presence. 
If all cases, however vague the symptoms, were submitted to X-ray 
examination, it might be possible to demonstrate the presence of calculi 
otlierwise undiscoverable. 

It is dithcult, before the operation, to say whether the biliary trouble 
has arisen by infection through (n) the hepatic artery ; (h) the portal vein ; 
(c) through the duodenum and common bile-duct ; (d) through the lymphatics, 
or(e) by direct contiguity. In particular, as regards typhoid fever, typhoid 
bacilli are said to be always present in the bile of the gall-bladder, but 
cholecystitis as a complication of typhoid fever is ipiite exceptional. During 
the war paratyphoid was occasionally complicated by cholecystitis, but this 
did not require operative treatment. 

In Deaver's case acute infective cholecystitis occurred in a girl, aged 5, 
after typhoid fever, but she was already convalescent. No typhoid bacilli 
were found in the pus mixed with blood contained in the gall-bladder, nor 
was the typhoid reaction obtained from the bile. The bladder was incised 
and drained, the resulting fistula requiring later to be closed by operation. 

Gall-stones are supposed, in the absence of inflammation, to be formed 
by concentration and stagnation of Ijile, leading to the deposit of cholesterin 
in laminae. Hesse, basing his statements on the observation of 17,402 
post-mortems in St. Petersburg, found gall-stones in 0-73 per cent, of men 
and 4-75 per cent, of women, gall-stones being comparatively rare in Russia. 
Others have found gall-stones in as many as 10 per cent. In 84 per cent, 
of the cases Hesse said there had been no previous signs, the majority 
being found between the ages of 50 and 60. 

X-rays are being employed with increasing efficiency for the detection 
of gall-stones ; when lime has been deposited there is a relative opacity ; 
when the stone consists of pure cholesterin, there is a translucency in com- 
parison with the shadow of normal bile, suggesting air bubbles. But so far 
these have been merely confirmatory observations ; the absence of such in 
no way contra-indicates an exploration. As the cause or causes of con- 
centration of the bile are obscure, the source of gall-stones remains un- 
explained, when no inflammation has preceded their formation. When 
animals are infected by micro-organisms experimentally, the organisms 
with which the animal has been inoculated are to be found in the bile of 
the gall-bladder. Inflammation once set, up, it is easy to explain the for- 
mation of gall-stones from epithelial debris containing cholesterin and the 
lime salts of the bile-pigment?. But then cholecystitis does not necessarily 
lead to the formation of gall-stones. 

Once formed, there appears to be no evidence at all that gall-stones are 
diminished in size or dissolved in any way. 

Biliary obstruction not due to gall-stones. The congenital obliteration 
of the bile-ducts affects the extrahepatic portion. In a case described by 
Dickson the child at birth appeared healthy ; there was rapidly increasing 
jaundice from the second day followed by coma and death witliin three 



128 REVIEWS 

da^'S of birth. The intrahepatic bile-ducts were dihited by bile, aud there 
was a little recent small-celled infiltration and cloudiness of the hepatic 
cells, which were packed with pigment, but no biliary cirrhosis. The cystic, 
right and left extrahepatic, and the common bile-ducts were impervious 
cords. The only other lesion was congestion of the suprarenals with 
haemorrhages. 

Holmes, in reviewing more than 100 recorded cases, reached the same 
conclusion that the obliteration occurred outside the liver. In more than 
16 per cent, the common duct only was found obstructed, the cystic and 
hepatic ducts being well formed. When such is the case the conditions are 
the more favourable for the success of an anastomosis. The particular case 
he described died at the age of 15 weeks. All the tissues were markedly 
bile-stained ; the liver, a deep purple, showed biliary cirrhosis ; the intra- 
hepatic ducts normal, and not dilated ; the gall-bladder a fibrous cord with 
two dilatations containing greenish-black mucus. Three extrahepatic 
ducts met in a common diverticulum 2-3 mm. in diameter at the junction 
of the cystic and hepatic ducts. A fibrous cord without a lumen replaced 
the common duct down to the papilla. The pancreatic ducts were normal. 
Here also the diverticulum at the junction offered an opportunity for an 
anastomosis. 

Cyst of the common bile-duct. When the common duct undergoes 
a stenosis near its termination, it may become dilated into a cyst, Connell 
collected 36 cases in which a cyst had formed as a diverticulum up to the 
size of a man's head. It extends behind the peritoneum towards the right 
kidney whilst pushing the duodenum forward, and to the left and the trans- 
verse colon downward and to the left. The diverticulum takes origin in the 
upper and middle third of the common duct, the hepatic, cystic and com- 
mencement of the common duct being normal. There is present a cystic 
tumour with symptoms of biliary obstruction for which an anastomosis 
with the duodenum or jejunum should be done ; both drainage and 
extirpation being wrong. 

Kinking of the cystic duct may be recognized as following the drainage 
of the gall-bladder. The fundus being fixed to the abdominal wall, the 
gall-bladder shrinks and drags on the cystic duct, which in its turn may 
give rise to a kink at the junction with the hepatic duct. In such a case 
the discharge consists of mucus, whilst the symptoms of biliary obstruction 
persist in spite of the drainage of the gall-bladder. Schmeiden also 
explained some cases as due to a kinking of the cystic duct owing to the 
gall-bladder becoming over-distended. The cases exhibited symptoms of 
a slow intermittent retention in the gall-bladder attended by some pain 
but without jaundice, fever, or severe attacks of colic. The attacks of pain, 
are of short duration, they occur when an over-filled gall-bladder contracts 
upon a kinked cj'^stic duct. Between the attacks, all symptoms may be 
absent. It is impossible to distinguish a kinking from obstruction by 
a calculus until an exploration is undertaken. The treatment should be 
that of cholecystectomy. 

Early cholecystitis. Maccarty's description of the early histological 
changes resulting from cholecystitis was drawn from the examination of 
4,998 gall-bladders removed, in 96-5 per. cent, of which there were gross 
pathological lesions as follows : congestion and oedema of the villi : local 
and general lymphoc3''tic infiltration of the mucous membrane : in the villi 
fibrotic changes. In the mucous membrane and submucous tissue large 



BILIARY SURGERY U'3 

spheroidal cells collect filled with a fatty material, and it is this which 
g-ives the so-called strawberry-like appearance to the interior of the gall- 
Itladder. If papillated. the papillae have a yellow or whitish look. 

Beflex gastrospasm. Liiain described a local spasmodic contraction 
of the stomach occurring with cholelithiasis, as noted by observing the 
passage of a bismuth emulsion under the X-rays. Total gastrospasm is 
rarely observed ; an ulcer on the lesser curvature leading to the formation 
of an hour-glass contraction gives rise to a circular spasmodic contraction. 
A spasmodic conti-action affecting the pyloric end of the stomach may be 
noted as of resfular occurrence when there is cholelithiasis. The stomach 
otherwise appears normal under the X-rays, but as the emulsion passes, the 
pyloric region may show a narrow wavy channel, lighter than the rest of 
the stomach, followinrr which some of the emulsion is found to have reached 
the duodenum. 

Operative procedures. Incisions. The incisions employed for exposing 
the region of the gall-bladder vary — some commence, at any rate, with 
a vertical incision through the middle line or right rectus. Transverse 
incisions are warmly advocated because running parallel to the course of 
the nerves to the recti muscles. If the recti are cut across it is essential 
that afterwards sutures should be passed so as to unite the sheath both 
underneath and superficial to the muscle, in order to prevent hernia. When 
there is a great depth of subcutaneous fat, the superficial incision used by 
Seelig offers a better opportunity for retraction. Commencing over the 
xiphoid cartilage and ending a little to the right of the middle line about 
the level of the umbilicus, an incision convex to the right includes skin, 
subcutaneous tissue and the external oblique aponeurosis together with the 
anterior sheath of the rectus. The semicircular flap being raised the deep 
incision can be made vertically or transversely. 

Cholecystectomy. It was recommended long ago, both by the Mayo 
Itrothers and liy Moynihan, that in performing cholecystectomy a commence- 
ment should be made by exposing and dividing the cystic duct, at the same 
time that the cystic artery is ligatured. To do this Behrend drew up the liver 
and gall-bladder to the right, and the pyloric end of the stomach over to 
the left. The edge of the gastro- hepatic omentum is thus rendered tense, 
its free border is then incised. The junction of the hepatic and cystic ducts 
to form the common duct, the portal vein, the hepatic artery and its cystic 
branch can then be identified. Unfortunately a great number of cases have 
advanced too far for such a procedure. The structures are obscured by 
enlargement of lymphatic glands along the cystic, hepatic and common bile- 
ducts, which also become buned in oedematous fibrous tissue. All that can 
then be done is to commence separating the fundus of the gall-bladder until 
a pedicle is reached, including the cystic duct and arteiy, which are ligatured 
Vty transfixion. Care must be taken to leave behind some of the cystic 
duct rather than to encroach upon its junction with the common duct. 

Cancer of the bile-dnct. Malig-nant disease involving the biliary tract 
has been unsuccessfully treated hitherto. Pallin first gave an account of 
52 cases of malignant disease involving the bile-ducts which had been pub- 
lished in Sweden, including the surgical treatment of some of the cases. 
The cases complicated by cancer were about 1-2 per cent, of all cases in 
which gall-stones were found. Kehr's German experience was the same, 
31 cases of cancer among 2-3,000 cases of biliary disease. Cancer attacks 
the bile-ducts between the ages of 40-70, especially in women, one- 



130 REVIEWS 

third of the cases arise at the papilhi. Cancer of the common 
duct, at the junction of the cystic and hepatic ducts, or of the hepatic 
ducts, is more common in men. The frequency at the papilla of Vater 
is explained by the impossibility of drawing a sharp line as to the 
starting-point of the cancer, whether at the termination of the bile-duct or 
in the mucous membrane of the pancreatic duct, or of the duodenum. 
A particular characteristic of carcinoma at the bile papilla, is a papillated 
growth projecting like the end of a finger into the lumen of the duodenum. 
The other forms of early cancer of the bile-duct is a tumour the size of 
a hazel-nut or walnut, a diffuse scirrhous infiltration constricting the lumen, 
or a tubular formation, especially attacking the hepatic ducts. The 
microscopic structure is essentially the same, consisting of cylindrical 
epithelium separated by various amounts of malignant fibrous formation. 
Pallin differs from the accepted view that cancer originates by the 
irritation set up by gall-stones. Of the 52 cases, gall-stones were found 
only in 13, chiefly in the women and in those over 60 years of age. The 
finding of a stone in the middle of a cancer does not appear to him 
to be evidence of the causation of the cancer by the stone — ^jaundice is 
the clue. Symptoms and death are usually due to the cholaemia rather than 
to an extension of the growth. Attacks of fever and pain are exceptional, 
and then only when the cancer is at the papilla as a late complication. The 
distension, or absence of distension, of the gall-bladder is a sign of a very 
dubious character, and even if distended it may not be palpable. When the 
cancer involves the hepatic ducts, the gall-bladder should be small ; when at 
the junction of the cystic, hepatic and common ducts, it may be distended 
with mucus ; when involving the common duct and papilla the gall-bladder 
may be distended with bile, yet not palpable. If the gi'owth spreads to 
involve the gall-bladder it may shrink. A variable jaundice with a palpable 
swelling may be due to chronic pancreatitis. Catarrhal jaundice should 
subside within a month and there should be no enlargement of the gall- 
bladder. It is more easy to exclude cancer at ages below 40. 

As to the palliative treatment, drainage is always bad owing to tlie 
loss of bile. Anastomosis is especially indicated, and the relief given depends 
on the stage of the disease, but an anastomosis connecting the hepatic 
ducts is very difficult to carry out. Among the Swedish cases were 9 ana- 
stomoses, of whom 3 survived the operation. 2 cholecyst-jejunostomies, 
and a cholecyst-duodenostomy. Thej' survived about 6 months each, 2 being 
relatively relieved, and one not freed from jaundice and in l)ed all the while. 

Four cases were submitted to excision, 3 of cancer at the papilla, all 
of whom died of the operation. One case survived after excision of cancer 
at the junction of the ducts followed by a hepatico-duodenostomy. There 
w^as relief for 10 months; death occurred 11 months after the excision, when 
metastatic growths were found in the liver, but there was no recurrence in 
situ. Of 44 cases collected from the literature 23 recovered from the 
operation. Of these, one of Korte's cases, an excision of a cancer at the 
papilla of Vater exposed through the duodenum, followed by drainage of 
the hepatic duct, was free from recurrence 6 years after the operation. 
Navarro's similai- case was alive without recurrence more than two years 
after the operation. Of the remaining 21, 14 were known to have died of 
recurrence, 6 in situ, and 5 of metastatic disease, 2 cases survived the 
operation 2^ years. 

The indications, therefore, are for excision if practicable, generally for 



BILIARY SURGERY 131 

anastomosis; failing either of these, the exploratory wound should be closed 
without drainage. 

Anastomosis. There does not seem to he much ditterence between an 
anastomosis with the duodenum, jejunum or stomach. It should depend 
upon which procedure is the more ' practicable, care being taken that the 
gall-bladder is not drawn upon so as to kink the cystic duct. Mathieu 
recommended the anastomosis with the stomach because there would be 
lees chance of ascending infection. He had operated on three cases for 
symptoms of biliary obstruction, and being unable to find the cause, decided 
that the excision of the gall-bladder was not indicated. The three cases 
had been relieved of all trouble up to date. Dujarier had done this twice, 
in one biliary obstruction recurred after some months. In the discussion 
on the above cases Tuffier and Quenu suggested that^ such obscure cases of 
biliary obstruction often turned out to be pancreatic in origin. 

To unite the hepatic duct to the duodenum C. H. Mayo recommended 
that adhesions should be disturbed as little as possible when defining the 
open end of the hepatic duct. A triangular flap of peritoneum should be 
turned down from the duodenum (or from the prepyloric part of the 
stomach). Then a short length of a rubber catheter is taken, and a small 
collar made from india-rubber tubing of a size next above that of the 
catheter is slipped over each end, and one end is inserted into the hepatic duct, 
the other through a slit in the duodenum. Then the peritoneal flap is sewn 
dowm and thus the tube is kept in position for a time by the collars. 

Behbend, M. An improved technique for the removal of the gall-bladder. 
J. Am. 31. Ass., 1920, 75, 222. 

CoNNELL, A. A. Cyst of the common bile-duct. Brit. J. Surg., 1920, 7, 520. 

Deaveb, H. C. Cholecystitis following typhoid fever. Ann. Surg., 1919, 69, 
534. 

Dickson, W. E. C. Congenital obliteration of bile-ducts. Proc. Boy. Soc. Med., 
Lmd. (Sect. Disea.se of Children), 1918, 11, 27. 

He3SE, E. und M. Zur Frage der Hiiufigkeit von Gallensteinen auf Grund des 
Sektionsmaterials (17402 Falle) des stildtischen Obuchoff-Hospitals in St. Peters- 
burg. ZcntralU. f Chir., 1920, 47, 108. 

Holmes, J. B. Congenital obliteration of the bile-ducts. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 
Bej)., 1919, 18, 75. 

LuAiw, M. Regionarer Gastrospasmus bei Cholelithiasis. Corr.-Bl. f. schweis. 
Aerzte, 1919, 49, 1417. 

Maccabty, W. C. Early lesions in the gall-bladder. Am. J. M. Sc, 1920, 
159, 646. 

Mathieu, P. La cholecystogastrostomie dansle traitenient de certaines crises 
douloureusesd'origine biliaire. Bull, et mem. Soc. de chir. dePar., 1920,46, 1200, 
1261. 

Mato, C. H. .Taundice and its surgical significance. Surg. Gynec. 4" Ohst., 
1920, 30, 545. 

NErr, J. M. The surgery of the gaU-bladder and biliary tract. Surg. Gynec. 
6,- Ohst., 1919, 20 (Internat. Abst.), 1. 



132 REVIEWS 

FalIiXN, G. (1) Ueber die Lage der Hepaticus-Cysticus-Konfluenz und den 
Verlauf der extraliepatischen Gallenwege. Beitr. s. Idin. Chir., 1920, 121, 68. 

FALI.IN, G. (2). Das Carcinom des Ductus hepatico-choledochus und seine 
chirurgische Behandlung (52 schwedische Falle). Beitr. s. Uin. Chir., 1920, 
121, 84. 

Schmieden, V. Ueber die ' Stauungsgallenblase ' ? ZentralU. f. Chir., 1920, 
47, 1257. 

Seelig, M. G. Cholecystectomy. Surg. Gymc. 4" Obst., 1917, 25, 45. 

W. G. S. 



CONGENITAL TORTICOLLIS 

The pathology of Congenital Torticollis, its causation, the nature oi" 
the changes in the sternomastoid muscles, and the indications for treatment, 
continue the subject of controversy. Meanwhile, the cases mostly come 
under the surgeon long after infancy, so that then the removal of the 
contracture of the sternomastoid muscle fails to abolish established secondary 
deformities, asymmetry of the face, lateral curvature of the spine. 

One of the common statements on the subject is that the muscle is 
ruptured during birth, especially when a breech presentation entails traction 
on the aftercoming head. Another attributes the condition to intra-uterine 
disease, in particular to inherited syphilis. Nerve paralysis, and ischaemic 
rigidity produced by the partial cutting off of the blood-supply, have been 
proposed as causes. 

Sippel has contributed observations on 13 infants born with wry-neck. 
He supplies in his cases evidence as to the position of the infant in the 
uterus, in order to show that the changes in the sternomastoid muscle are 
the result of the head of the foetus being turned to one side, so that the 
point of the slioulder of that side is pressed into the neck. This produces 
an atrophy and contracture of the muscle, affecting especially its deeper 
part, also an atrophy of the overlying platysma. Forcible straightening of 
the head during birth causes haemorrhage into an already atrophied, 
partially fibrosed and contractured muscle, when the subsequent changes in 
the muscle are a combination of the pressure atrophy and of the haemorrhage. 
But if there is no strain upon the muscle during birth, the torticollis is solely 
attributable to the abnormal pressure upon the muscle towards the end 
of intra-uterine life. 

An infant born with wry-neck requires active treatment forthwith. 
In slighter cases massage and movement of the head, so as to stretch the 
shortened muscle suffice. In more marked cases the fibrosed and contractured 
portion of the muscle should be excised as soon as the child is about a month 
old. The cause of the wry-neck is thus removed and there is left a fine 
extensile band. The head is held straight and can be turned freely to the 
opposite side ; the temporary flattening of the skull and asymmetry of the 
face disappear. In none of the eases referred to below did the child show 
any lateral curvature of the spine ; early cure of the wry -neck prevents 
its occurrence subsequently. 



CONGENITAL TORTICOLLIS 133 

A skiagram of a foetus, late in a normal pregnancy, shows it with the 
head fully extended on the spine, looking straight forward. It is no longer 
to be taught that the head is kept flexed with the chin against the sternum. 
In consequence of a scarcity of the amniotic fluid, of a narrow pelvis, of 
a contraction of the uterus above the cervix, of a twin pregnancy, the 
head ceases to be suspended and to move freely in the fluid. It is held 
fixed, turned to one side, with the shoulder pressing into the neck of that 
side. The arm of the same side, in particular the elbow, is so fixed as to 
hold up the head of the humerus. There is thus produced atrophy l)y 
pressure of the sternomastoid muscle and the overlying platysma sometime 
after the 5th or 6th month of pregnane}'. This cramping of the foetus 
favours a breech or transverse presentation, but as shoAvn in the skiagram 
given by Sippel, one side of the head may be forced down into the pelvis 
with a bending of the neck to one side, if the scanty amount of fluid allows 
the wall of the uterus to press unduly upon the buttocks above the pelvis ; 
at the same time the spine becomes acutely flexed. 

Case I. A primipara aged 28 had been admitted for haemorrhage at 
the end of pregnancy. A skiagram showed the foetus in the left dorso- 
anterior transverse position with the head sharply bent to the left upon 
the neck, and the head of the left humerus occupying the concavity formed 
by the bending of the neck. A skiagram of a more regular transverse 
presentation, reproduced for comparison, shows the foetus as if lying on its 
back with its head on a pillow, directed straight forward. 

The woman was delivered by caesarean section, when the position of 
the foetus was found to be as above noted. The amount of amniotic fluid 
was small. A small female child was seized by the feet and removed without 
any strain on its neck. 

Otherwise normal, the child showed a marked wry-neck on the left 
side ; the face on the left side was flattened, it squinted with the left eye, the 
skull over the region of the temporal bone of that side was depressed, the 
auricle was flattened and its lobule pushed up. The chin and mouth were 
turned over to the right. The left shoulder had been pressed into the neck 
below the ear and mastoid process, the arm had been elevated at the shoulder, 
and the forearm sharply flexed at the elbow. The left sternomastoid muscle 
was so shortened that when the head was turned straight, it was rendered 
tense, as seen in the photographs in the article. On being released, the head 
returned at once to the position characteristic of left torticollis. The muscle 
felt as if strongly contracted, and harder than its opposite. The right upper 
extremity had been freely extended by the side, with the shoulder low. 
A skiagram showed that there was no spinal curvature, but the left clavicle 
as compared with the right had an exaggerated S-shaped curve. 

The infant was treated for three months by massage and turning of 
the head. Meanwhile the asymmetry of the face, the depression of the 
temporal bone and the deformation of the clavicle tended to disappear, but 
there was no stretching of the shortened muscle. 

Therefore, at the end of three months, an incision was made over the 
left sternomastoid which was found shortened, pale, and atrophied. There 
was no marked fibrosis ; the blood-vessels and surrounding structures showed 
nothing abnormal. A sejrment was removed from the muscle and the head 
fixed in a corrected position. A microscopic examination exhibited atrophy 
of the muscle, some of the fibres showing degeneration into a homogeneous 
substance with loss of both longitudinal and transverse .striations. The 

IV. L 



134 REVIEWS 

degenerated fibres stained badly ; the muscle fasciculi were small and thin, 
without any marked fibrosis. There had been no rupture of muscle, and 
there was no blood-pigment in evidence of any previous extravasation of 
blood. 

Case II. A primipara aged 23 was admitted in. labour after premature 
rupture of the membranes and the escape of a very little fluid. A skiagram 
showed the foetus presenting by the breech with the head bent sharply 
to the left upon the neck, and the left shoulder raised and pressed 
into the concavity of the neck. The child was born spontaneously up to 
the head, which was ' delivered easily without traction or pressure in 
a typical way following Veit-Smellie ', and without any anaesthetic being 
required. The male child presented a characteristic left wry-neck with the 
same features as in the previous case, asymmetry of the face, depression 
of the skull, pushing up of the auricle, displacement of the chin to the 
opposite side. There was a deep hollow on the left side of the neck 
with the surface blue by extravasation of blood into the folds of skin and 
into the muscle underneath. The muscle appeared shortened and thinner 
than normal. The child died a few days later of pneumonia. The platysma 
on the. left side was found very thin, the left sternomastoid muscle markedly 
atrophied and intimately adherent to the platysma, the blood-vessels were less 
developed than on the right side, there was no thrombosis in the thin walled 
veins. There was a recent extravasation of blood into the upper third of the 
muscle, which also extended between the superficial and middle layers of the 
deep cervical fascia; the deeper part of the muscle had the appearance of 
having been contused. The microscopic appearance of a transverse section of 
the upper third of the muscle in comparison with that of the right side showed 
fewer muscle bundles, the deeper layer of the muscle and the intramuscular 
septa were infiltrated by blood and the muscle fibrils largely destroyed. 

Case III. A primipara aged 33 with a breech presentation, after 
several attempts, was finally delivered, the buttocks by the aid of hooks, 
the aftercoming head by forceps. A markedly asphyxiated female child 
presented a typical right-sided wry-neck, with suffusion of blood over the 
middle and upper third of the muscle, also the other conditions noted in 
the foregoing cases. It lived 24 hours. On examination the right sterno- 
mastoid appeared markedly atrophied as compared with the left, both its 
clavicular and sternal portions; it had been reduced to the size of a lead 
pencil ; the platysma was also very thin. There was fresh blood in the 
upper and middle third of the muscle against which the right shoulder had 
been pressed, and the blood had been extravasated into the cervical fascia. 
The muscle was markedly shortened, felt dense, but presented no rupture. 
The left muscle was well developed, almost the thickness of a finger, of 
normal redness and consistency, without sign of venous congestion. 

Ckise IV. A woman aged 22 was admitted in labour with her second 
child. The skiagi'am showed a left breech presentation with the head 
turned to the right and the point of the right shoulder pressed into the 
concavity of the neck. Very little fluid escaped ; the female child was born 
spontaneously, except for the Veit-Smellie manipulation of the head, in which 
no force was used. There was a right-sided wry-neck together with the 
conditions previously noted. The child died a few days later of broncho- 
pneumonia, when the right sternomastoid was found much shortened ; at the 
junction of the middle and upper third in particular the muscle was dense, 
pale, atrophied, the platysma being also atrophied, whereas the muscle on 



CONGENITAL TORTICOLLIS 135 

the left side was well developed. A transverse section of the muscle showed 
changes affecting especially the deeper part ; passing from the superficial 
aspect inwards, without any marked line of demarcation, normal muscle 
fibres had begun to be separated by an increased amount of fibrous tissue. 
In the centre and deeper part of the muscle there was the marked atrophy 
noted above ; also there were signs of haemorrhage as shown by blood- 
pigment mixed with newly forming fibrous tissue, and recent infiltration of 
blood among atrophied muscle fibres. 

Cat<e V. A primipara aged 32 sutfering from albuminuria and threatened 
with eclampsia exhibited a left head presentation, very little fiuid had 
escaped. She was easily delivered by applying forceps to the head. The 
child, a male, showed a right wry-neck with the attendant changes. A second 
foetus was then found in a right dorso-posterior transverse position, very 
little fluid escaped on rupturing its membranes, it was easily delivered 
without question of strain on the neck because the aftercoming head was so 
small and the maternal soft parts already stretched. The second child, also 
a male, showed a left wry-neck, and it died 24 hours after birth. The 
platysma on the left side was atrophied and rendered tense by turning the 
liead straight, the sternomastoid muscle being shortened and highly atrophied. 
The front part of the muscle as well as the deep cervical fascia in the 
anterior triangle of the neck was infiltrated by recent blood, the muscle 
where infiltrated appeared as if contused. The microscopic changes were 
those of atrophy with recent blood extravasation. The firstborn of the 
twins survived, and it was intended to operate upon it for wry-neck when 
strong enough. 

Case VJ. A woman aged 33, giving birth for the fifth time, was 
admitted in the seventh month for haemorrhage and rupture of membranes. 
After a tampon, two foetuses were born spontaneously, the first, a small 
male, showed no deformity and survived. The second, a large male, had 
a left wry-neck and bilateral talipes valgus. It repeated the conditions 
noted in Case I. After its death, 30 hours later, the left platysma was 
found extremely thin and atrophied ; with the very atrophied and shortened 
sternomastoid it formed a tense band when the head was straightened. The 
pressure of the raised shoulder had been applied especially to the posterior 
part of the upper third of the muscle. The muscle under the microscope 
exhibited atrophy without haemorrhage. 

The following cases came under observation some time after birth. 

Case VII. A primipara aged 23 with a normal pelvis was delivered 
spontaneously, the left side of the head presenting ; the child was a female, 
the amount of amniotic fluid which escaped was small. Three to four weeks 
after birth the mother noticed an increasing tendency to a left-sided wry- 
neck. When examined at the age of 7 months there was a marked left 
torticollis with asymmetry of the face. On straightening the head the 
muscle became tense, and on letting go the head at once returned to the 
abnormal position. The muscle felt thinner and more tense than on 
the opposite side, but not definitely hardened. After a month of massage 
and turning of the head without improvement, the muscle was exposed 
between the middle and lower third a'nd a piece cut out. The separation of 
the cut ends left a hollow in the posterior triangle. The portion excised 
showed atrophy of muscle without sign of haemorrhage. Five months later 
the wry-neck had been completely removed, a depression persisting where 
the muscle had been divided. 

L 2 



136 REVIEWS 

Case VII f. A woman aged 31 with a normal pelvis had been delivered 
at term. A breech presentation had required only the Veit-Smellie method 
of delivering the head. The mother first noticed the right-sided wry-neck 
three weeks later, and the child, when examined at the age of five weeks, 
showed the markedly shortened sternomastoid seen in the photograph 
reproduced in the article. No improvement following massage, the middle 
third of the muscle was excised at the age of 6 weeks. This was pale and 
hard like a fibroma, also the superficial and middle layers of the cervical fascia 
around it appeared denser. A transverse section showed normal muscle fibres 
towards the outer side, the remainder more or less atrophic and separated 
by densely fibrous scar tissue. No remains of blood-pigment were seen. 

Four months later there was an extensile band thicker than a lead 
pencil in place of the excised muscle, and the wry-neck had been quite 
removed. 

Case IX. A primipara aged 28 with a normal pelvis had been delivered 
without difiiculty of a female child which had presented by the breech. 
Three weeks later the mother noticed the right torticollis. Massage and 
turning of the head failing, the muscle was exposed when the child was aged 
8 weeks. The superficial layers of the muscle showed no changes and were 
simply cut across ; the deeper part was throughout the whole length of the 
muscle changed into hard cicatricial tissue. This part was cut out whilst 
avoiding injury to the spinal accessory nerve. The excised piece showed 
a fibrosis with atrophy of muscle most marked in the deeper portion of the 
muscle. No blood-pigment was noted. The wry-neck was relieved, an 
extensile band remaining. 

Case X was very similar to Case IX. 

Case XI. A woman of 30, at the end of her third pregnancy, with the 
foetus in a right dorso-anterior transverse position, was delivered by turning 
and extraction by the feet. The placenta had formed a girdle constricting 
the lower segment of the uterus, and there had been little amniotic fluid. 
The child had right torticollis with the concomitant conditions ; the right 
shoulder had been pushed into the neck, the elbow being fully extended and 
rendered stiff, along with temporary paresis of the upper extremity from 
compression of the brachial plexus. The contraction of the sternomastoid 
was overcome by massage and movement. 

Case XII, in which the child presented by the breech was one of right- 
sided wry-neck, which was also cured by massage and movement. 

Case XIII. A woman aged 32, in her second pregnancy, was delivered 
of twin children, the first, a head presentation, spontaneously, the second 
a right dorso-anterior transverse presentation by turning. The latter infant 
had right torticollis which increased after birth, so that at the age of 6 weeks 
the indurated middle third of the muscle was excised. There was found 
marked degeneration of muscle fibres with fibrosis affecting mostly the 
deeper aspects of the muscle, the surface of the muscle exhibited some 
normal fibres. 

SxPFEi., P. Der angeborene muskulare Schiefhals. Deutsche Ztsclir. f. Chir., 
1920, 155, 1. 

W. G. S. 



INTESTINAL EXCLUSION 137 



INTESTINAL EXCLUSION 

Maisonneuve, in 1844, with the object of avoiding the formation of an 
artificial anus in eases of intestinal obstruction, orig-inated the idea of 
excluding n portion of the intestine by making a lateral anastomosis. 
Senn, in experiments on animals, divided the ileum and implanted the 
proximal end into the colon, whilst he closed the distal end. Salzer, as 
a result of animal experiments, proposed the exclusion of a portion of gut, 
after restoring continuity of the rest of the bowel, by closing the upper end 
of the excluded o-ut and suturing the lower end of the excluded intestine so 
that it should open upon the surface of the abdominal wall. Trendelenburg, 
in the case of a cancer of the caecum in which a fistula had already formed, 
after restoring the continuity of the bowel, closed the two ends connected 
with the caecum above and below, leaving the faecal fistula to persist in 
the middle. Other experiments by Vella, in 188.2, tested the consequence 
of stitching both ends of the excluded gut into the abdominal wall, so as to 
open upon the surface. Denk descriljed the experience over the operation 
in von EiseLsberg's Klinik, commencing in 1901. 

In 9 cases the procedure followed Senn's metliod, in 3 that of Salzer. 
The results in the foi-mer series were : 

Case I. For constriction following appendicitis, the division of the 
ileum, implantation of the proximal end into the sigmoid flexure and 
closure of the distal end. The patient was quite well 16 years later and 
had no difiiculty with his motions. 

Case II. For tubei'culosis of the caecum was operated upon in the 
same way ; there was temporary relief until death 2^ months after the 
operation. 

Case III. Similar to the preceding one, the ileum was joined to the 
transverse colon. A local abscess was incised six months later and death 
occurred from tuberculosis two years after the anastomosis. 

Case IV. Also tuberculosis of the caecum ; was first treated like the 
foregoing and three months later the excluded bowel, including the diseased 
part, was excised and the patient cured. 

Case V. A fistula had formed after excision of a piece of the ileum. 
The operation was done, but the patient died half an hour later from shock. 

Case VI. Had both a faecal and urinary fistula, the one involving the 
descending colon, the other the left ureter. In addition to the operation as 
before, the fistula into the descending colon was clo.sed and the left kidney 
removed. The patient recovered from the operation. 

Case VII. Tuberculous adhesions constricted the transverse colon for 
wdiich ileo.sigmoidostomy with closure of the distal end of the divided ileum 
was first tried. Faeces collected in the occluded gut, for the relief of which 
three further operations were done, ending in complete removal of the 
intervening: ileum and colon. 

Case VIII. A carcinoma of the caecum for which ileosigmoidostomy 
was done recovered from the operation, but there was no further rejoort. 

Case IX. An anastomosis was first done between the ileum and trans- 
verse colon, then l^etween the ileum and rectum with closure of the distal 
end of the divided ileum, in order to relieve ulceration of the caecum. The 
second operation was fatal from leakage at the line of suture. 



138 REVIEWS 

Case X. There was a cancer of the caecum which had ah-eady per- 
forated externally and also into the bladder. The ileum above and the 
transverse colon below were divided, the proximal end of the ileum being 
anastomosed with the .distal end of the colon ; the distal end of the ileum 
was brought to the surface, the proximal end of the colon closed. Death 
followed from leakage at the line of suture. 

Case XI. There was ileo-caecal tuberculosis with a faecal fistula. The 
operation was similar to the preceding case except that the distal end of the 
ileum was also closed, and after eleven months the excluded portion was 
excised. The patient died five months later from perforation of a tuberculous 
ulcer of the ileum above the anastomosis ; there was also generalized 
tuberculosis. 

Case XII. For a similar case to the above, first appendicostomy and 
ileo-colostomy was performed, leaving a faecal fistula. Next the ileum and 
ascending colon were excluded and the four divided ends closed, still leaving 
the fistulous opening into the caecum discharging muco-pus. Subsequently, 
owing to fiirther tuberculous ulceration and communication, a faecal fistula 
was re-established and death followed eleven months later. 

Denk added the following collections of cases. Of 68 cases of entero- 
anastomosis for tubercle, 6 appeared cured, 6 importantly improved, and 27 
deaths followed the operation. The inherent danger following tlie operation 
was the distension of intervening coils by faeces and gas, tending to cause 
perforation and fatal peritonitis. Of 38 cases of carcinoma submitted to 
entero-anastomosis, 13 died after the operation, and 19 within the following 
2-8 months, 2 were still alive and suffering 14 and 15 months respectively 
after the anastomosis, 1 died 7 years later, the growth proving to be a round- 
celled sarcoma of the transverse colon. Of 4 there was no further report 
after recovery from the operation. In 18 cases a lateral entero-anastomosis was 
done for inflammatory conditions other than tuberculous — constrictions, kinks, 
adhesions, and faecal fistulae. 5 died of the operation following pre-existing 
intestinal obstruction and peritonitis. Of the survivors only 1 was proved 
to be well following an entero-anastomosis for Hirschsprung's disease. 5 in 
which the operation had been for obstruction, the result of adhesions, had 
intermittent trouble from collections of faeces in the intervening loop. Of 
2 cases in which the entero-anastomosis was done for faecal fistula, one under- 
went excision and died, in the other the anastomosis failed to cure the fistula. 

In contrast with the foregoing, the plan of bringing the two ends of the 
excluded gut to the surface, and irrigating through it for a time offers 
definite advantages. 

Finsterer reported the experience gained in Hochenegg's Klinik in 
Vienna. Starting from the experiments by Valla in 1882, of Hochenegg 
in 1891, and his own in 1916, Finsterer arrived at the decision that the two 
ends of the excluded gut should be fixed so as to open upon the abdominal 
wall, pending the excision. In support of this conclusion he added 12 recent 
cases. Lateral anastomosis had failed owing to the accumulation of faeces 
in the intervening gut. When an end to end anastomosis was made, and the 
two ends of the excluded gut dropped back, the excluded gut became distended 
with muco-pus ending in fatal perforation. Even if there had previously 
been a fistulous opening into this segment of the bowel, this did not prevent 
the collection. If the proximal end of the excluded gut were closed and 
the distal end brought out to open on the surface, there took place an 
accumulation in the proximal end above the original site of constriction, 



INTESTINAL EXCLUSION 139 

so that perforation occurred in the proximal end. When the proximal 
end was kept open and the distal end closed, perforation at the distal end 
was inevitable. 

Case I. An infantry soldier, aged 23, had an appendix abscess incised. 
A faecal fistula followed, so six months later an anastomosis was made 
between the ileum and transverse colon, and the excluded ends, after 
temporary closure,, were fixed into the abdominal wall, 24 hours later the 
two ends were opened and tubes inserted for daily irrigation. After three 
months, the patient having much improved meanwhile, the excluded caecum 
and ascending colon were excised and the patient discharged well. 

Case II. A Bosnian, aged 29, had tuberculosis of the caecum com- 
plicated by pulmonary tuioerculosis. The caecum formed a mass the size 
of the fist with tuberculous mesenteric glands, and excision was out of the 
question. The operation as before, followed by daily irrigation, brought 
away pus and prevented further abdominal trouble until death, two months 
later, from the pulmonary disease. 

Case III. An infantry soldier had a faecal fistula in the ileo-caecal 
region with necrosis of the ilium following a gunshot wound. 5-| months 
later an attempt to close the fistula and remove the necrosed bone made 
things worse. 19 months after the wound a second attempt to close the 
fistula likewise failed. 23 months after the original wound the exclusion 
operation was done, but previous to this the patient had developed signs of 
pyaemia, suppuration extended from the ilium through the sciatic notch into 
the thigh, and was also present in the wrist-joint, and pulmonary abscesses 
followed, which caused death two months after the exclusion. 

Case IV was like Case III, but the exclusion operation was done 
earlier, viz. 7 months after the wound. Irrigation reduced the discharge 
from the ileo-caecal fistula to a little muco-pus. 14 months after the wound, 
the excluded gut was excised, and the fistulous track scraped and drained. 
The patient was discharged after two months much improved, the track 
of the fistula having become reduced to a small sinus. 

Case V. In a man aged 46, carcinoma of the hepatic flexure of the 
colon had become complicated by a faecal fistula. The exclusion operation 
being done, daily irrigation reduced the suppuration so that 5 weeks later 
the excluded gut and the cancer were excised. 22 months later the man was 
in full work and free from recurrence. 

Case VI. A man aged 50 underwent 7 operations on account of cancer 
of the lower end of the sigmoid flexure, (i) October 1917. Left inguinal 
colostomy for the relief of acute intestinal obstruction, (ii) December 1917. 
The cause being overlooked, an attempt was made to close the colostomy and 
acute obstruction recurred, (iii) The wound being re-explored, the ileum 
was opened, so that a faecal fistula formed; the bowel emptying, the cancer was 
discovered and an additional opening made into the caecum, (iv) February 
1918. The cancer of the sigmoid was removed along with the descending 
colon, the lower end of the sigmoid was closed and transverse colostomy 
instituted, with closure of the fistula in the ileum, (v) May 1918. Again 
intestinal obstruction was relieved by separating adhesions between the 
ileum and the abdominal wall, (vi) May 1918. Union of the ileum to the 
sigmoid, leaving a fistula communicating with the excluded caecum, (vii) 
June 1917. A partial removal of the excluded gut was abandoned on 
finding extension of the cancer to the lymphatic glands and peritoneum. 
Just a year after the first attack acute intestinal obstruction recurred 



UO REVIEWS 

causing death. Perforation had occurred at the site of the ileo-sigmoid 
anastomosis following enlargement of mesenteric glands. 

Case VII. A man aged 25 had an appendix abscess incised in February 
1917, and a faecal fistula followed. In May 1918 the excluding operation 
was done and as a result of the irrigation the fistula soon closed. In 
November 1918 the excluded gut, which had become much more mobile, was 
easily excised and the man discharged well eight weeks later. 

Case VIII was a similar case. The appendix abscess was incised in 
January 1918 and a faecal fistula followed. The exclusion operation was 
done in October 1918, the excision following irrigation a month later, and 
the man discharged well in February 1919. 

Case IX had tuberculosis of the caecum, which formed a mass the size 
of the fist. After exclusion, followed by irrigation for five weeks, the 
caecum perforated into the peritoneum and death followed. 

Case X was wounded by a shell in the right loin in September 1918, 
and like Cases III and IV had a faecal fistula with necrosis of the ilium, 
In June 1919 the exclusion operation was done, when, after irrigation, the 
faecal fistula closed, whilst the opened ends of the excluded gut discharged 
only a little muco-pus. 

Case XI, with tuberculosis of the caecum and pulmonary phthisis, 
had exclusion done in July 1918. The patient improved so markedly under 
irrio-ation, that in February 1919 excision was done, but he died two days 
later with signs of pneumonia. 

Case XII. A faecal fistula had followed strangulated right femoral 
hernia and persisted for two years. After the exclusion operation there 
was improvement, but the fistula continued to discharge a little muco-pus, 

Mercade reported the following case. A girl aged 16 had an appendix 
abscess incised in December 1915, and in January 1918 she presented 
several fistulae in the right iliac fossa by which the whole of the intestinal 
contents were discharged. On exploration the end of the ileum was found 
dilated and the colon beyond the fistulae reduced to the calibre of the little 
finger. An end to end ileo-sigmoidostomy was done, and the ends of the 
excluded gut closed, leaving the fistulae open. The following day the 
patient passed motions by the rectum for the first time for more than two 
years. In the following month, February 1918, the ileo-caecal segment with 
the fistulae was cut out, the proximal end of the ascending colon closed, the 
distal end of the pelvic colon fixed into the lower end of the incision. 
Healing followed, a discharge of mucus only continuing from the open 
distal end. In August 1918 the remaining colon was excised and the 
patient at the time of the report was in excellent general health, had grown 
fatter, had solid motions, and but two a day. If, as recommended by 
Finsterer, both ends of the excluded gut had been brouglit out, irrigation 
might have rendered the ileo-caecal part of the excision easier, and the rest 
of the colon might then have been taken away at the same time. 

FxiTSTEBEB, H. Ein weiterer Beitrag zur totalen Darmausschaltung. Deutsche 
Ztschr.f. Chir., 1920, 155, 145. 

Denk, W. Ueber ausschaltende Operationen am Darm (Von Eiselsberg's Fest- 
schrift). Arch.f. Min. Chir., 1918, 110, 131. 

Mebcade, S. Ileosigmoidostomie termino-terminale suivie de colectoniie 
(rapport de Okenczye). Bull, ct mem, Soc. de cMr. de Par., 1921, 47, 160. 

W. G. S. 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ELEMENTARY NERVOUS SYSTEM 141 

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ELEMENTARY NERVOUS 

SYSTEM : ITS BEARING UPON SOME MODERN 

NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS 

It has been aptly said that the edifice of the wliole nervous system is 
reared upon two neurones, the afferent root cell and the efferent root cell. 
These are the pillars of the fundamental reflex arc, upon which all the 
other neural arcs are superimposed, even those of the cerebral cortex. It is 
with the development of these anatomical and physiological foundations of 
the nervous system, in those simple animal forms in which they tirst make 
their appearance, that Parker deals in his book on The Elementary Nervous 
System. Beginning with the sponges, in which contractile muscle-tissue 
develops as an independent effector organ before any nervous elements have 
been difterentiated, Parker passes to the coelenterates— hydrozoa, sea 
anemones and jelly-fish— in which there is a receptor-effector system con- 
sisting of sensory and motor elements with their appropriate receptor and 
effector organs. In his concluding chapters, he describes the earliest mani- 
festations of centralization in the diffuse nerve-net of these primitive animals, 
and the appearance of internuncial nerve-cells placed between sensory and 
motor elements. 

Not only does he deal with the morphology of this primitive neuro- 
muscular mechanism, but also with its modes of response. This physiological 
aspect of the question is perhaps of even greater interest and importance to 
the neurologist than the purely anatomical. At the present moment there is 
a great need for accurate and extensive observation upon the nature of the 
reactions characteristic of the elementary nervous system, and this for 
reasons which call for some preliminary explanation. 

Dissolution of function in disease of the nervous system. Within 
the past few years, the systematic investigation of the phenomena of nervous 
disease has thrown considerable light upon the functions of this system, and 
upon the manner in which disease disorders them. Clinical neurology 
in this country has never been satisfied by the mere description and 
classification of the symptoms of disease, but has always attempted to in- 
terpret these in terms of disordered function, and by their study to throw 
light upon the physiology of the nervous system. In this way many notable 
advances have been made, as, for example, in our knowledge of the problems 
of sensation and of the co-ordination of muscular movement. Nevertheless, 
many problems await solution, and probably many more have yet to be 
recognized. 

It is in respect of certain hypotheses concerning the evolution ot 
function in the nervous system, and based upon clinical observations, that 
the investigations made and so admirably recounted by Parker promise to 
be of the greatest value. 

These hypotheses are founded upon a general principle enunciated bj-^ 
Hughlings Jackson many years ago, to the effect that, for purposes of 
investigation, nervous disease might be regarded as a reversal of evolution, 
that is, as a dissolution, in which function is ' taken to pieces ' in a definite 
fashion ; the highest and most recently acquired activities being earliest and 
most severely affected, the lower, more automatic and more deeply organized 
activities beins: more resistant. Further, such a dissolution being partial — 



142 REVIEWS 

when death does not ensue — the symptomatology of nervous disease must 
be dual ; there will be a negative or defect symptomatology due to loss of 
function in the centre destroyed or inactivated, and a corresponding release 
from control and unbalanced activity of subordinate centres which remain 
intact. In other words, disease dissects out the functional components of 
the activity of the nervous system, and from the study of the lower levels of 
evolution remaining, light may be thrown upon the gradual evolution 
of function in the nervous system. 

Fruitful as this guiding principle has been, there is clearly a danger 
that it may be laboured, that it may be applied beyond its capacity in the 
endeavour to determine the physiological meaning of symptoms. For 
example, the hypothesis makes no provision for qualitative alterations of 
function, or perversions of function. To apply it universally means that 
we accept defect and release as a complete explanation of all the symptoms 
of disordered function that we see in nervous disease. Surely this is an 
assumption we have no right to make. Be tliis as it may, the principle is 
widely accepted as universally applicable, and certain important corollaries 
have followed from this. 

The one witli which we are now concerned is that this supposed dissolu- 
tion of function unmasks earlier phases in the evolution of nervous activity. 
Thus, in their well-known work on peripheral sensation. Head and Rivers 
maintain that the ' protopathic ' sensibility remaining at the periphery of 
a denervated area of skin, and present throughout this ai-ea at the end of 
the first stage of regeneration, represents a primitive form of sensibility ; 
disease or injury has dissected normal cutaneous sensibility into two physio- 
logical components of widely differing capacity and far removed in phjdo- 
genetic origin. Similarly, the reflex activity of the isolated segments of the 
divided spinal cord in man have been regarded as representing primitive 
motor activities released from higher control and reappearing in tlieir 
primitive form (Head and Riddoch). In other words, in protopathic sensibility 
and in the ' mass reflex ' of spinal man, we see approximations to the sensori- 
motor reactions of a primitive animal. In his recent book. Instinct and 
the Unconscious, Rivers has fully expounded this biological aspect of the 
subject and has summed it up in the following words : ' All we know of the 
protopathic stage is consistent with its being the representative of the sensi- 
bility of an animal which possesses only the power of becoming aware of 
changes of a crude kind and, according as these changes are pleasant or 
unpleasant, of reacting at once by such mass-movements as would take it 
nearer to, or remove it from, the source of stimulation'. (Rivers, p. 23.) 

How far do the facts of observation, as recorded by Parker, confii-m 
this view ? Clearly they should aflTord us a valuable means of assessing the 
sigiiificance of the phenomena described by Head and his co-workers, and 
further, of deciding whether the Jacksonian principle, upon which their 
conclusions are based, can be safely applied to all the phenomena of nervous 
disease. 

The ' protopathic ' animal. With this end in view, let us briefly 
examine the sensori-motor endowment of the hypothetical ' protopathic ' 
animal. Protopathic sensibility is a high-threshold form of cutaneous 
sensibility, responding solely to pain and to extremes of temperature. (Head, 
Rivers and Sherren, p. 63.) It carries no power of localizing a spot stimu- 
lated ; no power of appreciating intensity of stimulus, for the sensations 
perceived are of the ' all-or-none ' kind ; there is no power of determining 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ELE^[ENTARY NERVOUS SYSTEM 143 

the nature of the stimulatin<^ object, beyond the fact that it may convey a 
pleasant or unpleasant feelings tone ; sensations radiate widely and are often 
erroneously localized at a considerable distance from the spot stimulated. In 
short, to use Rivers 's words, protopathic sensibility contains ' elements of 
vagueness and confusion quite incompatible with the exact power of 
localization. . . . ' (Rivers, p. 30.) 

To what type of reaction does this extremely strange and restricted foi"m 
of sensibility lead ? Head and Riddoch observed that after division of the 
spinal cord, the isolated portion, having emerged from the state of spinal 
shock, shows an intense reiiex activity. They discerned in this many jxjints 
of resemblance to protopathic sensibility. Thus, ' the situation of the stimulus 
does not determine the distribution of the response ; local signature is 
abolished, and the outburst of energy flows into channels that would be 
blocked under normal conditions'. (Head, p. 753.) 

The reflex response invariably obtained under these circumstances con- 
sists of powerful bilateral flexion of the legs, contraction of tlie abdominal 
muscles, evacuation of the bladder, and an outburst of sweating. This is 
elicited by all forms of stimulation applied anywhere below the level of the 
cord lesion, to skin or to deep structures. The response is stereotyped in 
form and unvarying in intensity. Should the stimulus be gentle friction 
of tlie glans penis, bladder evacuation is replaced by erection and seminal 
emission. This type of 'mass reflex' has been called 'the coitus reflex'. 
Apart from this single exception, ' all local adaptation to the site or nature 
of the stimulus is swept away in a violent outburst of energy in centres cut 
off from higher control'. (Head, p. 753.) And again, 'a reaction of this 
kind is admirably fitted to defend the animal from noxious influences ; it 
produces movements of withdrawal, which permit of no choice '. (Head, 
p. 752.) Finally, and scarcely consistently, ' both the segmental and the 
massive response are means of defence and lead to withdrawal of the part 
from noxious influences. But they hamper voluntary action by the uncon- 
trolled movements they evoke, and tend to prevent escape by fixing the 
body in a position unfavourable for flight. The animal crawls into a hole 
to die or to recover . . . ' (Head, p. 753.) The ' mass reflex ' is .said to 
represent the reappearance ' in its primitive form ' of an elementary motor 
mechanism normally kept under control. 

It is very difficult to regard this chaos of reflex responses as anything 
but a pathological demonstration of what might aptly be called spinal 
anarchy. The protopathic animal, in response to a stimulus which it cannot 
localize, which has but a single intensity and gives no information as to the 
nature of the stimulating object, makes a response which consists of profuse 
sweating, bladder evacuation, and powerful tonic flexion of the hind limbs, 
or squatting. The primitive animal thus endowed would be an organism 
utterly unfitted to cope with its environment. So helpless and bewildered a 
creature could not survive long enough to perpetuate its race, even if it could 
make an effective effort to do this, and with its appearance the process of 
evolution must almost inevitably have ceased. 

These reflections are forcibly suggested by the biological consequences 
of this theory of the dissolution of function. Let us see what actual obser- 
vations upon the physiology of the elementary nervous system have to say 
on this point. 

The elementary nervous system. In the case of such a primitive 



144 REVIEWS 

animal form as the jelly-fish, or the sea anemone, we can determine the 
presence of graduation and localization of sensation only by a close study of 
the characters of the response. In these animals there are several forms of 
effector organ, but of these only the muscle is under nervous control. We 
must therefore study the motor responses of these animals. 

If the sea anemone Metridium be stimulated at any point by a glass 
rod, the whole musculature of the animal goes into strong tonic contraction. 
If, however, we employ physiological stimuli, finely graded motor reactions 
may be observed. ' If a Metridium be allowed to remain for some time in 
running sea water in a situation relatively dark, its muscular tonus will be 
reduced to a minimum, and it will assume the condition of fullest normal 
expansion. If, under such circumstances, it is generally and briefly illumin- 
ated, it will quickly shorten its length quite noticeably, though it will by no 
means go into what would be described as a state of contraction. This 
shortening of the animal as a whole is due to the simultaneous moderate 
contraction of its longitudinal mesenteric muscles. The fact that the 
shortening is symmetrical and uniform shows that a complete ring of these 
muscles has contracted in unison. If, instead of subjecting the fully expanded 
sea anemone to a general illumination, light is thrown on only one of its 
sides, it responds usually by turning its oral disk toward the light, precisely 
as some flowers come to face the light . . . hence the nerve-net exhibits under 
a more normal form of stimulation a type of response much more delicate 
in character than what is seen when a glass rod is used.' (Parker, p. 100.) 
Finally, Parker concludes that the responses of such an animal are not of 
the ' all-or-none ' character, but are finely graded according to the strength 
and the site of the stimulation. 

The response of the tentacles to stimulation show the same features as 
those of the musculature of the wall of the organism. (Parker, p. 123.) 
Further, according as we stimulate the tentacles of the sea anemone with 
either weak acid or with fish meat, so the whole nature and site of the 
response differs completely. 

Finally, in the tiny polyp Corymorpha, Parker has observed the follow- 
ing delicately localized and graded response to localized stimuli (p. 189) : 
' If a faradic stimulus is applied to one side of the stalk next the hydranth 
or next the base, the stalk simply shortens as a whole. If, however, the 
stimulus is applied to one side of the stalk nearer the middle of its length 
the stalk bends to that side and usually presses the hydranth with great 
accuracy against the stimulated spot. This response is not only appropriate 
for the particular side stimulated, but also in most cases for the given level 
of the stimulated spot on that side. The significance of these responses to 
localized stimulation were often observed in the stock aquarium. This con- 
tained by accident a number of small nudibranch gastropods, which were 
found to feed upon the substance of Corymorpha. When one attacked 
a Corymorpha, it began near the base of the stalk where the hydroid rose 
from the mud, and as soon as it started to nibble the stalk on a given side 
the Corymorpha responded by applying to the point of attack the hydranth, 
the tentacles of which were extremely stimulating to the nudibranch and 
usually drove off* the intruder. The success of this fwTifi of protective 
response naturally dep)encled upon the accuracy of the localization. . . . This 
accurate form of response of a distantly located organ to a circumscribed 
stimulus has all the characteristics of a reflex. . . . ' 

Differentiation and integration. Therefore, it seems that from its earliest 



THYSIOLOGY OB^ THE ELEMENTARY NERVOUS SYSTEM 145 

origin, the nervous system is capable of assuring- a perfect tbouoh simple 
co-ordination. Sherrino-ton lias emphasized that a simple act of co-ordination 
may be as perfect as a highl}' complex one, and that, as differentiation of the 
organism takes place, the integrative activity of the nervous system keeps 
pace with this differentiation. The so-called ' crude ' forms of activity, 
which Rivers supposes the elementary nervous system to possess, are 
nowhere to be observed throughout the animal kingdom, whether we study 
jelly-fish^ insects, or man. Indeed the use of the Avord ' crude ' in this 
connexion is greatly to be deprecated. It means almost anything and 
therefore defines nothing, and it has no more place in biology than that 
quaint figment ' the protopathic animal ', whose nervous system it describes. 
The elementary nervous system may be simple and limited in its range of 
action, but crude never. 

Indeed, it seems clear that in respect of insect behaviour Eivers is con- 
scious of some discrepancy 1)etween his hj^pothesis and the observed facts, 
and he assumes that the finely discriminated and graded reactions of insects 
must have been derived from ' originally crude modes of response' under 
the influence of some unknown * graduating mechanism ' (p. 50). We cannot 
refrain from asking whether this Avay of looking at things is likely to lead 
us any nearer to a solution of these interesting problems. We can find no 
reason for these two assumptions, unless it be the requirements of an 
hypothesis Avhich is not in accord with the facts. Surely, a more promising 
line of advance would be rather to study the reactions of the elementary 
nervous 'system and to base our theories on what we observe, than to roll 
this academic hypothesis before us, Sisyphus-like, in our efforts to attain 
objective truth. 

To these principles which Sherrington has emphasized, and to these 
facts of observation, the wliole conception of protopathic forms of sensibility 
and motor reaction runs directly counter. What is of even greater impor- 
tance is that this wide diversity between the hypothesis of Head and his co- 
workers in this respect and what we actually know of the elementary 
nervous system, shows that the Jacksonian principle is a fallible instrument 
if it be employed as a universal law, which Jackson surely never intended, 
instead of as a working hypothesis to be used with discrimination. In our 
future interpretations of the symptoms of disordered nervous function, we 
shall have to take account of the probability that function is sometimes 
qualitatively altered or perverted in a fashion not to be explained along 
these simple lines. 

[The page numbers in the references to the papers of Head and his 
collaborators are from the collected Neurological Studies, and not as in the 
original papers in BrainJ] 

Head, H. Studies in neurology. 2 vols. Oxford Medical Fuhlications, 1920. 
Jackson, J. Hughlin'OS. Evolution and dissolution of the nervous system. 
Croonian Lectures, Royal College of Physicians, 1884. Brit. 31. J., 1884, i, 591, 
660, 703. 

Fabkeb, G. H. The elementary nervous system. J. B. Lippincott Co., 1919. 

BivEBS, W. H. R. * Instinct and the unconscious '. Cambridge Medical 
Series, 1920. 

Shsbbxngton', C. S. The integrative action of the nervous system. Con- 
stable, London, 1906. 

F, M. R. W. 



ABSTRACTS 



NEUROLOGY 

Dbaper, G. Acute poliomyelitis. William He ineman, London, 1917. 

The fortunate circumstance that these islands have never been ravaijed 
by severe epidemics of acute poliomyelitis has deprived observers in this 
country of the extensive opportunities, which the outbreaks of the disease 
in the United States have afforded observers there, of studying the acute 
initial stages of the disease. There appears to be nothing sufficiently 
characteristic of the acute systemic phase of this to render it recognizable 
when none but sporadic cases occur. 

Although the well-known Rockefeller monograph of 1912 and Batten's 
Lundeian lectures of 1916 (Brain, 1916,39, 115) summarized our knowledge 
up to the latter date, yet Draper's account contains a more detailed description 
of the initial symptomatology of poliomyelitis than has yet been available 
in this country, and will therefore be read with interest. 

A striking feature revealed by the study of the disease in epidemic 
form has been the large proportion of cases which never develop paralysis. 
This fact has been known for some years, and has been completely borne 
out by the American epidemics of the last five years. Draper places the 
proportion of non-paralysed cases at 50 per cent., and quotes other authorities 
who place it as high as 70 per cent, and 80 per cent. 

It follows from this that the terms ' abortive type ', ' infantile paralysis ', 
and ' poliomyelitis ' applied to this disease are not accurate, since the acute 
systemic phase of the disease is not necessarily accompanied by any involve- 
ment of the nervous system. Further, any classification based upon the 
incidence of the paralysis fails to include at least half of all recognized cases. 
Since both paralysed and non-paralysed cases show the same initial systemic 
symptom-complex, he proposes a basis of classification according to the 
characters of this phase of the disease. 

The acute or active stage of poliomyelitis consists of two phases : a first 
phase of general toxic-infection, which ends either in recovery, or is succeeded 
by a second and distinct phase of nervous involvement. It appears that 
death in this disease is never due to toxaemia, but to direct involvement of 
the nervous mechanisms of respiration. Hence, death never occurs apart 
from the development of the second phase. 

The first phase — general toxic infection. This is invariably febrile, 
and lasts from 24 to 48 hours. It may be followed by a complete remission 
and apparent recovery of the patient, but after an interval of from 3 hours 
to several days, paralysis suddenly appears and ushers in the second or 
nervous phase. On the other hand, no such remission may occur, and the 



NEUROLOGY 147 

lirst and second phases may be continuous. For these two variations, 
Draper lias employed the somewhat fanciful terms ' dromedary type ', from 
the occurrence of two ' humps ' of symptoms, and ' straggling type ' respec- 
tively. 

The symptoms accompanying the fever and constituting the clinical 
picture of the S3^stemic phase are not in themselves particularly character- 
istic of poliomyelitis. They vary in different epidemics, and in different 
foci in a single outbreak. They may be predominantly (a) gastro-intestinal, 
when diarrhoea is a prominent symptom ; (b) tonsillar, or (c) upper respira- 
tory, or ((/) pains and malaise may be the only definite symptoms noticed. 
Whatever form the symptoms take, they vary in intensity from case to case. 

In the early hours, the clinical picture resembles that of any other acute 
specific fever of childhood. The child is dry, hot, and restless. When 
gastro-intestinal symptoms are prominent, the case may be taken for simple 
summer diarrhoea. It is important to remember that these symptoms are 
not prodromata of the disease, but the manifestation of the fully developed 
ireneral infection itself. 

Draper states that observers seeing cases during an epidemic soon 
learn to appreciate trifling and subtle clinical features, by which they can 
often detect the nature of the illness. Other common symptoms are pain 
and tenderness of muscles, congestion and soreness of the fauces, and enlarge- 
ment of the lymphatic glands. While diarrhoea is common during the first 
phase, after nervous involvement has appeared, constipation is the rule. 

The phase of nervons involvement. The degree of nervous disturbance 
varies from a mild and transient meningeal reaction to widespread paralysis 
and death. It is diflScult to determine, from the character and severity of 
the symptoms during the first phase, whether paralysis is likely to ensue. 
As we have seen, a complete remission of symptoms may intervene between 
the first and second phases of the acute disease, but, nevertheless, there are 
commonly both clinical and other indications of invasion of the meninges by 
the virus before paralyses appear. Among these is the * spine sign '. This 
consists in rigidity of the spine, passing sometimes into opisthotonos. Its 
appearance, or its sudden increase, during the early hours of the illness is 
a relial)le indication that the nervous system is beginning to be invaded. 
Other manifestations are sudden and transient changes in the tendon-jerks, 
increased muscular pain, and headache. Repeated lumbar punctures during 
this period reveal the meningeal reaction which underlies these symptoms. 
During tlie early hours, and when no meningeal symptoms are present, the 
cerebrospinal fluid is found to be under pressure, but contains no abnormal 
increase of cells or of globulin, but with the appearance of meningeal 
symptoms, sometimes without these, the fluid shows an increasing cell con- 
tent. At first, and in severe cases, numerous cells resembling polymorpho- 
nuclears are seen, but later the cells are exclusively lymphocytes. The 
content may range from any number over ten per cubic millimetre to over 
a thousand. As a matter of practical interest. Draper records that if during 
the first 12 to 18 hours the cell count does not exceed 100 per c.mm. 
paralysis is not likely to follow. 

However, prognosis during the preparalytic period is difficult, since the 
nervous symptoms of the second phase may be as trivial and transient as 
those of the first. 

Clinically, cases passing on to a phase of nervous involvement may be 
classified as follows : (1) transient meningeal reaction with recovery ; (2) 



148 ABSTRACTS 

stupor followed by transient facial paralysis and recovery; (3) transient 
limb or trunk paralysis ; (4) persistent paralyses with slow and partial 
recovery ; (5) fatal cases in which the nuclei of the intercostal and phrenic 
nerves, or the respiratory^ centre in the medulla, are involved. In these the 
paralysis may be ascending or otherwise progressive. 

While motor nerve-cells in brain-stem or cord are most commonly 
involved, it is known that the upper motor neurones may also be attacked, 
with the production of true encephalitic types, with hemiplegia and con- 
vulsions. 

Treatment. In the general management of a case, Draper insists on 
isolation not only of the case itself, but, for a period of ten days, of the rest 
of the family. The occurrence of cases without ensuing paralysis makes 
efficient quarantine in an epidemic impossible, for these cases are the most 
active spreaders of the disease. During an outbreak, it should be remembered 
that both nasal secretions and faeces are infective, and possible carriers 
should be particularly careful to see that their hands are kept as clean as 
possible in these respects. During the most recent outbreak of the disease, 
the use of serum treatmetit began to come more extensively into use, but it 
has not yet been developed on a large scale. Experience, both experimental 
and clinical, shows that immune serum from a recovered case is more likely 
to protect the nervous system if administered before, or early, in the 
meningeal invasion period. Before there is any sign of meningeal in- 
vasion, intravenous or subcutaneous injection of serum from a recovered 
case is advocated, but once signs of meningeal invasion have appeared, 
intratliecal injection is preferable. During an epidemic it should be easy to 
obtain the required serum, but for cases occurring sporadically there will 
probably always be considerable difficulty in hurriedly obtaining an immune 
serum, in excluding syphilis in the donor, and in injecting it before paralysis 
has developed — if diagnosis is possible before this — or within a few hours of 
its appearance. So that, in the conditions under which poliomyelitis is seen 
in this country, serum cannot yet be considered a potent weapon in the 
hands of the physician. 

If there is any fault to be found with Draper's valuable account, it is 
that the wealth of information it contains is unsystematically arranged. 
The use of metaphorical terms, such as ' dromedary ' and ' hump ', cannot 
replace lucidity of expression, or system in arrangement. Indeed, the 
physicians of fifty years ago, who gave us such living and vivid accounts of 
the diseases they described, never found it necessary to eke out their 
vocabulary by the adoption of far-fetched zoological metaphors of this kind. 

F. M. R. W. 

Levaditi, C, et Habvier, P. i^tude experimentale de I'encephalite dite 
lethargique. [An experimental study of so-called lethargic encephalitis.] 

Bull, de I'Inst. Pasteur, 1920, 34, 911. 

From their experimental studies, Levaditi and Harvier have arrived at 
the following conclusions : 

1. That the virus of encephalitis is paithogenic for the rabbit and for 
the guinea-pig, but little or not at all for the monkey. 

2. The symptomatology and pathology of the experimental form of the 
disease closely resembles the disease as seen in man. 

3. The causative agent is a filterable, virus, which lives for 48 hours 



NEUROLOGY 149 

after death of the infected animals, persists in glycerine, but is killed by 
prolonged contact with phenol at 100° C. 

4. The rabbit can be successfully inoculated through the eye or the 
peripheral nerves, but not through the skin, the blood-stream, the peritoneum, 
the air-passages, the intestinal canal, or the salivary glands. 

5. The intact nasal mucosa resists the invasion of the organism unless 
it is inflamed or damaged. In the latter circumstances the virus probably 
travels along the olfactory nerve filaments to the brain. 

6. The virus is found in the brain and cord, but not in the blood or 
cerebrospinal fluid, or in the viscera, including the salivary glands. It is 
excreted via the nasal mucosa, which it probably reaches along the olfactory 
nerve filaments from the brain. 

7. In man, infection probably occurs through the nasopharynx. 

8. The experimental disease does not clear up spontaneously, hence 
there is no subsequent period of immunity, but a certain degree of artificial 
immunity can be conferred by vaccination with live or dead virus. 

9. The serum of convalescents and of vaccinated animals has no pro- 
tective properties, or bacterial action on the virus. 

10. Experiment and minute histology suffice to differentiate this disease 
from acute poliomyelitis. Neither of these diseases confers immunity for 
the other. 

11. Certain cases of acute febrile chorea are due to the virus of 
lethargic encephalitis. 

12. There are attenuated varieties of the virus, and these can be kept 
alive ill vitro in sj^mbiosis with cellular elements. F. M. R. W. 

EaIiBERLAH, F. Zur Aetiologie der multiplen Sklerose. [The aetiology of 
disseminated sclerosis.] Deutsche med. Wchnsckr., 1921, 47, 102. 

Kalberlah inoculated rabbits intradurally and intraperitoneally with 
blood and cerebrospinal fluid from two active cases of disseminated sclerosis. 
One of the inoculated animals developed paralyses, and from its blood 
during life a spirochaetc was obtained. A second animal inoculated from 
this also developed paralyses, but its blood revealed no spirochaete. 

The rabbit inoculated from the second case died within two weeks and 
the expressed liver juices, when stained by Giemsa's method, showed 
a spirochaete similar to that found in the first case. 

The organism is plumper than S. imllidn, and tapers to a point at each 
end. It has from three to six spirals. Neisser and Klein examined 
Kalberlah's preparations and confirmed his observations. 

Healthy rabbits and animals dying from other causes in the cages did 
not show a similar organism. 

Kalberlah names it SjJ'rochaete 'poly sclerotica, and considers it to be in 
all probability the cause of disseminated sclerosis. F. M. R. W. 

Fabkeb, H. L. Juvenile tabes : review of the literature and summary of 
seven cases. Arch. Neurol. ^- Psychiat., 1921, 5, 121. 

In a review of the literature, Parker finds that tabes is the rarest form of 
syphilis of the nervous system in children. Meningovascular syphilis and 
general paralysis are both more common. On the whole, girls seem to be 
more frequently affected than boys ; in this respect the juvenile form is in 

IV. M 



150 ABSTRACTS 

striking contrast to the adult form. The average time of onset is the period 
of puberty. The parents usually show a positive Wasserraann reaction, and 
the frequency with which the parents of juvenile tabetics are themselves 
either tabetics or paretics, seems to confirm the view that there is a neuro- 
trophic strain of syphilitic virus, as the French observers believe. 

The course of the juvenile form is remarkably protracted and is not 
infrequently complicated in the later stages by the mental changes of 
general paralysis. In this w^ay many cases probably escape recognition. 

Any of the symptoms of the disease as it is seen in adults may occur in 
the juvenile form, but on the whole the latter has a symptom grouping of 
its own. 

The onset is very insidious and the most constant early symptom 
appears to be incontinence of urine. The next most frequent is optic atrophy, 
which is found sooner or later in the great majority of cases. The character- 
istic pupil changes of tabes are also seen in juvenile cases, but ocular palsies 
and diplopia are rare. Headache is a very common symptom, and although 
lightning pains occur, they are perhaps not so constant or so severe as in 
adult cases. Girdle pains and gastric crises are also less common. The 
objective sensory changes are like those of adult tabes, but are apt to be 
less extensive. The knee-jerks are lost in the great majority of cases, but 
ataxy is a symptom of exceeding rarity. 

Parker analyses seven observed cases, which he studied in the Mayo 
Clinic to which he is attached. He notes a feature not recorded in the 
literature, namely, well-marked hj^potonus. In four, the pupils were com- 
pletely immobile, and mydriasis was the rule. In all, the course was slow. 

F. M. R. W. 



Naccabati, S. The oculo-cardiac reflex (Dagnini-Aschuer phenomenon) — 
its use in medicine and psychology. Arch. Neurol. 4' PsycMat, 1921, 5, 40. 

Described by Dagnini and Aschner independently in 1908, the phenome- 
non consists in slowing of the pulse, lowering of the blood-pressure, and 
alteration of the rhythm of respiration on compression of the eyeballs. 

Experimental observations indicate that the phenomenon is a true reflex, 
the afferent path of which is the fifth nerve, and the efferent path the vagus 
and possibly also the cervical sympathetic. 

The reflex has been widely used on the Continent as an empirical sign 
in various nervous diseases, but with conflicting results, except possibly in 
the case of tabes in which it is universally found to be absent. 

The standard commonly accepted as normal is a slowing of from five to 
twelve beats per minute in the pulse-rate. Greater slowing is regarded as 
an exaggerated response, less as a diminished response. 

To obtain the reflex, the patient is placed in the recumbent posture or 
lying back in a chair. When the pulse-rate has become constant, the eye- 
ball is compressed through the closed lids by the thumb and index finger of 
the right hand. The pulse-rate at the wrist is simultaneously taken by 
the observer. Naccarati finds great variations in the same individual at 
different times, hence the difficulty in establishing a normal standard, and 
he suggests that the difference between the pulse-rates sliould be recorded 
with and without pressure, with a plus or minus sign. This figure he calls 
the reflex index ; thus a slowing of twelve beats per minute is recorded as 
+ 12. Observations were made upon 500 subjects, healthy and abnormal. 



NEUROLOGY 151 

Of the normals, 40 per ceut. showed a positive index ot" from to 4. In the 
remainder the index was variable. A single observation is said to be of 
little value, and repeated tests are necessary to establish an average. 

Naccarati adds a list of factors, both physiological and psychological, 
which influence the character of the response in normal subjects, and it 
becomes clear from his observations that the oculo-cardiac reflex has no 
diagnostic value whatever. 

It is unfortunate that he docs not say this at once, and thus put in its 
proper perspective a phenomenon which has cumbered neurological litera- 
ture unduly. Instead, he goes on to say that ' it may constitute an index of 
the psychic condition and of the sympathetic-endocrine make-up of the 
subject, but only when other factors have been standardized. In normal 
persons the reflex index may serve as an indication of reflex control, moods, 
courage, emotions, &c., traits whose scales are wanting.' All of which means 
precisely nothing. 

It seems characteristic of the craving for new and bizarre ' signs ', for 
ever fresh empirical diagnostic tricks, that it gives rise to an extensive and 
unscientific literature, which rises mushroom-like as each new phenomenon 
is recorded. The quotation given above from Naccarati's paper is typical of 
the scientific value and general style of the papers in which these new 
signs and wonders are proclaimed. 

The atrocious phrase ' sympathetic-endocrine make-up ' is an epitome 
of this class of neurological literature, to which, fortunately, this country is 
not addicted. 

The therapeutic value attributed to the phenomenon in controlling 
paroxysmal tachycardia is not dealt with. F. M. R. W. 

DE EiiEiJiT, A., u. Magnus, R. Labyrinthreflexe auf Progress] vbewegungen. 
[Labyrinthine reflexes to progressive movements.] Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., 
1921, 186, 39. 

Various progressive reflex movements which are connected with 
particular spatial movements fail if the labyrinths are destroyed, but 
persist if the aft'erent nerves to the muscles concerned are divided, or when 
either the cerebrum or cerebellum is removed. It is concluded that the centres 
for such movements dependent on the integrity of the labyrinth are some- 
where in the brain-stem. Destruction of the otoliths l)y centrifugation 
leaves these reflexes intact ; they arise therefore from the semicircular 
canals and not from the utricle and saccule. The function of the semi- 
circular canals is always concerned with response to acceleration, either 
angular or rectilinear, as contrasted with the static functions of the maculae 
and otoliths. C. L. E. 

DE Kleijit, a, Tonische Labyrinth- und Hulsretlexe auf die Augen. [Tonic 
labyrinthine aaxd neck reflexes of the eyes.] Arch. f. d. ges. PhgsloL, 1921, 
186, 82. 

Tonus of the eye muscles depends on the position of the head ; (a) in 
space (labj^rinth reflexes), and (h) with relation to the neck. The latter 
reflexes persist after bilateral destruction of the labyrinth. As a result of 
these two types of reflex, the eyes tend to maintain a constant position in 
space, i.e. an unaltered visual field. C. L. E. 

M 2 



152 ABSTRACTS 

DE EI.EZJN, A., u. Magnus, R. tJber die Funktion der Otolithen. I. Oto- 
lithenstand bei den tonischen Labyrinthreflexen. II. Isoliei-te Otolithenausschalt- 
ung bei Meerschweinchen. [On the functions of the otoliths. I. The place 
of the otoliths in tonic labyrinth reflexes. II. Separate removal of the 
otoliths in the guinea-pig.] Arch. f. d. ges. Pliysioh, 1921, 186, 6 and 61. 

(1) The experiments were carried out in rabbits. The general con- 
clusion, which is not at variance with clinical findings, is that the maculae 
are sense organs which respond principally to traction. When the otolith 
is horizontal, and dependent from the macula so as to pull upon it, the 
impulses set up are at a maximum ; when the position is reversed, so that 
the otolith lies directly over the macula and presses on it, the afferent 
impulses from the latter are at a minimum — whether they disappear 
altogether is undecided. The sensory apparatus and its afferent path, 
together with the tonic reflexes of position with which it is concerned, appear 
to be quite incapable of fatigue. Tonic labyrinthine reflexes of the ex- 
tremities, neck, and trunk are originated in the utricle, and asymmetric 
postural reflexes in the saccule. The site for initiation of symmetrical 
postural reflexes may be either or both. Vertical compensator}^ eye-move- 
ments originate from the main saccule otolith, and rotatory ones from 
the independently innervated angle of the saccule. The experiments, 
when taken in conjunction witli the authors' previous work on the labyrin- 
thine reflexes, give certain indications as to the central connexions of the 
various branches of the vestibular nerve. Thus the path for tonic labyrin- 
thine reflexes is connected behind the entrance of the eighth nerve with 
the centres for the muscles concerned, while that for labyrinthine postural 
reflexes passes to the posture-centres in the mid-brain. The path for the 
impulses governing vertical compensatory eye-movements is to the nucleus 
of the superior rectus of the same and inferior rectus of the opposite side , 
while that for the wheel-movements is to the nuclei of the inferior oblique 
and trochlearis. There are many good examples of reciprocal innervation 
in these labyrinthine reflexes. No definite participation of the semicircular 
canals in these reflexes could be demonstrated. 

(2) When guinea-pigs are rotated in a centrifugal apparatus at the rate 
of 1,000 revolutions per minute for 1 to 2 minutes, the static postural tonus 
functions of the labyrinth are frequently lost, while the labyrinthine responses 
to movement are retained. When this happens it is found that the otolith 
membranes have been detached, while the cristae of the semicircular canals 
have remained intact. This experiment, in which definite clinical features 
are recalled, thus supports the belief that the utricle and Saccule are con- 
cerned with static equilibrium, while the semicircular canals are the 
corresponding organs for dynamic co-ordination. C. L. E. 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 

BI.AKE, F. G., and CeczIi, IIussei.i. L. Studies on experimental pneumonia. 
IZ. Production in monkeys of an acute respiratory disease resembling 
influenza by inoculation with Bacillus influenzae. J. Exper. 31., 1920, 
32, 691. 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 153 

CeciIi, RusSEiJi L., and Bi.ake, F. G. Studies on experimental pneumonia. 
X. Pathology of experimental influenza and of Bacillus influenzae pneu- 
monia in monkeys. -/. Exyer. M., 1920, 32, 719. 

The important researches on pneumonia by the authors have ah-eady 
been abstracted in Medlml Science (1920, 3, 63, 358 ; 552). The present, 
their ninth paper, deals with the production in normal monkeys of an acute 
respiratory disease following the inoculation of B. influenzae on the mucous 
membranes of the upper respiratory passages and of broncho-pneumonia 
from intratracheal inoculation. One strain of B. influenzae was used 
throughout these experiments and was originally raised in pure culture 
from the suppurative pleural exudate of a child, the subject of influenzal 
pneumonia. A preliminary intratracheal test inoculation of a monkey 
having shown that the microbe was non-pathogenic, an attempt was made 
to exalt the virulence by passage. This was attained through a series of 
eleven white mice followed by a series of thirteen monkeys. Large doses 
were used to begin with, but at the completion of the series a dose of 
0-1 c.c. of a 16-hour blood broth culture from the peritoneal exudate of the 
passage monkey No. 13 killed a white mouse within 48 hours. In the 
subsequent experiments two species of monkey were used, viz. Cehus 
capucinus and Macacus syrichtus. Two methods of inoculation were 
employed with different purposes in view. In order to find out whether 
B. influenzae would initiate an infection of the upper respiratory passages, 
material was introduced into the nose either by means of a pipette or by 
a swab dipped in the culture medium. In a second series the culture was 
injected directly into the trachea. The clinical history and post-mortem 
appearances of twelve monkeys treated by the first method of inoculation 
are carefully given. A respiratory disease was produced of 3 to 5 days' 
duration characterized by sudden onset with profound prostration, the 
development of rhinitis and tracheo-bronchitis with cough, sneezing, and 
the presence of a scanty mucoid or muco-purulent nasal discharge. In five 
instances suppuration of one or both antra occurred, and in three there was 
a broncho-pneumonia. Sometimes there was a definite leucopenia. Bacillus 
influenzae was recovered at autopsy from the lesions of the disease and 
was either in a pure state or associated with micro-organisms known to be 
normal denizens of the upper respiratory tract of monkeys. 

Of ten monkeys injected with cultures of B. influenzae into the trachea 
seven developed broncho-pneumonia, two had tracheo-bronchitis alone, and 
one was unaffected. The general symptoms and duration of the disease 
were similar to those observed in the first group of experiments. The 
authors consider that the experimental disease is, in its essence, identical 
with human influenza. 

In their tenth paper the authors carry the matter farther by dealing 
in detail with the pathological findings in the respiratory infections caused 
by inoculation of B. influenzae. This part of the research is illustrated by 
eight plates of excellent photographs exhibiting the lesions. They empha- 
size the fact that influenza in man is almost never a fatal disease unless 
complicated by pneumonia, and on this account little opportunity has been 
oflered of studying the changes of the pure influenzal disease, wdiich 
appears to be a local infection of the upper respiratory tract with absorp- 
tion of toxic products which cause the general symptoms. In experimental 
influenza in monkeys the pathological changes do not essentially differ from 
those that are met with in man. In both there is an acute catarrh 



154 ABSTRACTS 

extending from the nasal cavities into the trachea and bronchi. A broncho- 
pneumonia is a frequent complication. The observations of morbid anato- 
mists have shown that influenzal pneumonia possesses certain characteristic 
features, of which the most important are intense engorgement, haemo- 
rrhage, and oedema, with purulent bronchiolitis and scattered foci of peri- 
bronchial consolidation. Cecil and Blake describe these same changes in 
monkeys infected with cultures of B. influenzae, although in the latter it 
is usually a milder affection than in man. Attention is drawn to the fact 
that the pathogenesis of pure influenzal pneumonia is difterent from that 
induced by pneumococcus or streptococcus. In influenza, both natural and 
artificially produced, the infection seems to travel into the bronchioles, 
and subsequently involves the alveoli by contiguity, whereas in pneumo- 
coccus and streptococcus pneumonia the microbes quickly penetrate the 
bronchial mucous membrane and spread rapidly through the perivascular 
lymph spaces to the alveolar walls in all parts of the lobe. 

All observations go to show that influenza bacilli possess but trivial 
invasive properties when compared to organisms like pneumococcus or 
streptococcus. The authors also note that in experimental infections by 
B. influenzae in monkeys there are changes in the thymus gland, including 
hyperplasia of the follicles, distension of the lymphatic channels, and infil- 
tration of the parenchyma with leucocytes. These changes, however, are 
apparently part of a general hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues in the cervical 
and thoracic regions. The authors are to be congratulated on having greatly 
advanced knowledge on experimental pneumonia in their long series of 
researches, admirably conceived and cari'ied out with great technical skill. 

W. B. 

Maitlakd, H. B., CowAxr, Mary L., and DetwiszIiEB, H. K. Spontaneous 
and artificial pulmonary lesions in guinea-pigs, rabbits, and mice. Brit. 
J. Exper. Path., 1921, 2, 8. 

A pulmonary lesion in guinea-pigs has been described which was 
characterized by haemorrhage into the alveoli and sometimes into the 
bronchioles. There was no leucocytic reaction in the lung-tissue, and no 
haemosiderin was present in the cells of the lung. This lesion is an agonal 
phenomenon. The same lesion occurred in rabbits and in mice, and is con- 
sidered in them to be also an agonal phenomenon. Killing by rapid 
chloroform anaesthesia produced fewer agonal lesions than a blow on the 
back of the head. A method of killing has been described by which 
haemorrhage was not produced. A second type of lesion has been noted 
which is essentially a slow proliferation of endothelial cells. It is a 
spontaneous animal disease whose origin is undetermined. The haemo- 
rrhagic and proliferative lesion frequently occurred in the same area, but 
neither was dependent on the other. B. bronchisepticus was isolated from 
the lungs of sixteen guinea-pigs, but it was not possible to associate its 
presence with the proliferative lesion. P. F. 

Stillman, E. G., and Boubk, Janet M. Biological study of the haemo- 
philic bacilli. J. Exper. M., 1920, 32, 665. 

In 1919 Pritchett and Stillmann called attention to the existence of 
haemophilic bacilli almost indistinguishable from B. influenzae except by 
the fact that they can haemolyse blood. The present research is a further 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 155 

study of haemolytic bacilli, and includes a comparison of B. influenzae with 
haemolytic Ixicilli (now called Bacillus X) and with B. 2)ertussi><, B. hronchi- 
aepticus, and the hacillus of rabbit septicaemia. The haemophilic bacilli 
can be subdivided into two groups according to the ability of certain 
strains to produce haemolysin and consequent laking of blood. Both groups 
may be further subdivided according to the ability of some strains to pro- 
duce indol, to form gas, and to ferment certain carbohydrates. The bacilli, 
of both groups, when grown in meat infusion bouillon containing 1 per cent, 
of dextrose, reach a final hydrogen-ion concentration of about Ph 6-4. 
Almost all the strains can reduce nitrates to nitrites. The haemolysin of 
the lytic group is stated to be very stable, retaining its activity after being 
kept on ice up to several months. It can be demonstrated in a young broth 
culture only two hours old. It is non-filterable and is destroyed in half an 
hour at 56° C. The haemolytic, haemophilic bacilli are not pathogenic for 
guinea-pigs, rabbits, or mice. W. B. 

Bex.1., H. H. Relation of different strains of influenza bacilli as shown 
by cross-agglntination and absorption tests. J. Infect. Bis., 1920, 27, 464. 

In this investigation twenty-seven rabbits were immunized with as 
many strains of B. influenzae, live of which were obtained from normal 
persons, while twenty-two were recovered from cases of influenza. Each 
serum was then titrated with 36 cultures in dilutions varying from 1 : 25 
to 1 : 6400. Absorption tests were also carried out. The author's results 
are presented in a series of tables from which it emerges that the influenza 
bacillus represents a heterologous group of micro-organisms as shown by 
agglutination and absorption tests. It was impossible by such methods to 
difterentiate between influenza bacilli vegetating in the throats of normal 
persons and those isolated during the actual disease itself. A person may 
actually carry in the throat three different strains at one and the same 
time. W. B. 

CooxE, J. V. Complement fixation in influenza with B. influenzae antigens. 
J. Infect Bis., 1920, 27, 476. 

This paper deals with complement-fixation tests in children and adults 
suffering from influenzal pneumonia. Although complement-fixing anti- 
bodies were obtained in the serum of a considerable number of older 
children and adults convalescent from the disease, they were found with 
much less constancy in children from 1 to 5 years of age. Further, no 
definite antigenic relationsliip could be detected between the sera tested 
and the 16 strains of influenza bacillus. W. B. 

LoEWEKHARDT, P. E. R. Zur Aetiologie der Influenza. [On the aetiology 
of influenza.] CentralU. f BaMeriol. (&c.), Abt. I, 1920, Orig. 85, 81. 

The author, who is assistant in the Hygienic Institute of the University 
of Breslau, under R. Pfeiffer, gives a lucid account of the epidemic of influ- 
enza as it* affected Breslau in 1918, 1919, and 1920, and shows that the 
incidence of B. influenzae Pfeiffer showed a striking correspondence with 
the individual epidemic outbursts. In 187 cases of influenza, influenza 
bacilli were found in 65*62 per cent., viz. 57-14 per cent, in cadavera, 76*25 
per cent, in sputum, and in 52 per cent, when the material was taken from 



156 ABSTRACTS 

the throat. When the material from the throat was examined at the actual 
bed-side, influenza bacilli were found in 91-11 per cent, of the cases. Material 
examined 4-6 hours later yielded a positive result in only 30-4 per cent, of 
the cases, whereas examined 24 hours later the results were completely 
negative as far as concerns B. influenzae. Of 397 non-influenzal cases only 
35 (8-81 per cent.) showed influenza bacilli in the sputum, while of 101 
throat examinations only 5 (4-95 per cent.) were positive, the percentage 
for the whole series of 498 non-influenzal cases being only 8*03. The 
author lays great weight on the bacteriological examination being carried 
out immediately, and on the use of pigeon's blood agar as the culture 
medium — Pfeiffer's original recommendation. W. B. 

FiTTKAM, J. J., and Gay, D. M. Behaviour of the influenza bacillus in 
mixed culture on haemoglobin-free media. J. Med. Research, 1920, 42, 1. 

The authors attempted to grow B. influenzae, on a variety'' of blood-free 
media, in association with B. xerosis, B. diphtheriae (4 strains), Diplococcus 
'pneumoniae (3 strains), B. coli, and two strains of a saprophytic staphylo- 
coccus. Sixteen cultures of B. influenzae were tested. The media employed 
were nutrient agar, with or without glucose, Martin's agar, glycerine egg 
medium. In the majority of instances the influenza bacillus failed to grow, 
and in fact the influenza inoculum died out. W. B. 

FzLDES, F. The nature of the effect of blood-pigment upon the growth of 
B. influenzae. Brit. J. Exper. Path., 1921, 2, 16. 

(1) Growth of B. influenzae has not been observed to occur in the 
total absence of blood-pigment. (2) The quantity of blood-pigment neces- 
sary is small, but larger than has been stated. (3) Probably oxy haemoglobin 
and carboxyhaemoglobin are incapable of allowing growth, the feeble multi- 
plication in these pigments being due to a spontaneous change to methae- 
moglobin. Haematoporphyrin also fails to permit growth, but haematin 
allows a copious growth. (4) B. influenzae on suitable media grows fairlj' 
well under anaerobic conditions, but rapidly dies out. The necessary 
oxygen is obtained from an oxygen store in the medium. This store is not 
dissolved active oxygen, but is inactive in a state of loose combination with 
a constituent of the medium. Under aerobic conditions the combined 
oxygen is used up by the bacillus and immediately re-formed from the 
atmosphere. (5) The combined oxygen in the medium is activated for the 
bacillus by the catalytic action of iron in the pigment. (6) The feebleness 
of the growth on unchanged blood compared with that upon changed blood 
is due to a deviation of the oxygen, activated by the iron of the pigment, 
from the bacillus through the oxygen affinity of the unchanged pigment. 

P. F. 

OXiSEH, O. Ueber die Bedeutung des Blutes fiir das Wachstum des Pfeilfer- 
schen Influenzabazillus. [The action of blood in the growth of the influenza 
bacUlus.] Centralhl. f. BaUeriol. (&c.), Abt. I, 1920, 85, 12. 

B. influenzae was found to grow equally well upon media containing 
pure crystallized horse haemoglobin and methaemoglobin as upon whole 
horse blood, in the familiar minute colonies. With pure haematin, however, 
growth was never obtained except in associated gi'owth with other bacteria; 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 157 

on the other hand, haeinatoporphyrin did not allow growth under any 
circumstances. Thus iron-containing pigment was necessary for growth. 

From these experiments the author thought that independent growth 
of B. injluenzae might depend upon the oxygen-carrying capacity of haemo- 
globin. He sought to show that the oxygen of haemoglobin might be 
utilized by the bacillus in its growth, by demonstrating a reduction of the 
pigment in the deeper layers of a ' deep ' agar culture, such reduction being 
ob'served by him only in inoculated tubes. Such a function of haemo- 
globin was, however, obviously improbable in view of the equal growth 
with methaemoglobin, a pigment without oxygen-carrying capacity. 

Next, the- author observed that growth of the bacillus ran parallel to 
the catalytic action of the necessary pigment. Thus haemoglobin, met- 
haemoglobin, and haematin were catalytic, but^not haematoporphyrin. He 
concludes that the function of the pigment is probably to activate oxygen 
for the ffrowth of the bacillus. P. F. 

Smith, J. D., and Wilson, M. A. Comparison of smear, culture and com- 
plement fixation in chronic gonorrhoea in women. J. Immunol, 1920, 
5, 499. 

This is a short paper based on 50 cases diagnosed clinically as mild 
chronic conorrhoea, and 58 controls that were considered clinically not to be 
gonorrhoeal. 

The antigen used was made from gonococci grown on disodium 
phosphate agar. These were treated with alcohol to remove lipoids, dried, 
weighed, powdered, and suspended in saline, 1 grm. to 200 c.c. This 
suspension was heated in a water-bath at 80° C. for 1 hour and then 
standardized. This antigen is said to be stable. 

The culture tests were carried out on glycerine serum agar smeared 
with blood. 

Of the 50 cases diagnosed clinically as mild chronic gonorrhoea only 7 
were positive in film or culture ; while 23 gave a positive complement 
fixation, 18 gave a weak positive and 9 were doubtful or negative. 

The 58 controls were not examined by films or cultures and they all 
gave negative complement fixations. 

It is concluded that a non-gonorrhoeic serum does not give a positive 
complement-fixation test, but a negative fixation test cannot exclude a chronic 
gonorrhoeic infection. The investigation, in part, was carried out in the 
Bureau of Laboratories of the Department of Health, City of New York. 

G. T. W. 

Thomsen, O., and Voi.i.mon'D, E. Forsog paa Typeindeling af Gonococcer. 
[An attempt to classify gonococci according to type.] Hosp.-Tid., 1920, 
63, 681-96. 

Thomsen and VoUmond have attempted by agglutination and comple- 
ment-fixation tests to distinguish various types of gonococcus. Their 
material consisted of 26 cultures of gonococci obtained from as many cases 
of recent urethritis in men. They soon found that complement fixation 
gave the most reliable and unequivocal results, and they noted that various 
cultures of gonococci were more or less easily agglutinated by the same 
quantity of agglutinin. By combining absorption with complement fixation, 
instead of relying on the combination of absorption plus agglutination, they 



158 ABSTRACTS 

were able to obtain the required information in a few hours, whereas 24 
hours were necessary for the latter test, owing to the slowness of agglutina- 
tion. With agglutination or complement fixation alone, they were unable 
to distinguish marked differences in the reaction of the various cultures to 
specific antisera. But when they combined these tests with that of 
absorption, they were able to classify the 26 cultures in 3 groups (types a, 
h, and c, including 14, 5, and 5 cultures each). The remaining 2 cultures 
could not be fitted into any of the above classes. Comparing their investi- 
gations with those of K. W. Jotten (vide Medical Science, 1921, 3, 359), 
Thomsen and Vollmond note that this worker appears to have relied on 
agglutination and complement fixation only, and not to have employed the 
supplementary method of absorption. With regard to a possible relationship 
between the serological and clinical characteristics of their 3 types of 
gonococcus, Thomsen and Vollmond state that of the 14 cases belonging to 
type a, 5 were complicated by epididymitis and prostatitis, and the disease 
was protracted. Three cases were clinically slight, and 6 could not be 
traced. Of the 5 cases belonging to type b, 3 were very slight and 2 were 
very protracted. All of the 5 cases belonging to type c were slight and 
uncomplicated. C. L. 

FoNTAiTA, A., e Sanoxoboi, G. Sugli spironemi dei condilomi acuminati. 
[On spironemata of pointed condylomata.] Pathologica, 1920, 12, 293. 

Investigations were made in 20 different cases chosen among non- 
syphilitic subjects. The authors have been able to identify three forms of 
Spii'onema. The first one is termed by them Type A, and corresponds 
morphologically to the >S/j. refringens of Schaudinn and Hof mann ; the second 
is spoken of as Type B, and is similar to that found by Sangiorgi in 1916 
in the human intestine; the third form is characterized by its similarity 
with the genus Trepone'nia, and is very likely identical with the IVep. 
calligyrum described by Noguehi. C. d. F. 

Spiethoff, B. Beitrag zu den Fehlerquellen bei der Salvarsanbehandlung. 
[The sources of error in treatment by salvarsan.] Berl. JcUu. Wchnschr., 
1921, 58, 8. 

In recent years there have been many records of untoward effects follow- 
ing the use of salvarsan. These include particular complications on the part 
of the liver, or of the nervous system. The present author was one of the 
early observers (1910) of salvarsan fatalities. In the communication now 
before us he reports the frequent occurrence of hepatic and nervous injuries, 
These made their appearance in an insidious manner from September 1913 
onwards, and in the middle of 1914 actually 50 per cent. (!) showed jaundice. 
In this period he was using salvarsan dissolved in the patients' own serum, 
as experiments seemed to indicate that this combination was less toxic than 
watery solutions of the drug. At first jaundice was seen in those who had 
received a considerable number of salvarsan injections, later it occurred 
after a few. At one time there were no hepatic complications with watery 
solutions of salvarsan, but at the height of the 'epidemic' two cases of 
jaundice occurred even with these. Investigation showed that the same 
syringes were used both for the serum and for the watery salvarsan 
solutions. After use the syringes had been well washed in water, dried in 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 159 

air, and were kept in boxes with formalin tabloids. The replacement of 
these syringes by new ones is alleged to have been the cause of the cessation 
of the complications. 

Neurotropic complications, such as symptoms of mening-itis, lesions of 
a single cranial nerve, or severe psychoses, also made their appearance in 
groups of cases, and during courses of treatment which previously had been 
administered without detriment. These courses were in three stages: (1) 
a total of 6 grm. of salvarsan was injected (period of time not stated) ; (2) a 
10 weeks' course of mercury in some form : (3) a last course in which 
a total of 3 to 4-5 grm. of salvarsan was given. Reference is made to 19 
cases in which there were ' cerebral ' complications. In 7, viz. 4 females and 
3 males, the sj^mptoms appeared in the second half of the first salvarsan 
series of doses. In 7 females the symptoms developed after the first dose 
of mercury, i. e. at the beginning of the second stage of treatment, while in 4 
cases (3 females and 1 male) they appeared in the middle of the mercurial 
stage. Of the 19 cases, 15 were females and 4 were males. It is suggested 
by the author that in some mysterious way the complications were due to 
syringe * errors ', the instruments, in addition to salvarsan injections, having 
been used for injections of a calcium preparation called * Afenil ', the 
nature of which is not stated. The use of new syringes again caused 
a cessation of the cerebral complications. The cases of icterus were all 
mild and there was no instance of acute hepatic atrophy. The author 
discusses the possibility of the syphilis infection itself being partially 
accountable for the complications, but is unable to make any definite 
assertions. W. B. 



NiNNi, C. Sulla forma delle spore dei batteri del suolo. [On the size of 
spores of the bacteria of the soil. J PatMogica, 1920, 12, 316. 

If the earth of gardens or other soils be bacteriologically investigated, 
minute bodies are seen which have all the characteristics of ordinary spores 
with the exception of the size, which is only about half that of the ordinary 
ones. These small spores can be obtained artificially if sporogenous bacilli ; 
for instance, B. anthracoides are cultivated by Pane's method on agar 
prepared with sterile water, and cultures kept for 24 hours at from 7° C. to 
11° C. The author thinks that the small size of such spores is due to the 
relatively low temperature of the soil, because the same bacilli produce 
spores of the ordinary size if the cultures are left for another 24 hours at 
31° C. This phenomenon cannot be in relation to nutritive conditions, 
because Pane has shown that B. anthracis produces spores of normal size if 
cultivated at 33° C. in distilled water. C. d. F. 

Capone, G. Sulle variazioni della flora anaerobica in alcuni stati morbosi 
deir intestino. [Studies on the anaerobic flora in some morbid states of 
the intestine.] Sperimentale. Arch, di hiol., 1920, 74, 54. 

Systematic investigations on the morphological and cultural properties 
of the anaerobic flora of human intestine were carried out by the author, 
who for this purpose has examined samples of faeces of 12 healthy subjects, 
of 15 cases of bacteriologically ascertained forms of bacillary dysentery, of 
4 cases of typhoid fever, and of 15 cases of enterocolitis. The cause of the 
latter could not be ascertained, as all investigations for protozoa, dysenteric 



160 ABSTRACTS 

or paratyphoid bacilli, and the like were attended with negative results, the 
aerobic flora of these cases appearing to consist chiefly of coliform bacilli. 

The normal anaerobic flora appeared to be essentially formed by 
B. perfringens, which was found in almost all samples investigated. More- 
over the following forms were identified : In two cases B. sporogenes of 
Metchnikofl" (Strains P. 8-P. 11). In one case a bacillus similar to the 
variety B of B. sporogenes (P. 10). In another case B. 'putrijicus of 
Bienstock (P. 16). In two cases, forms intermediate between B. 'putrijicus 
and B. para-putrijicus (P. 18-P. 19). Each of the following were seen 
once: B. sporogenes non-liquefaciens of Jungano (Bm. 25) ; a form similar 
to V. septique of Pasteur (Bm. 4) ; a strain similar to the bacillus of pseudo- 
oedema of Liborius-Sanfelice (Bm. 10) ; an unclassified anaerobic form 
(P. 22) ; and finally the Clostridium, foetidum of Liborius-Sanfelice (P. 3). 

The following strains were isolated from cases of dysentery ; B. per- 
fringens, frequently ; a similar strain, once ; strains similar to B. Ill of 
Rodella and Species IX of v. Hibler, four times ; strains identical with 
B. sporogenes non-liquefaciens of Jungano, twice ; a strain similar to B. IV 
of Rodella, once ; strains similar to V. septique of Pasteur, thrice ; a non- 
identified putrefying form, once. 

The investigations made on samples from cases of enterocolitis were 
attended with similar results. The anaerobic flora of cases of typhoid fever 
was found to be chiefly formed by B. perfringens and putrefjdng forms ; 
Clostridium foetidum, B. sporogenes, and a non-identified putrefying form 
were each found once. 

From these results the author draws the conclusion that B. perfringens 
is constantly present in the human intestine and that the various circum- 
stances which contribute to modify the flora of human intestine appear to 
have no influence on B. perfringens, but a considerable one on putrefying 
strains, which may in certain morbid states remarkably diminish in number 
and even completely disappear. C. d. F. 

NzNNX, C. Un nuovo bacillo anaerobico del suolo [B. spermoide). [A new 
anaerobic bacillus of the soil {B. spermoides). Fathologica, 1920, 12, '686. 

The new bacillus was isolated by the author from the soil of a high 
mountain (Mount Scagliolo), and is termed by him B. spermoides because of 
its morphological resemblance to the human spermatozoon. B. spermoides 
is pathogenic for the guinea-pig, in which it produces a form of chronic 
cachexia, but no tetanic symptoms of any kind. It is similar to B. tetani, 
but it can easily be distinguished from the latter because it is longer and 
larger, and because of various cultural characteristics, among which there is 
an acid formation, in any anaerobic medium, without the repugnant smell 
of B. tetani.'^ C. d. F. 

HEX.I.EB, HiiiSA Hempi.. Aetiology of acute gangrenous infections of 
animals: a discussion of blackleg, braxy, malignant edema, and whale 
septicemia. J. Infect. Dis., 1920, 27, 385. 

This is an important contribution to the difficult and involved question 
of acute gangrenous anaerobic infections in animals, especially cattle, horses, 

* It may be pointed out that according to the Report of the Committee upon Anaerobic 
Bacteria (Medical Research Committee, Special Report Series, No. 39, 1919), p. 28, pure cul- 
tures of £. tetani have a characteristic but not a putrefactive odour. 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 161 

sheep, pij,'s. The authoress has manifestly made a most searching inquiry 
into the enormous and unsatisfying literature which has accumulated round 
these diseases, and she does not hesitate to pronounce most trenchant 
criticism where it is recjuired. This renders her work all the more valuable 
in comparison with the numerous papers which are constantly pouring out 
with extensive bibliographies in which every observation by whomsoever 
made is treated with equal respect. Throughout her bibliographic studies 
are constant observations of her own, which clearly show that she speaks 
with authority. The confusion into which the bacteriology of anaerobes 
had fallen before the war was clearly stated by Weinberg and Seguiu and 
was tlie principal cause which led the Medical Research Committee to 
institute a special committee of inquiry on anaerobic bacteria. This body 
aided materially in clearing up the confusion as far as concerns human 
pathogenic anaerobes. The present authoress has attempted something of 
the same kind w'ith the even more uncertain and inadequately studied 
pathogenic anaerobes of animals. The paper, however, must be read in the 
original by workers on anaerobes, as it cannot be adequately dealt with here. 

W. B. 



House, S. John. Haemorrhagic meningo-encephalitis in anthrax : a report 
of three cases. -/. Infect. Dis., 1920, 27, 513. 

The author gives a good description of three cases of cerebral com- 
plications occurring in anthrax. In two, the disease was not even suspected 
during life. The lesions were essentially extravascular, meningo-encephalitic, 
and the acute haemorrhagic non-purulent nature of the inflammatory 
exudate was like anthrax elsewhere. Large numbers of anthrax bacilli 
were found in the lesions. Two of the cases occurred in ' curled hair ' 
workers who ultimately contracted intestinal anthrax, whereas the third — 
a boy of 15 — seemed to have had no direct connexion with anthrax-infected 
products. A clinical diagnosis was not made, but mastoid abscess with 
lateral sinus thrombosis was suspected. The cerebral infection was believed 
to have been by the haematogenous rather than by the lymphogenous route. 

W. B. 



FuKUDA, A. Experimentelle Untersuchungen fiber Milzbrandinfektion bei 
Ratten. [Experiments on anthrax infection in rats.] Centralbl.f. BaJcteriol. 
(&c.), Abt. I, 1920, Orig. 84, 516. 

In the last decade of last century, a great deal of labour was expended 
on the study of the action of anthrax bacilli on the highly immune rat, and 
many experiments were undertaken to investigate the methods by which 
the natural immunity could be broken down, and the animal rendered 
susceptible to anthrax. The present author, working in the Hygenic 
Institute in Zurich, has again made a study of this question, and especially 
the influence of calcium chloride, which was shown by Bullock and Cramer 
to increase the liability to tetanus and other anaerobic bacteria. Instead of 
rendering rats more susceptible to anthrax, his experiments go to show that, 
in quantities of 0-001 to 0-03 grm., calcium chloride injected simultane- 
ously with anthrax culture retards, as a rule, the course of the disease. He 
also finds that anthrax bacilli injected into rats already infected with 
nagana tiypanosomes, has a delayed effect. There was also an apparent 



162 ABSTRACTS 

antagonism between B. anthracis and i?. lyyocyaneus — an old view revived. 
Starting with a culture which was only slightly pathogenic for the rat, the 
author, by means of 12 rat passages, raised the virulence so that ^ of a loop- 
ful of a culture on agar killed rats constantly in 27 to 54 hours. It was 
with such virulent cultures that the above experiments were carried out. 

W. B. 

IiUBXNSXi, H. (1). Bakteriologisches zur Frage der Wunddiphtherie. [Bacterio- 
logy of wound diphtheria.] Bed. Mm, WchnscJir., 1920, 57, 1154. 

LUBXNSKZ, H. (2). Bakteriologische Untersuchungen fiber Wunddiphtherie. 
[Bacteriological researches on diphtheria of wounds.] Centralbl. f. Bakteriol. 
(&c.), Abt. I, 1920, Orig. 85, 96. 

These two papers deal with one and the same material, the first being an 
abrido-ement of the second. The bacteriolog-ical examination of wounds 
revealed in a number of instances the existence of bacilli, presenting close 
resemblance with B. diphtheriae. A closer investigation showed, however, 
that only a certain number were genuine diphtheria bacilli, a considerable 
proportion differing in the fact that they were able to ferment saccharose 
and that they were non-pathogenic The author calls this organism para- 
diphtheria bacillus. Of 105 samples from wounds, 18 showed true 
diphtheria bacilli, and 46 were of the saccharose-fermenting paradiphtheria 
type. Of the true diphtheria bacilli found, 10 were found to be non-toxic. 
The author regards paradiphtheria as harmless for animals and quotes an 
experiment in which the same is probably true for man. A quantity of 
0*05 c.c. of a paradiphtheria strain grown 10 days in bouillon was injected 
intracutaneously into a human being without result. In future examina- 
tions of diphtheria in wounds he emphasizes the necessity of testing not only 
the toxicity but also the fermentation results on a number of carbohydrates, 
particularly saccharose. W. B. 

Gronberg, J. Studier ofver blodfermenten vid graviditet, karcinom och 
lungetuberkulos. [Studies of the blood ferment in pregnancy, carcinoma 
and pulmonary tuberculosis.] Finslca LdJc-sallsk. HanclL, 1920, 62, 599-631. 

Gronberg, whose investigations were made under Abderhalden in Halle, 
and Granberg in Viborg-. classifies the literature of Abderhalden's test 
according as the authors obtamed good or bad results. The bibliography 
for the first class occupies a page and a half, for the second a little more 
than half a page. Much of his paper deals with technique, and he reiterates 
the warning that, without meticulous care in every detail, the test is of 
little value. He has tested collodium dialysers and found them unsatis- 
factory. To ensure objectivity of judgement, he kept himself in ignorance 
of the clinical diagnosis of the cases from which sera were obtained. In all 
the 28 cases of normal pregnancy between the 1st and 9th month, a positive 
reaction was obtained with placental tissue, whereas all the 19 control sera 
from healthy, non-pregnant individuals gave a negative reaction to pla- 
cental tissue. All the sera of 23 patients suft'ering from carcinoma in 
various stages gave a positive reaction to a substrate obtained from car- 
cinomatous liver with metastases. All the control sera of healthy persons 
gave a negative reaction to the same substrate. All the sera of 34 cases of 
pulmonary tuberculosis gave a positive reaction to a substrate obtained 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 163 

from tuberculous lunj,'s. Of these 34 cases, 8 were in Turban's first stage, 
and 11 were in a still earlier stage, being merelj^ suspects. Gronberg 
evidently considers that Abderhalden's test requires so great technical skill 
that its practical utility is much limited. C. L. 

Becker, G. Om komplementbinding hos botriocefalusbjirare. [Complement 
fixation by the hosts of Bothriocephalus] F'mska LaJc-siillsIc. 1 fundi, 1920, 
62, 632-47. 

Becker's answer to the question : Does Bothriocephdlas give rise to 
antibodies in the serum of its host ? is reserved. Probably it does so, but 
the reaction is almost certainly not specific. He examined 58 persons 
harbouring Bothrioceiihalus and 92 in whose faeces there were no signs of 
it. He classifies the reactions according as there was no haemolysis, slight, 
almost complete, or complete haemolysis. Including slight haemolysis 
among the positive reactions, he found these in about 50 per cent, of the 
Bothriocephalus carriers and in only about one-ninth of the healthy con- 
trols. Some of these, he adds, may have harboured the Bothrlocepladas in 
spite of the examination being negative. Positive reactions were obtained 
when a Taenia antigen was tested with the serum of a Bothriocephalus 
carrier, and when a Bothriocephalus antigen was tested with the serum of 
a Taenia carrier. Hence Becker's doubts as to the specificity of the reaction. 

C. L. 

FxcAi, G. Osservazioni sierologiche sul tifo esantematico. [Serological 
studies on typhus.] Ann. d'ig., 1920, 30, 395. 

The agglutinins for Micrococcus melitensis do not appear earlier in the 
blood than^those for B. 'pi'oteus X 19, and very soon disappear. The 
Wassermann reaction is in most cases at first negative, but becomes positive 
in the course of the disease and then negative again. The Wassermann 
reaction has, therefore, no diagnostic value, but it may be useful in showing 
the existence of profound modifications in the blood of typhus patients. 
The diagnostic value of the Weil reaction is almost absolute; but the 
•practical value is in strict relation to the sensitiveness of the strain of 
B. proteus X 19 used. In practice it is useful to have at hand strains of 
B. proteus X 19 of different origin, as some strains appear to have various 
degrees of sensitivity when tested with the serum of patients coming from 
different places. The studies of recent years prove that the virus of typhus 
causes an intense reaction on the part of the organism during which agglu- 
tinins, produced during other infectious already overcome, are brought into 
action aofain. C. d. F. 



o 



ScHUTZE, H. Haemagglutination and its medico-legal bearing, with obser- 
vations upon the theory of isoagglutinins. Brit. J. Exfper. Path., 1921, 
2, 26. 

The possibility of grouping dried human blood specimens by recon- 
structing the serum for agglutination and using the undissolved residue 
for absorption has been demonstrated. Forensically, the test would be of 
most importance when proving dissimilarity between two specimens alleged 
to be derived from the same source. To prove their similarity would 
probably only be to furnish circumstantial evidence of more or less value 



164 ABSTRACTS 

according to the group in question and the frequency of the occurrence of 
that group in the population concerned. The Landsteiner theory that two 
substances, ' A ' and ' B ', with their corresponding agglutinins, ' a ' and ' b *, 
are concerned in the isoagglutination of human bloods has been confirmed 
by absorption tests. P. F. 



EoDAMA, R. Ocular reactions in anaphylaxis. J. Infect. Bis., 1921, 28, 48. 

Tliis is an interesting study of the anaphylactic effects on the eyes of 
guinea-pigs sensitized with horse serum. Preliminary observations and 
measurements were made on the width of the lids and the pupil, the iris 
being examined by a magnifying lens under electric light. Measurements 
are given showing the effect of instilling saline solution or normal horse 
serum into the eyes of normal guinea-pigs, of normal horse serum, heated 
or unheated, into the eyes of sensitized guinea-pigs, the injection of normal 
horse serum into the orbits of normal and sensitized guinea-pigs, intravenous 
injections of serum in normal and sensitized guinea-pigs, and other varia- 
tions. Generally speaking, the application of normal horse serum to the eyes 
of normal or sensitized guinea-pigs produces dilatation of the lids and pupils 
succeeded by contraction. In the sensitized animal the response is more 
prompt and vigorous. The primary dilatation appears to be the result of 
stimulation of the tarsal smooth muscles of the lid and the dilator smooth 
muscle of the iris. The secondary narrowing of the lid fissure may be 
explained as due to the loss of tone of the tarsal muscle and dilator pupillae 
on one hand, and to the contraction of the sphincter of the iris associated 
with congestion on the other hand. The primary and secondary effects on 
the smooth muscles of the lid and iris suggest that the anaphylactic action 
involves the ends of both the true and parasympathetic nerve-fibres on both 
sets of plain muscles in the lid and the iris. 

Anaphylactic intoxication with horse serum may also be associated 
with circulatory disturbances, such as oedema and congestion of the lid, 
conjunctiva, iris, and fundus. The direct application to the eye of horse 
serum, heated or unheated, may cause vascular dilatation in the normal, 
but haemorrhage is observed especially in the sensitized animals. As it 
takes place independently of asphyxia it is due to direct action on the 
vessels. In addition to the characteristic post-mortem appearances of ana- 
phylactic shock there is a rapid and strong contraction of the pupil after 
anaphylactic death. As all the anaphylactic eye phenomena appear to be 
an intensification of the reaction that follows the application of horse serum 
to the eye of the normal guinea-pig the author suggests that the normal 
animal possesses small quantities of the anti-substances necessary for the 
anaphylactic reaction. W. B. 

Howell, Eatkerine M., and Eby, Harriet. The transmission of specific 
immune bodies from the mother to the young. J". Infect. Bis., 1920, 27, 550. 

The authors carried out a number of experiments to determine : (1) the 
effects of parturition on the antibody content of immunized rabbits ; (2) the 
antibody content of the serum of the offspring of immunized rabbits ; and 
(3) the durability of the immune bodies in the serum of the offspring of 
immunized mothers. Six rabbits were employed, one being immunized 
against human, the second against sheep's erythrocytes, the third against 



»i 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 165 

Streptococcus virldans, the fourth against Dqulococcus pneumoniae (Type II), 
the fifth against Micrococcus meningitidis, and the sixth against B. typhosus. 
A hio-h deoree of immunity was maintained by a weekly dose of the im- 
munizing agent during pregnancy, but this was discontinued after preg- 
nancy. The blood of mothers and offspring was tested as soon after 
parturition as possible. In the sera of the mothers antihuman and anti- 
sheep lysins diminished after parturition. The sera of the offspring of 
immunized mothers exhibited haemolj'sins, but in lesser amounts than that 
of the mothers. In the young the lysins disappeared completely within 
eleven weeks. For the most part the complement-fixing antiliodies, 
opsonins, and agglutinins showed a like course. W. B. 

Bbowking, C. H., and Wilson, G. Hasweli.. The antigenic properties of 
globin with a note on the independence of the properties of serum and 
tissue proteins as exemplified by the absence of antibody from the globin 
of an immunized animal. /. Immunol., 1920, 5, 417. 

By means of Schulz's method the authors prepared solutions of globin 
from the haemoglobin of guinea-pigs and some other animals, and by 
injection into rabbits claim to have produced antisera which can be demon- 
strated by complement-fixation methods. Apparentl3^ success is obtained 
only in the case of certain individual animals, and this may explain the 
negative results obtained by Schmidt, and by Gay and Robertson. Positive 
complement-fixation results depend on suitable quantitative relationships 
between antigen and antibody,, as also upon a suitable hydrogen-ion con- 
centration. The reactions with the antisera show in certain cases that 
there is a marked species-specificity, for if one reckon the amount of com- 
plement fixed by guinea-pig globin in the presence of the homologous serum 
as 100 per cent., rabbit globin fixed 16 per cent, of complement, and ox 
globin less than 6 per cent. On the other hand, anti-ox globin, fixes com- 
plement in the presence of goat, duck, and guinea-pig globin, but not when 
rabbit globin is the antigen used. The authors believe that the antibody is 
a genuine antiglobin and is not due to any adventitious protein contamina- 
tion during the preparation of the globin antigen. In a note they describe 
the result of an experiment in which a rabbit was immunized with red 
corpuscles of the ox until its serum was powerfully haemolytic. Blood 
having been drawn from this immunized rabbit, an extract of its globin 
was prepared, but although used in strong concentration produced no 
haemolysis of ox corpuscles. W. B. 

Matsumoto, Motomatsu. Experiments upon the production of anti- 
human haemolysin with special reference to immunization with erythro- 
cytes sensitized with heated serum. /. Immunol., 1920, 5, 507. 

The difficulty of producing high grade antihuman haemolytic sera by 
the immunization of rabbits with human red blood corpuscles is known to 
all immunizators. The injurious effects of the inoculations have been 
ascribed to anaphylaxis, direct "toxicity of the antigen, or to fatal embolism 
due to agglutination of the red cells introduced. The most recent work 
tends to eliminate the view that the phenomena are anaphylactic. The 
present author confirms the statement of Vedder that exposure of human 
erythrocytes to antihuman serum, diluted 1:10 and heated to 70°-80°C., 
reduces the susceptibility to haemagglutinin formation which otherwise 

IV. N 



166 ABSTRACTS 

may cause injury or death of the animal. Solutions of human erythrocytes 
in distilled water and largely freed of shadow corpuscles are much less 
toxic and are better tolerated than suspensions of whole cells, and although 
the yield of haemolysin may be slightly less are to be preferred as antigens. 

W. B. 

Fabdi, TJ. Sopra I'azione di sieri concentrati. [On the action of con- 
centrated sera.] FatJiologica, 1912, 12, 388. 

Concentrated serum of guinea-pigs is, within certain limits, innocuous 
if injected intravenously in other animals of the same species ; but it is 
fatal, even in small doses, if injected subdurally. Concentrated serum of 
dog has the same effect if injected subdurally into guinea-pigs. This fatal 
action of the subdural injections is attributed by the author to the con- 
centration of the colloids of the serum, these probably having a direct 
influence on important nerve centres. C. d. F. 

FoiTTiCACCZA, L. Ricerche sperimentali sull' azione emolitica ed anemizzante 
deir acido oleico e delle trioleine nei conigli. [Experimental investigations 
on the haemolytic action of oleic acid and trioleins in rabbits.] Speri- 
mentale. Arch, di biol., 1920, 74, 35. 

Oleic acid has a remarkable haemolytic action in vitro, as well as 
in vivo, this, however, being very much checked by the reaction of the 
healthy organism if, of course, the acid is not put in direct contact with 
the circulating blood. The reaction of the organism consists, first of all, in 
a local inflammatory process by means of which the injected mass becomes 
circumscribed from the surrounding tissues and only little of it can pass 
very slowly into the blood-stream. There is, in the second place, a forma- 
tion of more resistant erythrocytes as can be proved by testing them with 
hypotonic solutions of NaCl. Lastly, there is a production of specific anti- 
haemolysins, these having very likely an extrasplenic origin. Rabbits 
treated with subcutaneous injections of oleic acid show only a form of 
simple anaemia which j^gv se is not fatal and has none of the characteristics 
of the progressive pernicious form. The lesions caused in the digestive 
organs by the same treatment are also very slight and not at all similar to 
those seen in progressive pernicious anaemia. 

Ordinary oils (trioleins of olive, cotton, and linseed) may cause a very 
slight anaemia in rabbits if administered ^je?' os in large quantities and for 
a long time. This slight anaemia appears to be due, not to a possible 
haemolytic action of the oleic acid freed from its glycerol, but to digestive 
troubles, and to a diminished absorption of nourishing materials caused by 
the great mass of oil occupying the enteric tube. By the administration of 
varying doses of oils it has been impossible to cause in rabbits any change 
similar to those of the progressive pernicious anaemia. The anatomical 
lesions observed are simply those to be expected after the forced and repeated 
introduction into the gastro-enteric tube of large quantities of fats. 

C. d. F. 

Hii.1., 1., and McQueem", J. M. The measurement of capillary blood- 
pressure in man. Brit. J. Expcr. Path., 1921, 2, 1. 

That pressure which stops the flow through and expresses blood from 
the skin has been generally taken as signifying the capillary blood-pressure. 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 167 

In truth it indicates the pressure in the small arteries which feed the com- 
pressed part after an allowance has been made for error arising from the 
pressure required to deform the convex horny layer of the skin. The 
method devised measures this error and arrives at the true pressure in the 
small arteries. The pressure of a small jet of water is found which will just 
blanch the skin of the hand held at heart level (1) in the normal condition, 
and (2) with the capillaries at zero pressure after the veins of the forearm 
have been emptied by gravity and the brachial artery occluded by a tourni- 
quet. When (2) is deducted from (1) a reading of about 10 mm. Hg is 
obtained. Reference is made to previous measurements of capillary pressure 
in the brain, &c., and to recent experiments carried out on transparent 
membranes of fi^ogs, mice, &c., by one of the authors (L. H.). These show 
that a momentary compression equal to 2-5 cm. water suffices momentarily 
to check the flow of corpuscles in the arterioles or their main capillary 
branches. The true capillary pressure as indicated by these figures is a very 
low one, and theories of lymph-formation, &c.; based on a capillary pressure 
of some 30 mm. Hg must be modified accordingly. The relation of the 
swelling of the tissue-cells to the capillary circulation in inflammation 
is discussed, also the relation of the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, 
aqueous humour, and salivary secretion. • P. F. 

Azzi, A. Sul parallelismo fra reazioni vaso-motorie periferiche e polmonari. 
[ Farallelism between peripheral and pulmonary vasomotor reactions.] 
Sperimentale. Arch, di hiol., 1920, 74, 25. 

Reference has already been made to the strict relations existing between 
cutaneous and pulmonary vasomotor conditions (see Viale, G., Medical 
Science, 1921, 3, 371). Azzi's investigations are much on the same lines 
with this difl"erence, that he has made use of emotional and thermal stimuli 
to cause peripheral vasomotor changes. These were registered by means of 
Mosso's plethismograph, while the temperature of the expired air was 
measured by means of a thermo-electric cell. The results obtained can be 
summarized thus : There is a constant diminution in the temperature of the 
expired air for every peripheral vasoconstriction, however caused. 

C. d. F. 

Nov ABO, P. Ricerche calorimetriche comparative sul digiuno e sull' avitami- 
nosi. Nota III. [Calorimetric investigations on inanition and deficiency 
disease. Note III.] Pathologica, 1920, 12, 183. 

Reference has already been made to the investigations of this author 
(Medical Science, 1921, 3, 372). She has now published an additional note, 
in which the period of convalescence both from starvation and deficiency 
disease are comparatively examined. The conclusions arrived at are : 
(1) The temperature of the convalescent pigeons returns to 41° C. during 
the first 24 hours, independently of the minimum reached during in- 
anition or deficiency disease. Four or five days are then necessary for the 
body temperature to reach the normal average of 42° C. (2) The amount of 
heat given ofl", though greater tlian that of the last day of starvation 
or deficiency disease, remains, in proportion to the body-surface, below the 
normal average as long as the temperature has not become normal. After- 
wards, it becomes greater than the normal average as long as the body- 
weight has not also become normal. (3) With the exception of the first day 

N 2 



168 ABSTRACTS 

of convalescence the animals take a quantity of food the energy value 
of which may be even 50 per cent, above the normal average. This continues 
until the body-weight becomes about the same as at the beginning of the 
experiments. (4) The body-weight increases very rapidly in the first two 
days of convalescence, the further increase being more gradual and rather 
slow. However, the increase in body- weight is not always regular, but may 
show various oscillations. (5) A strict relation appears to exist between the 
various metabolic factors and variations in the body-weight. (6) All other 
conditions being the same, the period of recovery lasts longer after deficiency 
disease than after inanition. C. d. F. 

Nov ABO, P. Sulle modificazioni del tessuto interstiziale in seguito a deficienza 
di vitamina B nella dieta. [Changes in the interstitial tissue of the testicle 
in consequence of deficiency in water-soluble accessory substance B.] Boll, 
d. Accad. med. di Genova, 1920. (Pathologica, 1920, 12, 405.) 

The testicles of four young pigeons, kept for two months on a diet of 
polished rice, were examined histologically. Material was fixed partly 
in Zenker and partly in Flemming. The testicular tubules were found 
atrophic, and their epithelium degenerated in many places. The intertubular 
spaces were larger than in normal specimens and filled with interstitial cells. 
These, instead of appearing isolated or in small groups of two or three, were 
arranged in well delimited rows supported by flattened connective tissue 
elements. The interstitial cells had increased, not only in number, but also 
in size, their nuclei being also larger than those of normal cells. In the 
specimens fixed in Flemming's fluid the cj'^toplasm of such cells appeared filled 
with many granules stained deeply black. The author comes to the con- 
clusion that deficiency of the water-soluble accessory food factor B, causes 
a true hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the so-called interstitial gland of the 
testicle. C. d. F. 

De Albebtzs, D. Su di un metodo rapido per la colorazione della nevroglia 
fibrillare. [Quick process for staining neuroglia fibres.] Pathologica, 1920, 
12, 240. 

The process results from an original combination of the methods of 
Weigert, Mallory, and L'h^rmitte, and is meant to be chiefly used for 
•ascertaining quickly the possible existence of a proliferation of neuroglia 
fibres in pathological specimens. 

Sections are made by means of a freezing microtome from pieces fixed 
in 15-20 per cent, formalin for about 24 hours, but no longer than three days. 
They are collected in distilled water, transferred into a bath of 2 per cent, 
acetic acid in 1 per cent, chromic acid (time not stated), washed for some 
hours in repeatedly changed distilled water, oxidized for 10-15 minutes in 
half per cent, potassium permanganate, washed again in distilled water, 
reduced for 15-20 minutes in 1 per cent, oxalic acid, and, lastly, put to stain 
for 12-24 hours in a saturated solution of Victoria blue. For the further 
treatment, sections are washed in distilled water and from this lifted, one by 
one, by means of a thin glass or platinum spatula, this to be also used 
to plunge each section, for an instant, first into concentrated Lugol's 
solution, then into absolute alcohol, and, lastly, into equal parts of xylol and 
aniline oil, where the differentiation is accomplished in a few seconds. 
Sections are finally collected and washed in slightly warmed and repeatedly 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 169 

changed xylol, and mounted in xylol-dainniar without a cover. Neuroglia 
fibres are deep blue and red-blood corpuscles pale blue on an unstained 
backgrounrl. ^- "• t . 

Zappa, P. Contributo di osservazioni alia determinazione della formula leuco- 
citaria normale. [On the normal leucocytic formula.] Pathologka, 1920, 
12, 296. 

In 1914 A. V. Bonsdorft" (Flnslca Idk-sdllsL handl., HeUliKjfors, 1914, 2, 
1471), tried to show that if blood is regularly examined in the early hours 
of the morning and before breakfast, the number of mononuclear leucocytes 
is found to be almost the same as that of neutrophil polymorphonuclear 
leucocytes, while the normal proportion established by Ehrlich and Einhorn, 
and almost universally accepted as right, is of about 25 to 75. The author 
of the present paper has taken advantage of a systematic series of examina- 
tions carried out, during 1917, 1918, and 1919, on young and healthy subjects 
(soldiers) with the object of controlling v. Bonsdortf's data, and of seeing how 
far he was possibly right. It thus resulted that the normal nuniber of 
mononuclears in proportion to the polynuclears in the leucocytic formula 
should be considered higher than is generally believed. The proportion 

between the former and the latter can be expressed by the fraction — j 

, . , . . 1 r. .. 38 39 39-5 41-9 42 ,. ,, 

which IS very near to the fractions w\' th' ^t^' ^^^"T' ^ representing the 
•^ 62 bl 60-0 oo'i oo 

values obtained by Jolly, Ostenfeld, Galambos, Turk (1912), Mehrthens, and 

25 
Bunting. All these values are higher than those given by Einhorn _, - • 

95 26-9 31-7 

Ehrlich and Lazarus '^- , Tiirk (1904) -— , v. Torday ^^ 5 Leredde, 

S2'5 50*4 

and Besancon — — , but still remarkably smaller than the fractions -r^—^ 
(j7'0 "^ 49-6 

and j^ of V- Boiisdortf. C d. F. 

4o 

Giuliani, R. Neutvalizzazione sessuale ottenuta mediante sieri orchilitici ed 
ovariolitiei. [Sexual neutralization obtained by means of orchilytic and 
ovariolytic sera.] Ann. d'ig., 1920, 30, 323. 

Preliminary note on experiments made in rabbits by means of an 
orchilytic serum oljtained by injecting nucleoproteid from rabbit's testis into 
a sheep. The results, though very incomplete, are worth mentioning as they 
show that it is perhaps possible to cause a total atrophy either of the testes 
or of the ovaries by means of properly prepared sera — a problem of great 
interest both from scientific and practical points of view. C. d. F. 

PiSTOCCHi, G. L' influenza della milza, del rene, della tiroide nella produzione 
della crisi anafilattica. [On the influence of the spleen, kidney, and thyroid 
on the anaphylactic shock.] Pathologka, 1920, 12, 239. 

Experiments were carried out on guinea-pigs, which had undergone 
sensitization a few days after extirpation either of the spleen or of one 



170 ABSTRACTS 

kidney or of the thyroid. Splenectomy and nephrectomy had no influence 
on the production of the anaphyhictic shock ; thj^roidectomy prevented the 
latter in most of the animals on which the experiment had been performed. 

C. d. F. 

KuscA, C. I. Sul morbo di Gaucher. [On Gaucher's disease.] Atti d. Soc. 
lonib. sc. med. e tiol., 1920, 9, 354. 

Preliminary communication on exhaustive histopathological investiga- 
tions carried out on the spleen, lymph glands, bone-marrow, thymus, and 
solitary follicles of the intestine of a typical case of Gaucher's disease 
observed in a baby of only eleven months. The characteristic Gaucher cell was 
found in all organs examined, and the author consequently thinks that the 
disease ought to be considered as affecting the whole haemo-lymphopoietic 
system, tlie splenomegaly being only the chief clinical symptom. 

C. d. F. 

Samfietbo, G. Osservazioni sierodiagnostiche nel tifo petecchiale. [Sero- 
diagnostic studies on typhus.] Ann. d'ig., 1920, 30, 593. 

A series of careful investigations summarized by the author as follows : 
(1) The Weil-Felix reaction was positive in 5*5 per cent, of the normal sera 
examined, but with dilutions smaller than 1 : 100. It was also positive in 
18 per cent, of the investigated sera of typhoid fever patients, but with dilu- 
tions sometimes smaller, sometimes larger than 1 : 100. The reaction was 
negative in cases of small-pox and other eruptive diseases. (2) In the sera 
of cases of small-pox, agglutinins for B. ty2jJiosus may temporarily appear. 
(3) The Weil-Felix reaction is positive in practically all cases of t3^phus, but 
only from the end of the first week, if investigations are carried out with 
dilutions not smaller than 1 : 100. (4) Agglutination curves for Proteus X 19 
may be of three different types according to the length of time during whicli 
agglutinins remain in the blood. This permanence is, in its turn, in direct 
relation to the degree of concentration reached by the agglutinins themselves 
in the patients' blood. They generally persist for about two months, but 
were found even after four. (5) The agglutination curve may show a 
sudden but quite temporary fall, particularly at the beginning or towards 
the end of the curve. (6) The serum of typhus patients agglutinates 
B. typhosus in 87 per cent, of the patients vaccinated against it, and 
in 21 per cent, of the non- vaccinated patients. Widal's reaction may there- 
fore be independent from antityphoid vaccination in typhus patients, but 
the latter influences the results, increasing the percentage of positive cases. 
(7) If both Widal and Weil-Felix reactions are positive, a serological dis- 
crimination between typhoid fever and typhus can be attained only by 
following the agglutination curves of both forms. (8) 63 per cent, of 
the sera showing a positive Weil-Felix reaction also agglutinate a serological 
type of B. ]yyocyaneus in dilutions even greater than those required to 
agglutinate the Proteus X 19. As in the case of Proteus there are species of 
B. pyocyaneiis which do not agglutinate. (9) As shown by Castellani's 
test the agglutinins for B. pyocyaneus are independent of those for 
Proteus X 19. By the same test the agglutinins for B. typhosus appear 
sometimes as co-agglutinins, sometimes as independent agglutinins. (10) The 
poly-agglutination of the serum of typhus patients is probably due to 



PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 171 

the mobilization of specific latent agglutinins produced during other, already 
overcome, infections. (11) The Weltmann reaction is neither specific nor 
constant; however, it may be useful for laboratory work. (12) TheWasser- 
mann reaction, made with sera of typhus patients, has been attended by 
negative results. C. d. F. 

Naoao, K. The. fate of India ink injected into the blood. I. General 
observations. '/. Infect. Bis., 1920, 27, 527. 

The author lias made a careful examination of the tissues of rabbits and 
guinea-pigs which had been injected intravenously with a suspension of very 
Sne particles of Indian ink. For this purpose a stick of Indian ink was rul)bed 
on an ink stone with a small quantity of 0-8 per cent, salt solution. The 
suspension w^as then centrifugalized, and the upper part was filtered several 
times through paper, the resulting fine suspension being then sterilized 
discontinuously by steam. As a rule about 0-4 c.c. per kilo was the amount 
injected. After injection the mucous membranes and spleen became black, 
and this condition persists for some time. Ink granules are deposited 
regularly in the endothelial cells of the liver, spleen, and marrow, and in the 
splenocytes. Only a small number of granules were found in the adrenals, 
kidneys, or lungs. In the spleen the granules were irregularly accumulated 
at the periphery of or actually in the Malpighian corpuscles. Granules 
were not found in the parenchyma cells of the nervous system. In the 
blood, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic, and mononuclear cells, were found 
to have taken up granules, but large lymphocytes did so only rarely. 
Eosinophils and mast cells were not found with granules. Apparently, 
ink granules were not discharged from the body by any particular organ. 

W. B. 



Pabbino, G. Ricerche sperimentali sulla fagocitosi. Sulla influenza che 
spiegano sulla fagocitosi vari fissatori del protoplasma batterico. [Experi- 
mental investigations on phagocytosis. Influence of various fixing agents. J 
Sperimentale. Arch, di biol, 1920, 74, 76. 

Di Macco, G. Ricerche sperimentali sulla fagocitosi. Modificazioni della 
fagocitosi per effetto della fatica. [Experimental investigations on phago- 
cytosis. Influence of fatigue.] Sperimentale. Arch, dihiol., 1920, 74, 81. 

Caldebone, a. Ricerche sperimentali sulla fagocitosi. Modificazioni della 
fagocitosi per I'azione di soluzioni diluite di acido cloridrico. [Experimental 
investigation on phagocytosis. Influence of diluted solutions of hydro- 
chloric acid.] Sperimentale. Arch, di biol., 1920, 74, 274. 

These three papers form part of a series of systematic investiga- 
tions on phagocytosis, carried out under the direction of V. Scaffidi at the 
Institute of General Pathology of the University of Palermo. 

Parrino has studied the influence on phagocytosis of various fixing 
agents such as alcohol, formalin, corrosive sublimate, chromic acid, and 
osmic acid. Investigations were carried out by a very exact method and 
carefully controlled, Eberth's bacilli being used as test. It was found, that 
while alcohol, formalin, and corrosive sublimate render Eberth's bacilli more 
resistant to the phagocytic power of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, both 
chromic and osmic acids have the opposite effect with a corresponding 



172 ABSTRACTS 

increase in the so-called phagocytic value. It is interesting to note that 
this effect can be also obtained by means of corrosive sublimate if this 
is re-dissolved after fixation by treating the bacilli with Lugol's solution. 
This appears to indicate that the obstacle to phagocytosis is not always due 
to the protoplasmic modifications caused by the fixing agents, but to the 
combinations which these last form with the protein of the bacteria used as 
tests. 

Di Macco has studied the modifications in the phagocytic power of 
polymorphonuclear leucocytes in guinea-pigs in the last stages of exhaustion, 
a state brought about by means of a very simple apparatus which compelled 
them to run at a known speed. The phagocytic index or value was deter- 
mined for every animal before and after each experiment by the same 
method and tests as used by Parrino. Di Macco comes to the conclusion 
that acute fatigue causes a diminution of the phagocytic index, this being 
reduced to about 25 per cent, of the normal value. This result agrees with 
that arrived at by Ferranini and Fichera by means of a quite different 
method. The diminution in the phagocytic index appears to be a direct 
consequence of the influence of fatigue poisons on the various elements of 
the blood. Three or four days are necessary for the phagocytic index 
to again become normal, this fact pointing to the general conclusion that 
fatigue poisons are only slowly destroyed or eliminated. 

Calderone has investigated the influence of diluted solutions of hydro- 
chloric acid made to act for various periods of time on Erberth's bacilli used 
as test. Experiments were attended by unexpected results in that it clearly 
appeared that the phagocytic value diminished when bacteria were kept in 
contact with dilutions of HCl N/50-N/100 for some hours up to 24, but it 
gradually increased when the contact was further prolonged. On the contrary, 
when working with more diluted solutions as, for instance, N/800-N/l,000, 
the opposite phenomenon was noticed, the phagocytic index showing an 
increase in the first two hours and a diminution in the subsequent periods 
of time. The diminution of the phagocytic index in the first hours of con- 
tact of bacteria with little diluted solutions of HCl can be explained, assuming 
that the chloro-protein which becomes thus formed has a negative chemo- 
tactic power on polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The subsequent increase 
under the same experimental conditions is very likely due to deep changes 
in the bacterial protoplasm owing to the prolonged influence of the HCl. As 
a mattei- of fact, there is a certain coincidence of time between the increase 
of the phagocytic index and the death of the bacteria experimented upon. 
But the transitory increase of the phagocytic index at the beginning of 
experiments made with very diluted solutions of HCl remains entirely 
inexplicable. The author can only point out that a similar fact was 
observed by Oker-Blom (Ztschr. f. Immunitdtsforsch. u. ex'per. Therap., 1912, 
Orig, 14, 485) when treating staphylococci with N/l,000-N/2,000 dilutions 
of sulphuric acid. 

In conclusion, phagocytosis is influenced not only by the biological 
activity of bacteria iDut also by changes caused in them by the substances 
with which they come in contact and by the length of time during which 
this contact is prolonged. C. d. F. 



BIOCHEMISTRY 173 



BIOCHEMISTRY 

Peters, J. P. (Jr.), and Barb, D. P. The carbon dioxide dissociation 
curve and the arterial and venous carbon dioxide tension of human blood 
in health and in disease. Froc. Soc. Exper. Biol. 4' Med., 1920, 18, 5. 

A method for the direct determination of the carbon dioxide tension of 
human arterial and venous blood has been applied to the examination of 23 
subjects on whom 38 observations have been made. The method is similar 
to that of Means, Bock, and Woodwell (Trans. Am. Assoc. Fhysiciaiis, 1920). 
The group consisted of 3 normal persons, 6 with severe anaemia, 4 with 
diabetes, 2 with emphysema, 1 with polycythaemia, and 1 with chronic 
nephritis. The alveolar carlDon dioxide tension was also determined in 
some cases. 

In three cases of cardiac decompensation the dissociation curves lay 
below the normal limits indicating a real reduction in available alkali. The 
carbon dioxide capacity of the venous plasma was normal. In these cases, 
therefore, the latter method is inapplicable as a measure of the available 
alkali of the blood. 

The dissociation curve in severe anaemia is more nearly horizontal, and 
lies at a higher level than does the normal dissociation curve at carbon dioxide 
tensions that exist in the body. This is due to the diminution in haemo- 
globin which has the power of combining with a part of the alkali of the 
blood. In cardiac dyspnoea the ditference between alveolar and arterial 
CO2 tension was always much greater than normal, varying from 13-19 mm. 
Hg. This indicates some impairment of the mechanism for the elimination 
of carbon dioxide from the lungs. C. G. L. W. 

Hendbix, B. M., and Cbouter, C. Y. Relation of the alkali reserve of the 
blood to glycosuria and hyperglycaemia in pancreatic diabetes. J' Biol 
Chem., 1920, 45, 51. 

The results are against Murlin and Sweet's view of the causal relation 
between the acid of the gastric juice and pancreatic diabetes. In dogs 
from whom the pancreas had baen removed the decrease in alkali reserve 
of the blood appeared considerably later than the hyperglycaemia and 
glycosuria, thereby indicating that it was not a neutralizing function of 
the pancreas that was at fault. B,. A. P. 

Palmer, W. W., Salvesen, H., and Jackson, H. Relationship between 
the plasma bicarbonate and urinary acidity following the administration 
of sodium bicarbonate. /. Biol. Chem., 1920, 45, 101. 

By the method of the authors, the grade of acidosis can be measured in 
a subject by administering 2 grm. of sodium bicarbonate in 100 c.c. of water 
every half-hour, immediately preceding the dose by a test of the reaction 
of the urine. The ' first significant change in the urinary acidity ' is taken 
as the end point, and the amount of alkali taken to produce this change 
measures the acidosis. In severe cases more than 2 grm. sodium bicarbonate 
is given at each dose. In normal and pathological cases, the plasma bicar- 
bonate CO^ during this process approaches 68-7 ± 10 volumes of COg at the 



174 ABSTRACTS 

time that the first depression of the urinary acidity is noted. There appears 
to be no close connexion between the function of regulating the acid-base 
equilibrium possessed by the kidney and its ability to excrete phenol 
sulphonephthalein. R. A. P. 

SuNDSTROEM, E. S., and B1.0OB, W. R. Physiological effects of short 

exposures to low pressure. J. Biol. C/iem., 1920, 45, 153. 

B1.00R, W. R. Blood phosphates in the lipaemia produced by acute ex- 
perimental anaemia in rabbits. /. Biol Cheni., 1920, 45, 171. 

In the first paper, the authors have found that exposure of rabbits to 
low atmospheric pressures causes a decrease in size in addition to an increase 
in the number of erythrocytes. The phosphorus content of the red cells 
does not change, though there is a decrease in organic phosphorus in the 
plasma. There is a constant decrease in the lipoid phosphorus (lecithin) of 
the plasma, which is considered to be connected with an enrichment of the 
organs forming red blood corpuscles. Further, they think this decrease to 
have some connexion with the stimulation of these organs by the low 
atmosj^heric pressure. 

In the second paper, the author has studied the distribution of lipoid 
phosphorus (the lecithin fraction) during the lipaemia produced by bleeding- 
rabbits. His idea is to find out more about the function of the lecithins in 
metabolism, which are considered to bear an important part in the inter- 
mediary metabolism of fat. He finds that of all the phosphorus compounds 
in the blood, the lipoid phosphorus is most markedly afi'ected by bleeding, 
being increased up to five times the normal in the plasma. This is accom- 
panied by an increase in inorganic phosphorus, l)ut no change in the other 
forms of phosphorus, so that the inorganic phosphorus and lipoid phosphorus 
seem to be directly related to one another. R. A. P. 

Haggard, H. W., and Henderson, Yandei.1.. Haemato-respiratory func- 
tions. IX. An irreversible alteration of the H0CO3 NaHCO;; equilibrium 
of the blood induced by temporary exposure to a low tension of COo. J. 
Biol Chem., 1920, 45, 209. 

This is one of a series of four papers in the number of the Journal by 
the authors. In this paper, they show that the exposure of blood to a 
tension of CO^ below a critical level causes the production of an irreversible 
change. After such an exposure the blood will not combine with as much 
CO^, as normally, upon re-exposure to the normal COo tension. Defibrinated 
blood shows this change more readily than oxalated blood. It is partly 
associated with bursting of the corpuscles, but there are other factors at 
work. (Possibly one of these is the development of lactic acid in standing- 
blood recently described by Mellanby and Thomas.) R. A. P. 

Straub, H., u. Meier, Ei.othii.de. Blutgasanalysen. VIII. Der Einfluss 
einiger Digitaliskorper auf die lonendurchgiingigkeit menschlicher Erythrocyten. 
[Blood gas studies. VIII. The influence of certain digitalis bodies on the 
permeability to ions of human red blood corpuscles.] Biochem. Ztschr., 1920, 
111, 67. 

This is the eighth of a series of studies on the permeability changes of 
red corpuscles. The authors have found that the red corpuscles are im- 






BIOCHEMISTRY 175 

permeable to electrolytes in weakly l)asic solutions. As the acidity of the 
solution, in wliich the corpuscles are suspended, is raised, there becomes 
a sudden sharp!}' detined point at which the corpuscles become permeable. 
The effect upon the inside of the cell is to allow the combination of acid 
ions with the haemoglobin enclosed in the cell. Other ions besides the 
hydrogen ion (acidity) influence permeability. The addition of potassium 
to tile suspension fluid, for instance, makes the corpuscles permealjle at 
a lower hydrogen-ion concentration (less acid reaction). This eflect can be 
antagonized by calcium. The authors have interpreted their results in the 
sense that there is a change of condition of the cell surface by adsorption of 
the active ion. They, however, consider it misleading to picture a flne 
extracellular membi-ane as the aflfected layer. Their results can be inter- 
preted rather as a change of state of the whole cell protoplasm. 

As they were struck with the general correspondence between these 
permeability experiments and experiments upon the action of digitalis on 
the heart, the authors have tried the eflect of adding digitalis to their blood- 
corpuscle suspensions. They found that digitalis had the eflect of making 
tlie corpuscles become permeable at a more acid point than the normal in 
sodium chloride solution, thus resembling the effect of calcium ions. Potas- 
sium ions antagonized tlie eflect. The result agrees with the pharmacoloc-ical 
observation of the correspondence between the calcium and the digitalis 
eflfect. R. A. P. 

LiNZENMEZEB, G. Untersuchungen tiber die Senkungsgeschvvindigkeit der 
roten Blutkorperchen. II. [Investigations on the rate of sedimentation of 
the red blood corpuscles. II.J Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol, 1921, 186, 272. 

As in the blood in pregnancy, so also in the ])lood of various animals, 
sedimentation is retarded by shaking the plasma with kaolin, or by 
heating to 56° C, and is hastened by gelatin or gum. The sedimentation 
(which is due to the removal of the negative charge on the corpuscles) is 
also hastened by fibrinogen, histone, or protamine, but not by albumin, 
nuclein, sodium nucleinate, or peptone. The sedimenting factor in blood is 
probably not fibrinogen, but a definite fraction of the globulin. The bloods 
of different species show individual peculiarities in the sedimentation, which 
seems to be related not only to the alteration of the electric charge, but 
also to an adsorption of the agglutinating substances on the surface of the 
corpuscles. C. L. E. 

Abdebhaldem", E. Die Beziehungen der Senkungsgeschvvindigkeit der roten 
Blutkorperclien zu ini Plasma vorhandenen diaylsierbaren Verbindungen ; Bezie- 
hungen zu den Abvvehrfermenten. [The rate of deposition of erythrocytes 
in plasma and its relation to protective ferments.] Fermentforschung, 1921, 
4, 230. 

It has been known for some time that the corpuscles in the blood 
of pregnant women settle more rapidly than normal blood. Abderhalden 
has attempted to bring this phenomenon into relation with his much 
discussed pregnancy test. Linzenmeier's results showed that the change in 
rate of deposition occurred in those cases where the pregnancy test was 
positive. Abderhalden shows in the present paper that there are sub- 
stances present in gravid blood which will cause normal corpuscles to sink 



176 ABSTRACTS 

more rapidly, and these substances may be removed by dialysis of the 
plasma. The plasma obtained from the umbilical cord does not behave like 
the maternal plasma. Certain peptones and amino-acids were examined 
for their influence on settling. No effect was made out. C. G. L. W. 

CouiiTEB, C. B. The isoelectric point of red blood cells and its relation 
to agglutination. J. Gen. Physiol., 1921, 3, 309. 

The H-ion concentration at which red corpuscles have no electric charge 
is at Ph = 4'6. On the alkaline side of this, they are negative ; on the acid 
side, positive. The charge carried by sensitized cells on the alkaline side is 
smaller than that of normal cells. On the acid side, both kinds of cells 
' combine ' with H and CI ions ; on the alkaline side with cations. The 
optimum for agglutination of normal cells is at Ph = 4-75; for sensitized 
cells, at Ph=5-3. The latter value is related to the optimum for flocculation 
of the immune body. W. M. B. 

VosscHUTZ, J. Untersuchung iiber Agglutination und Sedimentierung von 
Bakterien. [Investigation on the agglutination and sedimentation of 
bacteria.] Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol, 1921, 186, 290. 

Certain bacteria, but not all, are agglutinated by the serum of pregnant 
women under the same conditions as are red blood corpuscles. It is inferred 
that the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena are also similar, viz. 
that sedimentation is preceded by the removal of the electric charge on the 
organisms in suspension. C. L. E. 

Hess, A. F., and TTngeb, L. J. Dietaries of infants in relation to the 
development of rickets. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. 6,- Med., 1920, 17, 220. 

In an examination of infants on various diets, which were continued 
for six months, it was found that many diets supposed to be conducive to 
rickets resulted in normal nutrition. Condensed milk only occasionally 
produced rickets. The one food which regularly caused the condition was 
' protein milk ' prepared by precipitating buttermilk with heat (not with 
rennin). This preparation contained 3-3 per cent, of protein, 25 per cent, of 
fat, and 6-6 per cent, of carbohydrate. Its ash was about 0-44 per cent., of 
which the phosphorus and calcium content stood midway between human 
and cows' milk. The fat-soluble vitamine content was high, the water- 
soluble vitamine low. This diet must be regarded as one markedly pro- 
ductive of rickets. All the infants received an adequate supply of orange 
juice during the period of feeding. C. G. L. W. 

McCoi.i.uM, E. v., SxMMOHss, N., Parsons, H. T., Shipley, F. G., and 
Fabk, E. a. Studies on experimental rickets. I. The production of 
rachitis and similar diseases in the rat by deficient diets. II. The effect 
of cod-liver oil administered to rats with experimental rickets. J. Biol. 
Chem., 1921, 45, 333 and 343. 

These interesting papers form, so the authors say, the beginning of a 
series. By uniting the interest of the Chemical Hygiene Department and 
the Department of Pediatrics of Johns Hopkins University, it has been 
possible to initiate an intensive study of the dietary and patliological sides 
of rickets in rats. 



1 1 



BIOCHEMISTRY 177 

Diets faulty cither in calcium or fat-soluble A especially, or deficient 
in certain other ways, have been found to induce disturl)ances in the growth 
of the skeleton such as fractures, enlargement and distortions of the costo- 
chondral junctions, vertebral deformity, irregularities in the calcification of 
the intercellular substance of the proliferative cartilage. The authors lay 
stress upon the difficulty at this stage of drawing conclusions, though it is 
interestnior that calcium and fat-soluble vitamine seem to be the most 
prominent factors. In the second paper of tlie series, a preliminary one, 
they claim that the feeding of cod-liver oil to rats suffering from lack of 
fat-soluble vitamine induces the deposition of calcium salts between the 
cells of the proliferative zone of cartilage. This line suggests a means by 
which cod-liver oil produces its effects in the treatment of rickets. (It is 
surprising that the work of E. Mellanby should not be mentioned by the 
authors). R. A. P. 

DuTiKER, B. A., £cKi:.ES, C. H., Dahle, C. H., Mead, S. W.,and Schaefeb, 
O. G. Vitamine studies. VI. The influence of diet of the cow upon the 
nutritive and antiscorbutic properties of cow's milk. J. Biol. Ghem., 1020, 
45, 119. 

The vitamine content of cow's milk is dependent upon the vitamine 
content of the ration ingested by the cow. 20 c.c. of summer milk were 
superior to 60 c.c. of winter milk in antiscorbutic potency and nutritive 
value. Milk becomes poor in vitamine slowly, but the vitamine is quickly 
restored when the animal is fed on a vitamine rich diet. R. A. P. 

OsBOBNE, T. B., and Mendei., L. B. A critique of experiments with diets 
free from fat-soluble vitamine. J. Biol. Chem., 1921, 45, 277. 



•) 



The authors draw attention to the contradictions existing in the 
literature as to the presence or absence of fat-soluble vitamine in a given 
experimental diet. They instance some results of Daniels and Loughlin in 
which the conclusion was drawn that rats could be made to grow, reproduce 
and rear their young upon a diet ' in which the only apparent source of 
vitamine was lard or cotton-seed oil '. Other workers have concluded that 
lard is not a source of fat-soluble vitamine. In many experiments it has 
been found that in the apparent absence of a supply of fat-soluble vitamine, 
animals will grow quite well for a time before failure. Results of this 
kind have been attributed either to ' exceptional vitality ' or to a possession 
of a reserve store of vitamine in the body. By extracting carefully the 
other constituents of the diet, viz., proteins and carbohydrates, the authors 
have been able to diminish to some extent the period of unrestricted growth 
upon diets deficient in fat-soluble vitamine. They are inclined to think 
that the discordant results of various workers may perhaps be due to traces 
of fat-soluble vitamine adhering to proteins, &c., in the diet. However, 
they point to the fact that the crucial experiment in which nutritive 
failure ensues immediately upon giving a diet deficient in this respect has 
not yet been done. R. A. P. 

OsBOBNE, T. B., and Mendei., L. B. Growth on diets poor in true fats. 
J. Biol. Chem., 1920, 45, 145. 

Rats fed on a diet in which the largest fat intake daily per animal was 
not more than 0078 ptui. o-rew well. This indicates that if ' true fats 
are essential for nutrition during growth, the minimum requn-ed must be 



178 ABSTRACTS 

exceedingly small '. In all cases, a source of fat soluble vitamine was 
added. R. A. P. 

Drummond, J. C. Nutrition on diets practically devoid of fat. J. Physiol., 
1920, 54, XXX. 

The accessory food factor A (fat-soluble A), was supplied by an 
alcoholic extract of fresh carrots containing only the smallest traces of 
neutral fat. The basal ration was composed of caseinogen and starch (both 
extracted with alcohol and ether), inorganic salts, orange juice and yeast 
extract. To this a daily ration of 5 c.c. of the concentrated carrot extract 
was added. The approximate daily intake of neutral fat was 14 milli- 
grammes. Young rats remained in good health on this diet for nearly 
six months, and showed considerable, though, on the whole subnormal, 
growth. O. L. V. de W. 

WiTZEMAiTiT, E. J. Disodiumphosphate as a catalyst for the quantitative 
oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide with hydrogen peroxide. J. Biol. 
Chem., 1920, 45, 1. 

This paper is of considerable interest in connexion with carbohydrate 
metabolism. The author has confirmed and extended some results of Lob. 
The latter showed that in the presence of phosphates glucose was oxidized 
by hydrogen peroxide to CO^ and H.^O. The author has found that, at the 
temperature reaction of the body, glucose is oxidized in the presence of 
disodium phosphate by hydrogen peroxide, the phosphate apparently acting 
as a catalyst. Compounds of hexoses and phosphate (hexose-phosphate) have 
been described by Harden and Young, Neuberg, and others, in connexion 
with the fermentation of yeast, and also with the precursors of lactic acid in 
the muscle. Thinking that a hexose-phosphate might be playing an inter- 
mediate part, the author tried to isolate such a compound, without success. 

R. A. P. 

CusHiirCr, H., and Foley, F. E. B. Alteration of intracranial tension by 
salt solution in the alimentary canal. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. ^" Med., 1920, 

17, 217. 

Weed and McKibbon (Am. J. Physiol., 1919, 48, 531) have shown 
that it is possible to reduce the cerebrospinal fluid pressure, and diminish 
the bulk of the brain by injecting a hypertonic salt solution into the blood- 
stream. Hypotonic solution had the opposite effect. Cushing and Foley 
have confirmed these results and have attempted to achieve them in another 
way. By introducing 20-30 c.c. of a saturated solution of sodium chloride 
into the rectum or duodenum of a cat, a maximal fall of cerebrospinal 
pressure was produced as if the solution were given intravenously. The experi- 
ments were repeated with patients with brain tumours and cerebral herniae 
subsequent to decompression operations. Occasionally very striking results 
were obtained in which a tense convex protrusion became a soft concave 
area over the decompression site. C. G. L. W. 

ChefIiIN, H. a., and Kettger, L. F. Further studies on intestinal 
implantation of Bacillus acidophilus. Proc. Soc. Exjjer. Biol. Sf Med., 1920, 

18, 30. 

The preparation of B. acidophilus milk is conducted by using mixed 
strains of the bacillus wliich have been grown sufficiently long on milk to 



BIOCHEMISTRY 179 

bring about light curdling within 24 hours. If the milk is more or less 
acid before sterilizing, the linal product is of an even consistency, granular 
and lumpy. 

Successfully prepared acidophilus milk is of uniform creamy con- 
sistency. The odour is slightly aromatic. The acidity is always below 1-0 
per cent. Samples of milk which have been kept at room temperature for 
two weeks are practically indistinguishable from the fresh product. The 
clinical results in eftecting a transformation of the flora of the intestine by 
the use of the milk have been most promising. C. G. L. W. 

Uhi.eii'HUTH, E. Experimental gigantism produced hj feeding pituitary 
gland. Froc. Soc. Exper. Biol. ^- MecL, 1920, 18, 11. 

By feeding the anterior lobe to salamanders specimens were produced 
which attained a growth much larger than any which have hitherto been 
seen. If the animals are fed on the posterior lobe, growth may be greatly 
retarded. Feeding produces both acceleration of growth and continuation 
beyond the specific size of the species. C. G. L. W. 

Cameron, A. T., and Carmichaei., J. Biochemistry of iodine. III. The 
comparative effects of thyroid and iodide feeding on growth in white rats 
and in rabbits. J. Biol. Ohcm., 1920, 45, 69. 

The effect of feeding continued small doses of desiccated thyroid gland 
to young wliite rats was threefold. There was a definite decrease in the 
growth-rate, a hypertrophy of the heart, liver, kidneys, and adrenals, and 
a disappearance of fat. The latter two results confirm those of Hoskins 
and Herring. The decrease in rate of growth is proportional to the amount, 
and also to the iodine content, of the thyroid tissue fed. The hypertrophy, 
varying with the dose and length of duration of the feeding, is proportional 
to the iodine content. The feeding of sodium iodide does not reproduce 
these effects, nor does the extract of other glandular tissues. R. A. P. 

Uhlenhuth, E. Experimental production of gigantism by feeding the 
anterior lobe of the hypophysis. J. Gen. Physiol., 1921, 3, 347. 

Metamorphosed salamanders (Amby stoma opaciiin and tirjrinum) grew 
much more rapidly on anterior lobe of hypophysis than did controls on 
earthworms. Experimental giants were produced. W. M. B. 

Fezabd, a. Numerical law of regression of certain sex characters. 
J. Gen. Bhysiol., 1921, 3, 271. 

Post-puberal castration in cocks results in a regression of the comb 
similar to that effected by castration 1 )efore puberty. The rate of diminution 
is represented by a segment of a parabola. W. M. B. 

ROKA, P., u. Petow, H. Giftwirkung des Thiodiglykols und seiner Derivate 
an Sojabohnenurease. [Poisonous effect of thiodiglycol upon urease.] Bio- 
chem. ZtscJir., 1920, 111. 134. 

These experiments have some interest in connexion with the toxic effect 

,ptj pw pi 

of mustard gas. Mustard g-as, or dichlor-diethyl sulphide S< ^ ^ 

^ ^ \CH,-CH,C1 

is (as has been demonstrated recently), very toxic in its effects, whereas 



180 ABSTRACTS 

/CH2CH2OH . ,. 11 , . rru • 

tliiodio'lvcol Sx IS practically not poisonous. Ihe curious 

"^^ \CH,CH.30H 

fact is that the former substance in water rapidly passes into the latter 
with splitting off of CI. It has always been difficult to relate the toxic effect 
of the chlorine derivative in the body to its chemistry. The authors here 
have found an analogy in the effect of the two substances upon the ferment 
urease. This ferment splits urea to ammonia and CO.^. Thiodiglycol does 
not poison the ferment, whereas dichlorethyl sulphide stops the action of 
urease even when used in quite small quantities. R. A. P. 

BIBEBFEZ.D, J. Zur Kenntnis der Gewohnung. IV. tJber Gewohnung an 
Kodeinderivative (Eukodal u. Parakodin). [On acclimatization to drugs. 
The acclimatization to codein derivatives (eucodal and paracodein).] Bio- 
cJiem. Ztschr., 1920, 111, 91. 

The author concludes that eucodal depresses the respiration more than 
morphin, though the former is less poisonous than heroin. 

Rabbits do not get accustomed to doses of eucodal. In dogs the seda- 
tive effect soon wears off by repeated injection, and is replaced by an 
excitant effect for larger doses. Paracodein has a stronger effect upon 
respiration than codein, weaker than eucodal and morphin ; dogs show an 
acclimatization to the sedative component of the effect. R. A. P. 

VAN DEB WiLLiGEN, A. M. M. Die Abfiihrwirkung des Schwefels. Die 
Abflihrwirkung des Kalomels. Die Abfuhrwirkung des Phenolphthaleins. 
[The purgative action of sulphur— of calomel —of phenolphthalein.] Arch. 
/. d. ges. Physiol., 1921, 186, 173, 185, 193. 

Experiments were made on cats, by the bismuth meal and X-ray 
method, before and after the administration of the various cathartics. 
Some experiments were also made on isolated loops of intestine. The action 
of sulphur was shown to be due to the effect of sulphuretted hydrogen pro- 
duced from it in the large intestine (and passed in the flatus). The move- 
ments of the proximal colon are so accelerated by the sulphuretted hydrogen 
that the normal absorption of water in that portion of the bowel is much 
reduced. No sulphuretted hydrogen was detected in either the expired air 
or blood after administration of sulphur. The absorptive and secretory 
activities of the intestinal mucosa were unaltered. Calomel hastens the 
passage along both small and large intestines, and likewise leaves secretion 
and absorption unaffected. 

Phenolphthalein chiefly stimulates the colon, and to a much smaller 
extent the small intestine, and does not affect either secretion or absorption. 

C. L. E. 

SCHUZ.Z, W. Der Verlauf der Kreatininausscheidung im Harn des Menschen 
mit besonderer Berucksichtigung des Einflusses der Muskelarbeit. [The course 
of creatinin excretion in the urine in man, with especial reference to the 
effect of exercise.] ArcK f. d. ges. Physiol., 1921, 186, 126. 

The daily creatinin excretion is moderately constant on a creatin-free 
diet, and is independent of the volume of urine passed. It falls steadily 
during starvation. During the day there are three maxima, at about 



BIOCHEMISTRY 181 

10 a.m., ^-4 p.m., and 8-10 p.m., and these are unaltered in starvation. 
Creatin is absent except during starvation. During muscular exercise, 
whether in the fed or fasting subject, there is a rise in the creatinin output, 
but the daily excretion is unaffected. G. L. E, 



RADIOLOGY 

Radio-technique 

Taylor Jones, E. The action of induction coils. J. Hunt. Soc, 1920, 
16, 47. 

The paper deals mainly with variations in the wave-form of potential 
at 'break ', consequent on tlie variation of the frequency-ratio of an induc- 
tion coil. The first part of the paper is based on the theory that when the 
secondary terminals are insulated the wave-form of potential after ' break ' 
consists of two components which begin in opposite phase and the initial 
amplitudes of which are inversely proportional to their frequency. The 
author shows that the maximum potential cannot exceed the sum of the 
amplitudes and can only attain this value for frequency-ratios 3, 7, 
11, &c. 

The frequency-ratio of a coil is smallest when the primary capacity is 
such that L^C^ = L.^G.2, its value then depending on the coupling. For still 
smaller values of the primary capacity the frequency -ratio steadily increases, 
and it is to this range that the author restricts himself. 

By withdrawing the primary and core to various distances along the 
axis of the secondary and consequently altering the coupling, it was found 
that the spark length produced at the interruption of a given primary 
current was a maximum when the primary was about 1 foot from its 
normal position. The coupling was found to be 0-58 for this position of the 
primary coil. The experimental curve, showing the way in which the 
secondary potential varies with the primary capacity, is well in accord with 
theory except that the potential is reduced considerably by the damping. 
In actual coils the least efficient coupling appears to be rather smaller than 
the corresponding value for a coil devoid of damping. The author's experi- 
ments show that the spark length for an 18-inch coil does not necessarily 
increase with the mutual inductance, and that the effect of damping in 
reducing the secondary potential increases with the coupling, amounting 
in some cases to a 25 per cent, reduction. 

A description is given of an electrostatic oscillograph capable of being 
used up to 200,000 volts, and some examples of the photographs obtained 
with it illustrate remarkable agreement between theory and experiment. 
Other wave-forms, obtained when the oscillograph was connected to the 
terminals of a fairly soft X-ray tube, suggest that the latter is behaving 
like a resistance which, while greater than that of a spark of moderate 
length, is still sufficiently small to be non-oscillatory. A hard tube follows 
more closely the nominal form when the terminals of the coil are insulated. 

L. H. C. 

IV. o 



182 ABSTRACTS 

FKZI.I.ZFS, C. E. S. A suggested new method of measuring X-ray dosage. 

Arch Radiol 4- Eledroth., 1920, 25, 215. 

The main feature of the suggested ionization method is the use of 
a thermionic valve which enables small variations of current in an ioniza- 
tion chamber to be transformed ' up ' to give corresponding variations of 
a much larger current in a separate circuit at low tension. The recording 
instrument is a milliampere-meter which is included in the separate circuit. 

The ionization chamber is hermetically sealed and has two, parallel 
plate, electrodes, the lower resting in a bed of ebonite and* connected by 
a short, heavily insulated wire to the grid of the valve. 

The author describes the action of the thermionic valve and states that 
the recording instrument should give steady readings, which will vary with 
the intensity of radiation. L. H. C. 



Radio-diagnosis 

Daztdt, W. E. Localization or elimination of cerebral tumoiu's by ventri- 
culography. Surg. Gyncc. 6f Obst, 1920, 30, 329. (■/. de radiol. et d'electrol, 
1920, 11, 520.) 

It is very difficult to localize cerebral tumours clinically unless they 
are large, but it is only by exact localization that they can be removed. 
Radiography of the ventricles consists in passing into one of the lateral 
ventricles a needle through which air is injected after the removal of some 
of the cerebrospinal fluid, after a preliminary small trephining under a 
local anaesthetic. A series of X-ray photographs is then taken from 
different positions in such a manner that the various parts of the ventricle 
in turn may contain the air. Every cerebral tumour alters the shape of 
the ventricle. By this method an early diagnosis, and therefore an early 
removal, of the tumour can be made. P. L.-B. 

DuvAii, P., Roux, et BscitiiBE, H. L'ulcere de la petite courbure de restomac. 
[Ulcer of the smaller curvature of the stomach.] Arch, dielectric, med., 1920, 
28, 289. 

An ulcer of the lesser curvature presenting Mathieu's syndrome can 
be definitely diagnosed by X-rays. 

(1) Under the X-rays there are two modifications of the lesser curva- 
ture : («) a portion of the lesser curvature becomes straight ; (6) a diverti- 
culum of Haudek. The straight portion varies in extent, but is always at 
the periphery of the ulcer and corresponds to the point which is painful on 
palpation. A typical diverticulum of Haudek indicates an ulcer which has 
invaded the perigastric tissues. 

(2) Modifications of the larger curvature consist of an indentation in 
the wall and sometimes in a mixed biloculation. The indentation always 
occurs in the same place ; its usual position is opposite the ulcer. It may 
be the only sign of an ulcer, DifTerential diagnosis between this and 
functional or cicatricial contractions is given. 

(3) The general appearance of the stomach is modified in several ways. 
The action of the pylorus should be closely examined. The author classi- 
fies the X-ray appearances of the ulcers thus : (a) commencing ulcer ; 



RADI0L(3GY 183 

(b) definite ulcer without perforation or contraction ; (c) punched out ulcer 
with projecting edges ; {d) ulcer with mixed biloculation. The signs of 
these various types are given. It is stated that radiology alone is in- 
sufficient, but combined with clinical observation is of the greatest value. 
An X-ray photograph is not enough ; examination under the screen must be 
undertaken and the radiologist and physician or surgeon must collaborate. 

P. L.-B. 



Sfbigos, E. I. Duodenal divertictda. Brit. J. Surg., 1920, 8, 18. 

In a thousand consecutive X-ray examinations of the alimentary tract, 
duodenal diverticula have been seen ten times ; they rarely gave rise to 
symptoms. The shadows may cause confusion unless their nature is realized 
and the contents are seen passing into the duodenum. The size varies from 
a linseed to a hen's egg. The commonest situation is the second part of the 
duodenum, of which the region of the ampulla of Vater is the favourite site. 

P.L.-B. 



Cols, L. G., and Roberts, D. Duodenal diverticula ; their clinical and 
radiological aspect. Surg. Gynec. c|- Ohst., 1920, 31, 376. {Arch. (Velectric. 
mcd., 1920, 28, 364. 

Up to a few years ago diverticula of the intestine were scarcely recog- 
nized. Those of the large intestine were the first and best studied, the rest 
being looked upon as curiosities. Cole and Roberts show that duodenal 
diverticula occur more frequently than w^as thought. They occur par- 
ticularly in the region of the ampulla of Vater and develop there at the 
expense of the posterior wall or of the lumen of the duodenum. Diverticula 
of the first part are very rare, but less so than those of the third or fourth 
parts. Single, or in groups of three or four, the size varies from that of 
a nut to that of a pear : the opening is large or narrow, and the interior some- 
times contains food debris. 

Their presence entails certain symptoms and complications, such as 
intestinal obstruction, persistent indigestion, regurgitations of food, which 
may be haemorrhagic and chronic ; the authors also think that diverticula 
are not unconnected with primary cancer of the duodenum, rare though 

it be. 

On radiological examination, the fact that the meal remains in these 
pouches, reveals'^their presence : most often, however, the opaque meal only 
confirms their presence and their anatomical grouping, whether round the 
ampulla of Vater or not. The diagnosis, however, always remains very 
delicate, because in the presence of shadows visible before an opaque meal 
it will be necessary to bear in mind renal, biliary, and pancreatic calculi, 
calcified mesenteric or retro-peritoneal glands, or faecal concretions. When 
the opaque meal has been taken, it will be necessary to think of dilatation 
of the first part of the duodenum accompanying a duodenal ulcer ; per- 
forating ulcers ; fistulae between duodenum and gall-bladder ; further, it 
must not be forgotten that, in a patient who has taken a bismuth or barium 
meal, intestinal shadows due to particles of these substances can be seen for 
several days. 

Also, owing to the difticulty of such a diagnosis, one examination is not 



184 ABSTRACTS 

sufficient. Many should be made, and only after a very careful comparison 
of the results has been made can the existence of a diverticulum be affirmed. 

P. L.-B. 

BiAMOND, P. Le spasme du pylore. [Pyloric spasm.] Presse med., 1920, 
May. {Arch, dielectric, med., 1920, 28, 344.) 

In its complete form spasm of the pylorus shows itself by the 
followino- radiological signs : at the moment of its arrival in the stomach, 
a part of the opaque meal passes into the duodenum by ' surprising ' the 
pylorus. Contraction having taken place, the closed pylorus appears as 
a light band, clearly seen above the horizontal plane, passing through the 
fundus of the stomach. Above may be seen an immobile column of bismuth 
with no tendency to empty itself either into the duodenum or into the 
stomach. After a time, sudden relaxation of the sphincter supervenes, and 
the bismuth mass is either forced precipitately into the duodenum, or passes 
little by little. At the same time the duodenal column separates into two 
portions, one part progresses towards the second part of the duodenum, 
while a small amount of bismuth returns into the stomach. In a less 
vigorous form of pyloric spasm, the pyloric region is always clearly visible, 
but it allows a fine opaque thread to pass ; the duodenal column is not so 
high, and the duration of the phenomenon is shorter. 

It is possible to bring the spasm still better into relief : (1) by manual 
compression of the pyloric region, with the object of forcing open the 
sphincter, the resistance of the pylorus is more prolonged and sometimes 
absolute ; (2) a spoonful of syrup of belladonna or an injection of 1 mg. of 
atropin brings about cessation of the spasms (this test sometimes fails) ; 
(3) a cachet of 50 cgrm. of adrenal ingested a quarter of an hour before 
examination often reveals a latent spasm, or exaggerates it if it be already 
in existence ; the patient experiences painful cramp and the screen shows 
a good image of the spasm. S. U. L.-B. 

HiNMAN, p. Diverticules vesicaux. [Diverticula of the bladder.] Surg. 
Gynec. S,- Ohsf., 1919, August. {ArcJi. d'electrk. med., 1920, 28, 345.) 

Cystoscopy and radiography have shown that vesical diverticula are 
much more frequent than was believed, and from 21 personal observations 
the author draws the followino: conclusions : 

The largest proportion is furnished by men between the ages of 50 to 
60 years ; women are nearly always exempt, the author only having observed 
two cases. 

Three different examinations are necessary to make an exact diagnosis 
of this affection. The first by cystoscopy, the second by radioscopy, the 
bladder having been previously filled with an opaque liquid, and the third 
by radiography. As this last examination must serve to differentiate 
between the vesical cavity and the diverticula and to indicate the seat of 
the orifices which connect them with the bladder, it can only be made after 
having emptied the vesical cavity and replaced its opaque contents with an 
injection of air. In this way will be shown, in positive cases, a light mass 
formed by the bladder, crossed by the shadow of the diverticula which still 
contain the opaque liquid. 

According to the author, a single diverticulum is most often found and 



RADIOLOGY 185 

in this case it borders on the ureteral orifice. In the case of multiple diver- 
ticula they are seen at the base of the bladder and their volume is tlien less 
than in the case of a single diverticulum. From the clinical point of view 
the symptoms are va^^ue and dominated by the phenomena of prostatic 
lesions which almost always accompany diverticula. Diagnosis can only be 
made by cystoscopic and radioscopic examination. S. U. L.-B. 



Radio-biology 

Buss, S. Some problems in the biological action of radiations. J. Hunt. 
Soc, 1920, 16, 134. 

In treating, say a rapidly growing tumour, one of the greatest diffi- 
culties in administering a lethal dose is that the cells are in different stages 
of activity. It might be thought that a rapidly growing tumour would be 
more vulnerable than one growing slowly, but this is not always the case: 
the response also depends on the type of cell. If a tumour disappears after 
radiation it may do so because of chemical or physical processes, but which 
is the more important is not known. 

In carrying out experiments in vivo and in vitro, the results may be 
widely different or the same : experiments on lymphocytes after radiation 
vary greatly iti vivo and in vitro, whereas those on Jensen's rat sarcoma 
give almost identical results. The former may be an action on the exterior 
of the cell and on its surrounding, while the latter is almost certainly on the 
internal structure of the cell. 

There may be two variables, («) the cell, and (h) the radiation. As yet 
the energy of radiation from one part of the spectrum with that of another 
cannot be compared. 

The biological reaction of a tissue bears no simple relation to the 
amount of energy absorbed when exposed to different parts of the spectrum. 
It may be significant that the U. V., X-rays, and y-rays, which give the 
most pronounced biological actions, are those which give rise to the most 
marked electronic emission. 

The electronic emission probably gives rise to physical rather than 
chemical conditions, as chemical changes are only seen after heavy doses, 
while numerous physical effects can be seen after small doses. Electrical 
forces play a considerable part in many processes. It has been shown for 
several types of cell that the same amount of energy from /3- and y-rays 
will produce similar results. P. L.-B. 

Bagg, H. J. The response of the animal organism to repeated injections 
of an active deposit of radium emanation. Intravenous injections in dogs. 
Am. J. Cancer Research, 1920, 5, 301. 

The animals were two bitches, one a Dalmatian, the other a mongrel. 
Complete urine analyses were made before and after treatment ; frequent 
blood examinations were made, temperature and weight recorded, and histo- 
logical examinations made of post-mortem specimens. 

The active deposit consisted of a solution in which radium emanation 
had been deposited on NaCl, which was later dissolved in sterile water to 
make a physiological salt solution. 



is 



186 ABSTRACTS 

The injections were made into the veins of the ear, about 2 e.c. being- 
injected at a time. Tlie syringe was lead covered. A second injection was 
not made until the metabolism had recovered. 

Blood examinations were made from the ear. Temperatures taken in 
the rectum. 

Dog I. Experiments lasted for three months ; four injections were 
made totalling 231-8 mc. The first injection was of 95'3 mc, after which 
the animal was affected for two days ; the second injection a month later 
was apparently without effect except for loss of appetite on the 13th, 23rd, 
and 24th days. 

After the first injection the leucocytes fell in number till tlie eleventh 
day, from 10,250 to 4,200 ; from then onwards there was a steady recovery. 
After the second injection the white cells again fell, but the red slightly 
increased in numbers. On the eleventh day there was a marked decrease 
in the polynuclears with a rise in the lymphocytes, but the differential 
count was normal before the second injection. After the injection there 
an increase in the total nitrogen and urea and a considerable increase in 
the uric acid and phosphates in the urine. 

The second injection was made on the thirty-first day ; the dose was 
30 mc. The faeces became slightly fluid, otherwise the animal was normal. 
The temperature was low and irregular for a few days. After 3 days the 
leucocytes were slightly raised, but later fell to about 75 per cent. The red 
cells fell slightly at first. 

The third injection was made on the forty-second day ; the dose was 
42 mc. There followed diarrhoea and loss of appetite for 10 days and the 
animal lost 2 lb, in weight. The temperature rose sharply and was high and 
irregular for several days. On the third day after injection the leucocytes 
had fallen to 2,900 but increased to 12,500 before the next injection : 
Hb. 80 per cent. The red cells increased in number to nearly a million more 
than normal before the fourth injection. The blood clotted rapidly. The 
urine contained an increase of total nitrogen, urea, uric acid, creatinin, and 
total phosphates. 

The fourth injection was made on the sixty-fifth day; the dose was 
64-3 mc. It was followed by severe vomiting, constipation, and a sudden 
rise of temperature to 102°. The animal refused food for two days and was 
seriously ill ; there was a loss of weight of 3 a lb. The white cells fell to 
5,600, the red cells fell slightly. There was a relative increase of lympho- 
cytes and fall of polynuclears. The excretion of urine was increased. 

Histologically there was an intensely congested liver with granular 
degeneration. The kidneys were congested and showed degeneration of the 
tubule cells. The Malpighian bodies of the spleen were prominent, few cells 
in the pulp. The colon was congested. The lymph nodes were congested. 
The lymph follicles decreased in size. No changes were noted in lungs, 
stomach, small intestine, or thyroid. 

Dog 11. Experiments lasted two months. Four injections were given 
totalling 338-4 mc. The first injection was followed by a low and irregular 
temperature for several days. Vomiting occurred after three days. The 
animal refused food and lost 2 lb. in weight in six days. The leucocytes 
fell from 14,400 to 2,150 in seven days. The red cells fell by nearly two 
million, causing a fall of Hb. from 85 to 75 per cent. There was a large 
increase of uric acid and total phosphates in the urine. 

The second injection was made on the twenty-eighth day ; the dose was 



RADIOLOGY 187 

17*3 mc. After an initial fall, the temperature rose to 102*5° on the second 
day. There was a decrease in the white cells, but the red cells increased 
slightly in numbers. There was only a slight increase in the total nitrogen, 
uric acid, &c. 

The third injection was made on the thirty-seventh day ; the dose was 
54-7 mc. The temperature rose slightly for three days ; on the fourth day 
the animal refused food and lost 1^ lb. in weight. There was a relative 
decrease of the lymphocytes and increase of the polynuclears. There was 
an increase of total nitrogen and phosphates in the urine ; the creatinin 
remained constant. 

The fourth injection was made on the fifty-second day ; the dose was 
146-4 mc. The temperature was high before injection but soon fell. A few 
hours after the injection there was vomiting and the passage of semi-solid 
faeces. Food was refused. The animal lost 2 lb. in weight in five days 
and was seriously ill. The white cells fell to 1,400 with a great reduction 
in the lymphocytes to 3 per cent. ; the polj^iuclears increased to 95 per cent. 

Histologically there were fatty and granular degeneration of the liver, 
congestion of the kidneys, and slight degeneration of the tubule cells. The 
splenic cells were pigmented and the follicles small and scanty, the organ 
was congested and fibrosed. In the bone marrow of the head of the femur, 
fat replaced the lymphoid cells. The pancreas, thyroid and parathyroids, 
stomach, and small intestine showed no change. 

The experiments show that the same effects on the blood may be 
obtained by the intravenous injection of the active deposit of radium 
emanation as by X-rays, and that definite physiological reactions follow 
the injections. 

Conclusions. Large intravenous doses produced a large drop in the 
leucocytes up to 80 per cent., and a reduction of the red cells to about 
25 per cent. Repeated injections apparently produced a marked decrease 
of lymphocytes. Injections produced severe digestive disturbances and 
a marked drop in body-weight. In many cases there was a rise in tempera- 
ture, probably in response to a toxic condition. The larger doses were 
followed by great increase in the total nitrogen, urea, &c., in the urine. 
Relatively small doses, after the organism had been injured, produced 
definite changes. 

Histologically there was great congestion of the principal viscera. 

When treating patients the dose must vary according to the physical 
condition and a second dose should be smaller than the first. 

P. L.-B. 



CiiUZET, RoCHAix, et EoFMAN. Action bactericiilo du radium sur le bacille 
pyocyanique. [The bactericidal action of radium on B. pyocyaneus.] 

Reunion hiologique de Lyon., 1920, July. {J. de radiol. et d'eledrol, 1920, 4, 
525.) 

This is a very important piece of work from the point of view of 
radio-biology. The authors, using a tube with walls of 0-5 mm. of platinum, 
have employed a higher proportion of gamma-rays than that ordinarily used 
in physiological experiments. These tubes, indeed, allow less than half the 
beta-rays and almost all the gamma-rays to pass through. 

The tube used by them contained 50 mg. of RaBr2.2H20, that is, 
about 25 mg. of radium element. 



188 ABSTRACTS 

They did not determine the intensity of the field around the tube and 
in the various layers of the cultures, and as the culture tubes measured 
1 cm. in internal diameter, they were forced to have fields of action differing 
greatly according to distance, therefore the following results can only be 
regarded as mean figures. This does not lessen their value. 

The first experiment was on a 24-hours' culture of B. 'pyocyaneus in 
peptone broth. The irradiation lasted three days at a temperature of 16°C. 
The action of radium under these conditions was nil. 

A second experiment made at room temperature with tubes immediately 
after inoculation, and seven days' irradiation, clearly showed a delay of 
twelve days in growth of the culture. 

The third experiment was made on cultures kept in ice. These cultures 
were also kept in a living but arrested condition. Nine days' irradiation 
under these conditions sterilized the culture. That is, a drop of the irradiated 
culture when re-inoculated remained sterile, whereas a drop of a control 
culture kept at the same temperature during the nine days began to grow. 

A control experiment has elsewhere shown that the retarding or steri- 
lizing action is direct and is not produced indirectly through a chemical 
reaction on the medium. 

From these experiments the authors conclude : (1) that radium appears 
to be without action when acting for 24 hours after inoculation ; (2) that 
the action of radium on young cultures just beginning to grow is only 
retarding ; (3) that if the growth of the culture is retarded by cold, the 
action of radium is clearly bactericidal. These results are comparable with 
those obtaining in seeds under the action of radium. P. L.-B. 



MEDICAL SCIENCE 

ABSTRACTS & REVIEWS 



Volume IV. Number 3 June 1921 



CONTENTS 



REVIEWS : page 

TYPHUS 191 

WHOOPING-COUGH 201 

VACCINATION 205 

GONORRHOEA 210 

CHANCROID 218 

SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC INTESTINAL STASIS . . 221 

MELANIN, MELANOMA, MELANOTIC CANCER 229 

ACUTE SUPPURATION ABOUT THE WRIST TREATED BY INCISION 

DIVIDING THE ANNULAR LIGAMENT 236 



ABSTRACTS : 

SURGERY * .... 230 

NEUROLOGY 242 

PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 255 

BIOCHEMISTRY 273 

RADIOLOGY 283 



MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 

The viscount GOSCHEN, C.B.E. (Chairman) 

WILLIAM GEAHAM, M.P. 

The Hon. EDWAED F. L. WOOD, M.P. {Treasurer) 

C. J. BOND, C.M.G., F.E.C.S. 

Professor WILLIAM BULLOCH, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 

T. E. ELLIOTT, C.B.E., D.S.O., M.D., F.E.S. 

HENEY HEAD, M.D., F.E.S. 

Professor F. G. HOPKINS, D.Sc, F.E.C.P., F.E.S. 

Major-General SIE WILLIAM LEISHMAN, K.C.M.G., C.B., F.E.S. 

Professor NOEL PATON, M.D., F.E.S. 

SIE WALTEE M. FLETCHEE, K.B.E.. M.D., Sc.D., F.E.S. {Secretary). 



The Council are indebted to the following for editorial superintendence in 
the subjects named : 

Medicine . . . . J. D. EOLLESTON, M.D. 

Surgery . . . . W. G. SPENCEE, M.S., F.E.C.S. 

Pathology and Bacteriology W. BULLOCH, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 

Neurology . . . F. M. E. WALSHE, M.D. F.E.C.P. 

Radiology . . . W. S. LAZAEUS-BAELOW, M.D., F.E.C.P. 

SIDNEY EUSS, D.Sc. 

Biochemistry . . . C. G. L. WOLF, M.D. 



All communications on editorial matters should be addressed to 

E. SCHUSTEE, D.Sc, 
Assistant Secretary, Medical Eesearch Council, 

National Institute for Medical Eesearch, 

Hampstead, N.W. 3. 



1 



REVIEWS 

TYPHUS 

Epidemiology. According to Hunter, the Serbian epidemic of 1915 
was the most sudden in origin, greatest in extent, and most quickly arrested 
of any epidemic of a like kind in history. It lasted for about six months 
and maintained its maximum for about two months. Other epidemics have 
lasted 1^3 years, and maintained their maximum for periods of 12 (Irish) 
or 18 months (English epidemic). Like the Irish epidemic of 1846-1848, 
the Serbian epidemic was one of relapsing fever and typhus combined. The 
first in origin was relapsing fever, the number of cases in hospital at the 
end of December 1914 being 2,184 as compared with only 200 of typhus. 
By the end of January the numbers of relapsing fever and typhus cases were 
5,122 and 1,100 respectively, by the end of February 7,000 and 4,000 
respectively, and by the end of march 8,100 and 8,000 respectively. There- 
after the proportions altered ; at the end of April there were 3,260 cases of 
relapsing fever and 6,300 of typhus, and by the end of May 1,600 of relaps- 
ing fever and 2,860 of typhus. The mortality was 30 per cent, in January 
and February, and rose in a week or two to 40 per cent, in March. As 
usual, it was highest among the doctors ; out of an original total of 450 
Serbian doctors 100 died and 200 were rendered unfit for duty. 

Cantacuzene draws attention to two remarkable features of the 
Roumanian epidemic of 1917-18. In the first place, concurrently with the 
outbreak of typhus, an abnormally virulent epidemic of relapsing fever 
developed, and both epidemics reached their highest incidence and mortality 
at the same time. The epidemic of relapsing fever rapidly declined in 
April 1917, and ceased entirely at the beginning of May, whereas the 
epidemic of typhus did not come to an end till June. The second remark- 
able feature of the epidemic was the fact that scarlet fever, which is usually 
extremely frequent and severe in Roumania, almost entirely disappeared 
during the epidemic of typhus. The average mortality in the Roumanian 
epidemic in the hospitals at the front and at the base was 15-17 per cent., 
ranging from 12-27 per cent, according to the various hospital centres. In 
the medical staff" the mortality was 41 per cent., death being due in the 
great majority of cases to the bulbo-pontine form of the disease {vicle also 
Medical Science 1920, 1, 561). 

According to Goodall, for the period January 1, 1916, to December 31, 
1919, there were at least 431,200 cases of typhus in Congress Poland and 
Galicia combined. The number was probably higher, for there was little 
doubt that not a few cases escaped being recorded. During January and 
February 1920, 12,098 cases were notified in Congress Poland and 34,476 in 
Galicia. The epidemic was widely spread and prevailed at one time or 
IV. P 2 



192 REVIEWS 

another, with varying attack rate, all over Poland in 1918. Early in 1919 
the whole country was more or less invaded, but the districts which suffered 
most were those in the east and south-west. Galicia and Volhynia were 
also severely aflfected. 

Ruysch states that prior to 1918 typhus made only a sporadic appearance 
in Holland, only 9 cases having occurred between 1911 and 1917. This was 
all the more remarkable as in several neighbouring countries the disease 
was more or less prevalent, and thousands of" persons had been crossing the 
frontier from infected areas ever since the first year of the war. In 1918 
the first cases of typhus in Holland, which occurred at Amsterdam, were not 
recognized as such and were diagnosed as typhoid fever. A few days after 
admission to hospital the true nature of the disease was discovered both 
by clinical examination and the Weil- Felix reaction. It is probable that the 
late diagnosis favoured the extension of the epidemic. 17 cases occurred 
at Amsterdam and 40 at Urk, a little island in the Zuider Zee (vide Medical 
Supplement, 1919, 2, 264). The character of the epidemic in 1918 was 
mild, but in January 1919 it assumed a more severe form, 20 districts being- 
attacked. 120 cases occurred in January, 400 in February (a large number 
of these being in Rotterdam, Haarlem, and Delft), 300 in March, and 13 
in April. The last case occurred on May 1. From January 1— May 1, 1919, 
there were 541 cases at Rotterdam, of which 87 were fatal. The mortality 
increased with the age of the patient, being nearly 50 per cent, between 60 
and 74. 

The epidemic of typhus in Rotterdam during the early part of 1919 is 
described by Kramer (1). The disease broke out with great suddenness and 
rapidly spread all over the town. In the week January 26-February 1, 6 
cases were notified, and in the following weeks 126, 145, 170, and 119. As 
the result of the measures taken, viz. rapid removal to hospital, observation 
of contacts, delousing, and disinfection, the epidemic speedily declined in 
March. In the first week of April there were only three cases, and in the 
second week only one, the last. Of 194 cases admitted into two large 
school buildings which had rapidly been converted into hospitals, 141 were 
found to be suffering from typhus, and the remaining 53 from a variety of 
diseases, 21 of which were cases of typhoid, an epidemic of which was pre- 
valent at the same time. Of 130 cases admitted during the febrile period 

29 died, a mortality of 22 per cent. In 20 of these death took place during 
the acute stage, 2 died of pre-existing diseases (chronic bronchitis and 
tuberculosis) and 7 of complications (pneumonia, nephritis and haematemesis). 
The comparative mildness of the disease in early life and its severity in 
later years are shown by the fact that of 77 cases under 30, only 4 died, 
a mortality of 5 per cent., while between 30 and 40 the mortality was 18 
per cent. ; between 40 and 50, 43 per cent. ; between 50 and 60, 70 per cent. ; 
and between 60 and 70, 60 per cent. The mortality in the two sexes above 

30 showed a distinct diff"erence, about one-third of the cases in women being- 
fatal as compared with one-half of the cases in men. 

According to Pulido, three important outbreaks of typhus have recently 
occurred in Spain. The first, consisting of about 50 cases, occurred in the 
province of Burgos in June 1918, the second in the province of Murcia in 
January to May 1919, and the third outbreak, in which there were over 
1,500 cases, in the provinces of Almeria and Granada in July 1919. This 
last epidemic was remarkably mild, for with the exception of two districts 
in which it was 50 per cent., the mortality did not amount to 4 per cent. 



TYPHUS 193 

Jorge states that thouuh typhus is endemic in Portuoal, no important 
outbreaks had occurred until the endemic of 1918-19 in Oporto and the 
north of Portugal, only sporadic cases or localized epidemics having occurred 
since the Peninsular Wai-, when typhus caused more deaths than Napoleon's 
army among the British expeditionary force. From the onset of tlie 
endemic at Oporto, in December 1917, to the end of December 1918, 6,254 
cases of typhus were notified at Oporto with 1,203 deaths, a mortality of 
19-2 per cent., and from January to the end of August 1919 there were 
2,781 cases with 278 deaths, a mortahty of 9-7 per cent. 

Schweinburg records an epidemic of over 800 cases of typhus which 
occurred among German prisoners in Orenburg (Russia) in December 1915. 
The epidemic was a mild one and complications were rare. No case of 
gangrene occurred. The mortality was about 7 per cent. Schweinburg 
kept himself, his wife, and two soldiers who were in constant contact with the 
patients free from lice by soaking their under-hnentwdce daily in petroleum. 

Zlocisti, who was in charge of the German Red Cross Hospital at 
Constantinople, states that of 1,716 typhus patients admitted between May 
1916 and June 1918, 310 died— a mortality of 18-07 percent., which closely 
corresponds to the figure given by Murchison of 18-78 per cent. No deaths 
occurred in the August of 1916 or 1917, the decline of the disease in the 
summer being due to increase in individual hygiene and the injurious effect 
on the lice of light, heat, and the damp skin of the sweating man. Age was 
the most important factor in the prognosis. Among children the mortality 
was almost nil, while in old age it was nearly 100 per cent., and between 
those two extremes there was a regularly rising curve. Race was of 
importance as regards the mortality only in so far as alcohol was con- 
cerned. The lower mortality among the Jews was due to their temperate 
habits. 

Clemow states that typhus was rarely seen in Turkey before the war, 
and in Constantinople it was scarcely knowm as an indigenous disorder. 
Since the outbreak of the war, however, it has become widely epidemic 
throughout the greater part of the country. As regards its recent prevalence, 
the disease became epidemic in February, March, and April 1920 in Con- 
stantinople mainly as the result of the influx of Russian refugees after the 
defeat of Denikin's army. The highest number of cases in any one week 
(that ending March 13) was 78. In the summer the epidemic greatly 
declined, but the disease never wholly disappeared, and in the winter it 
became active again with the arrival of a still larger crowd of refugees from 
the Crimea after the collapse of Wrangel's army. Clemow estimates that the 
total number of known cases of typhus during 1920 was between 600 
and 700. 

An outbreak of eight cases of mild typhus in a home for foreign work- 
men at Paris is reported by Legry, Courcoux, and Lermoyez. Two cases 
from the same source, one of which recovered and the other died, are also 
reported by Labbe and Hutinel. The disease was at first mistaken for in- 
fluenza, and it was not until the Weil-Felix reaction was performed at the 
Pasteur Institute that the correct diagnosis was established. 

At a meeting of the Societe medicale des hopitaux de Paris on June 11, 
Netter and Salanier reported an isolated case of typhus in a lady, aged 28, 
wdiich had been contracted at Cracow in Poland, showing that the disease 
does not spread in families where cleanliness is observed. The disease is 
transmitted by lice only, and owing to her having changed her under-linen 



194 REVIEWS 

several times in the course of her journey from Cracow to Paris, the patient 
had not brought any lice with her. In the subsequent discussion Renault 
stated that he had seen three simultaneous cases of tj^phus, in a camp of 
Polish workmen near Arras, who had contracted the disease before leaving 
Poland. 

A proof of the important and perhaps exclusive role played by lice in 
the transmission of the disease is also given by Kramer (2) in his account of 
the epidemic at Amsterdam. The sanitary employees who were engaged in 
the transport of the patients and the disinfection of houses were required 
to keep their hair and beard closely shaved, to wear special clothes when on 
duty, and at the end of their day's work to return home in their own clothes. 
After this regulation had been made, eight employees contracted tj^phus, 
but although they remained at home some days before removal to hospital, 
no case broke out in their families. 

Symptomatology. Lowy contests the truth of Jiirgens's dictum that 
one case of typhus is just the same as another (vide Medical Sup'plement, 
1918, 1, 90), since typhus without eruption, attacks with a rudimentary rash, 
and those wath a severe haemorrhagic eruption represent clinically distinct 
types of the disease. He records three cases of atypical typhus in children 
aged 5, 8, and 10 years respectively, in whom the fever lasted only five to 
seven days and was accompanied by very little general disturbance. In 
spite of the most careful examination no rash could be detected, but the 
diagnosis of typhus was established by the Weil-Felix reaction, which was 
positive in 1 : 200-1 : 1,600, as well as by the existence of an epidemic. 

At a meeting of the Bucharest Medical Society, Constantinesco and 
Sloboziano reported two cases of typhus without eruption in which the 
clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the Weil-Felix reaction, which was 
positive in a dilution of 1 : 1,600. In the subsequent discussion Daniel opolu 
stated that he had never met with an example of typhus w^ithout eruption 
among a thousand cases of the disease, and V^ignal declared that one should 
be very careful in making such a diagnosis. It was better to say ' without 
perceptible eruption '. In some cases the rash was very famt and transient. 
Sometimes, as in typhoid fever, it could only be seen in the scapulo- vertebral 
region. Moreover, in subjects with a pigmented skin like the Tziganes in 
Roumania, it might not be visible to the naked e^^e, but could be detected 
by examining the skin through blue glasses, when the eruption appeared in 
the form of black spots. 

According to Kramer (2) widely divergent figures are given by different 
writers as to the duration of the incubation period in typhus. It is 
generally supposed to be from 9-12 days. The period may, however, be 
shorter, as was shown by the case of a nursing sister who went to Urk in 
September 1918 to nurse typhus, and on the eighth day after her arrival 
was severely ill with the disease. At the beginning of the epidemic at 
Rotterdam in 1918-19, contacts were isolated for 14 days, but subsequently 
this period was prolonged to 18 days, because in the second half of February 
two or three days after release from quarantine, tw^o cases broke out in one 
family. The garrison at Rotterdam was isolated for 21 days, but as a rule 
isolation of contacts for 18 days, reckoning from the doy of delousing is 
sufficient. 

Gane describes a case of relapse in a man aged 21, who had a mild 
attack of typhus followed by a similar attack five days after the temperature 
had become normal. The eruption was typical of typhus in both attacks. 



TYPHUS 195 

The diagnosis of enteric and relapsing fever was excluded in both attacks 
by examination of the blood. 

Cantacuzene also reports a case of relapse in which there was an 
interval of 3^ months between each attack. In both cases the attack was 
of moderate intensity and uncomplicated, the second attack being an exact 
repetition of the first. 

Dumitreseo-Mante. of Bucharest, describes the followinii; three forms of 
pulmonary cougestiou in typhus: (1) simple congestion, (2) perituberculous 
congestion, (3) pseudo-tuberculous or pseudo-phymic congestion. In the 
last form the congestion is localized at the apex, and presents the clinical 
and radibscopic appearances of pulmonary tuberculosis, but repeated 
examination of the sputum shows an absence of tubercle bacilli. The 
general condition is usually good, and complete recovery takes place in 
a few days or weeks. Although similar phenomena have been described in 
influenza and malaria, Dumitresco-Mante states that pseudo-tuberculous 
congestion which lie observed in 10 out of 254 cases, has not previously 
been described in typhus. One of the factors of this congestion is the 
intense vasodilatation which occurs in typhus. The localization at the apex 
is difficult to explain and may possibly be due to a latent tuberculous focus. 
It must, however, be definitely distinguished from the congestion which 
occurs round a focus of active tuberculosis, and in most cases has a grave 
and progressive evolution. 

Stroe examined the cerebrospinal fluid in 15 cases of severe typhus, all 
of which ended fatally, and found the streptococcus present in each case. 
In 12 of these it was also present in the blood. Stroe considers that the 
presence of this organism in the cerebrospinal fluid was due to septicaemia. 
Its absence in 3 cases does not negative this hypothesis, as a single blood- 
culture does not possess an absolute value. All the fluids were examined 
cytologically and showed the changes described by Danidlopolu (vide 
Medical Sivppleinent, 1918, 1, 91), Devaux {ibid., 385), and others, the 
presence of the streptococcus in no way aftecting the cell count. 

Cantacuzene states that the general physiognomy of the Roumanian 
epidemic of 1917-18 was entirely difterent from that of the Serbian 
epidemic of 1915, which was characterized by the enormous proportion of 
cases of dry gangrene. In the Roumanian epidemic, cases of gangrene were 
extremely rare and did not amount to more than one case in a thousand. 
In the few cases which did occur the lower extremities only were afiected, 
and the extensive areas of gangrene, involving the whole of the abdominal 
wall, such as were seen in the Serbian epidemic, were not observed. On the 
other hand the Roumanian epidemic was characterized by a bulbo-pontine 
syndrome of which hiccough, dysphagia, dyspnoea, and trismus were the 
principal features, some cases closely resembling rabies and tetanus. 

Pfeiffer records a case of typical right hemiplegia and aphasia in 
a woman aged 26, which occurred on the first day after the temperature 
had become normal. Some improvement took place in the course of the 
next few months, but slight contracture of the elbow and wrist developed. 
Pfeiffer attributes the complication to a large embolic or thrombotic focus in 
the region of the left middle cerebral artery. 

Moszeik reports a case of lethargic encephalitis following typhus, in 
a girl aged 18, to show that this syndrome may follow other infectious 
disease than influenza. 

Grossfeld deals wdth the onychodystrophy of the fingers and toes 



196 REVIEWS 

following typhus which was described by Vogel in 1870 and by Murchison 
in 1873, and consisting in a groove 2-3 mm. broad running across the nail. 
It appears in the second month of convalescence and reaches the free border 
of the nail at about the sixth month. In several cases the retrospective 
diagnosis of typhus was made in convalescents who had had no history of 
illness. 

The aural and laryngeal complications of typhus are discussed by 
Costiuiu, of the Otorhinolaryngological CHnic of Bucharest, who states that 
during the Roumanian epidemic of 1917-18 nearly 70 per cent, of the 
patients had aural complications. In the early stage of the disease the 
middle ear only was affected, but in 10 per cent, the internal ear was also 
involved later. Recovery from otitis media was almost the rule, but 
recurrences were not infrequent. In otitis interna the results were less 
favourable. Improvement was obtained but was less lasting. Laryngeal 
complications, which were observed in about 15 per cent, of the cases, usuall}^ 
developed in convalescence. Diphtheria without concomitant faucial 
involvement was frequent. The evolution of these cases was unfavourable 
because the patient was unable to dispense with the tracheotomy tube. 
Costiniu therefore recommends that tracheotomy should only be performed 
in severe cases and never at the onset. Naso-bucco-pharyngeal antisepsis, 
when carried out from the first, definitely reduced the incidence of both aural 
and laryngeal complications and rendered them less severe when they did 
occur. 

According to Vaudremer, hypopyon is a relatively frequent complication, 
as he found it in 12-8 per cent, of the cases of typhus in Epirus. As a rule 
it appears at the height of the disease and only in severe attacks, but some- 
times it is delayed until convalescence. Its appearance is announced by 
violent pain in the eyeball and frontal and periorbital regions corresponding 
to the eye affected. When it develops in patients who are not moribund, 
it should be treated without delay, as recovery takes place without loss of 
the eye if an operation is performed at once. 

Strominger, of Bucharest, when in charge of a urological section in 
a Roumanian military hospital, observed a large number of patients suffering 
from cystitis which had developed from six weeks to two or three months 
after an attack of typhus or relapsing fever. In some cases slight symptoms 
had been present during the fever and after a period of remission had become 
aggravated. Examination of the urine showed that the cystitis was not 
caused by exogenous infection except in one case where the presence of 
streptococci was due to frequent catheterization. In addition to the absence 
of micro-organisms and inflammatory symptoms, the late appearance of a 
complication like gangrene of the extremities and genitals is in favour of an 
exclusively toxic origin. The prognosis as a rule is good, but may be serious 
and even fatal when there are extensive renal and vascular lesions. 

Blood. According to Cazeneuve, who examined the blood in 13 cases, 
typhus causes considerable changes in the leucocytes, viz. a variable but 
constant hyperleucocytosis, a pronounced neutrophil polynucleosis, eosino- 
philia, and a definite myelocythaemia. 

Cantacuzene states that association with other diseases, especially 
cholera and relapsing fever, was characteristic of the Roumanian epidemic. 
All the cases of typhus in which cholera supervened were rapidly fatal, but 
relapsing fever did not appear to have any effect on the course of typhus or 
to aggravate the prognosis. Cantacuzene also refers to the action of typhus 



TYPHUS 197 

or latent tuberculosis. Without having the fulminating effect of relapsing 
fever, it is certain that in a very large number of cases of t j-phus, in which 
before the attack no appreciable evidence of lung disease was present, 
tuberculosis subsequently developed with great rapidity. 

Glatard (1) records an epidemic of .'206 cases of typhus at Oran in 
Algeria with 47 deaths— a mortality of 2.2 percent. The incubation period 
varied from four to twelve days. Conjunctival infection was an early and 
very constant sign, being present in cases in which the eruption did not 
appear till late or was absent altogether. As regards the character of the 
eruption, petechiae were frequently absent, the typical lesion being a macule, 
which was at first pink and then became darker, and did not fade on 
pressure. The duration of the disease ranged from 16 to 18 days. In fatal 
cases death occurred either at the height of the disease from myocardial, 
pulmonary, or meningeal complications, or during its decline from collap.se 
or nervous complications such as bulbar palsy or encephalitis. 

Diagnosis. Lapin and Senevet, of the Pasteur Institute of Algiers, 
examined the Weil-Felix reaction in 158 cases of clinical typhus, and 20 
controls with the following results : (1) None of the controls gave a po.sitive 
reaction even in a dilution of 1 : 50; (2) of the 158 clinical cases 145 gave 
a positive reaction at least once, and of the 13 negative cases 5 had the 
reaction performed only once, 4 died before the end of the febrile period, 
and 4 were persistently negative. The agglutinating power of the cerebro- 
spinal fluid was found to be very feeble. In 4 patients in whom the serum 
agglutinated Proteus X 19 at 1 : 500, the cerebrospinal fluid caused no 
agglutination at 1 : 50. In one patient in whom the serum agglutinated at 
1 : 2,000, the cerebrospinal fluid agglutinated feebly at 1 : 50, and in another 
patient in whom the serum agglutinated at 1 : 3,000, the cerebrospinal fluid 
agglutinated at 1 : 100. The writers conclude that the Weil-Felix reaction 
is of great value in the diagnosis of typhus when it is positive, but as it 
only becomes positive towards the end of the disease no account should be 
taken of a negative reaction when the clinical symptoms justify the diagnosis. 

Van der Reis records a case admitted to hospital as influenza in which 
the diagnosis of typhus was established by the skin reaction described by 
Friedberger and himself seven days before the Weil-Felix reaction became 
po.sitive (vide Medical Science 1920, 1, 563-4). 

Prophylaxis. In a paper discussing the principles of prophylaxis of 
typhus in armies on active service, and their application to the civilian 
popuUition in peace time, Armand-Delille describes Sarrailhe's method, which 
was systematically employed in the French army of tha east during the 
Macedonian campaign. The clothes were ironed on their inner surface and 
especially along the Hning. Although a single ironing did not destroy the 
lice and their ova, when the ironing was performed every seven days it was 
equivalent to a process of tyndallization, and it was absolutely efiicacious if 
repeated for several weeks in succession. A generation of lice requires 
several days after hatching to furnish insects capable of reproduction. If 
therefore most of the lice and their ova are destroyed every seven days, in 
four or five weeks the evolution of the generations will be completely 
destroyed, as Sarrailhe and Rdcamier showed in a colonial regiment on the 
Albanian front. 

Nicolle and Conseil have found that the serum of typhus convalescents 
and of monkeys who have recovered from the experimental disease possesses 
definite preventive properties. The immunity conferred, however, is only of 



198 REVIEWS 

short duration and the convalescent's serum is only active when it has been 
obtained during the first few days after the temperature has become normal. 
During a recent outbreak of typhus at Tunis, the writers employed the 
method in 7 cases, and none of the persons so treated contracted the disease. 
4 were given a single injection of 20 c.c. and 8 two injections with a few 
days' intervp,! between each. 

According to Hunter the suddenness of the onset of the Serbian 
epidemic, dating from a particular day, was directly related to measures 
for stopping movements of people, and its recurrence, also dating from 
a particular day, was directl}^ related to the resumption of such movements. 
The measures for checking the epidemic were the temporary cessation of 
railway traffic, suspension of leave from the army, and the improvisation of 
a method of disinfection which could be at the disposal of every one, especially 
the provision of ' barrel disinf ectors '. 

Treatment. According to Vaudremer, the treatment of typhus, which 
should be commenced as soon as possible, should be conducted on the follow- 
ing lines: (1) intramuscular injections of camphor oil (1 in 10) in doses of 
2 c.c. every two hours if necessary ; (2) injections of equal parts of camphor 
oil and ether in cases of profound asthenia and cardiac insufficiency ; (3) 
digitalis by mouth or subcutaneous injections of digitalin systematically 
from the onset ; (4) adrenalin by mouth or subcutaneously in doses of 1-2 mg. 
daily during the febrile stage, and later in cases of hypotension ; (5) hydro- 
therapy should be forbidden, bad results being obtained owing to the profound 
asthenia and myocardial weakness. 

Zielinski, of Warsaw, has treated 232 cases of typhus by hypodermic or 
intravenous injections of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid (vide Medical 
Supplement 1918, 1, 176). He considers that this treatment should be 
employed in every severe case, especially when dangerous symptoms arise 
involving the nervous and circulatory system. The amount of fluid with- 
drawn should not exceed 20 c.c. and of that injected 10 c.c. If a re-injection 
is required, 3-5 c.c. may be given two or three days after the first injection. 
The cerebrospinal fluid obtained by lumbar puncture loses its activity at the 
end of a fortnight. The most favourable time to give the injection is from 
the 7th-10th day of disease, but in cases in which severe symptoms appear 
sooner, the injection can be given before the 7th day. Zielinski states that 
the method has yielded excellent results, the mortality among typhus cases 
so treated having fallen from 9 to 5 per cent. 

Glatard (2) has treated 114 cases of typhus by intravenous injections of 
urotropin. The jdoses given at first were 1'50 gm. for adults and 0-75 gm. 
for children, but were afterwards raised to 3 gm. daily. The number of 
injections given varied from one to eight, the average being three. The 
results were as follows : (1) in the great majority of cases urotropin given 
intravenousl}^ favours defervescence, which occurs as a rule after the second 
injection ; (2) it causes abundant diuresis, and therefore facilitates elimination 
of toxins ; (3) it lowers the mortality, which was 14 per cent, among cases 
treated by urotropin as compared with 29 per cent, among cases not 
so treated ; (4) it should not be used after the temperature has fallen, the 
myocardial asthenia being more suitably treated by camphor oil, strychnin, 
and nucleinate of soda injections. 

Kersten states that intravenous injections of collargol or ' fulmargin ', 
a finely colloidal silver preparation obtained by electrolysis, has a favourable 
influence on the course of the disease. 5 c.c. of a 5 per cent, solution of 



TYPHUS 199 

collargol can be given daily for eight days, or an ampoule ol' ' fulniargin ' 
daily for seven days. 

Monziols and Collignon treated 13 cases of typhus with an iodized 
Proteus X 19 vaccine containing 1, ()()() ,()00,()()() organisms per c.c. in doses 
ranging from 1-3 c.c. with the following results. The typhoid state 
diminished, the tongue became moist, the delirium subsided, the temperature 
and pulse ran a parallel course after the second injection, and the duration 
of the disease appeared to be shortened. The average number of injections 
given to each patient was seven. One death occurred among 13 treated 
with vaccine as compared with two among 13 not so treated. 



ABMAND-DEI.ILI.E, P. F. Prlncipes de la prophylaxie de typhus dans les 
annees en campagne, leur application aux populations civiles en temps de paix. 
Bull. Acad, de med., 1920, 3*^ ser., 83, 265-7. 

Cantacuzene, J. L epidemie du typhus exantheniatique en Roumanie pen- 
dant la derniere guerre. Bull. Soc. path, exot., 1920, 13, 269-90. 

Cazeneuve, H. J. Les reactions cellulaires sanguines au cours du typhus 
exantheniatique. Bull. Soc. path, exot., 1920, 13, 742-7. 

CiiEMOW, P. G. Typhus in Turkey and adjoining countries : its recent preva- 
lence. Lancet, 1921, i, 193-4. 

CoNSTANTiNESco, C. D., et S1.OBOZIANO. Typhus sans eruption. Bull, et 
mem. Soc. med. d. hop. de Bucarest, 1919, i, 39-45. 

CosTiNiu, A. Les affections des oreilles et du larynx survenues comme com- 
plications du typhus exantheniatique et de la fievre recurrente. Presse med., 
1920, 28, 453-4. 

Dumitbesco-Mante. Congestions pseudo-phymiques dans le typhus exanthe- 
niatique. Baris med., 1920, i, 505-6. 

Gane, T. Typhus exanthematique a rechute. Bull, et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. 
de Bucarest, 1919, i, 73-4. 

Glatabd (1). Reflexions sur 206 cas de typhus exanthematique. Bull, et mem. 

Soc. med. d. hop. de Par., 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 944-8. 

Glatabd (2). Typhus et injections intraveineuses d'urotropine. Bull, et mem. 

Soc. med. d. hop. de Par., 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 948-50. 

GoODALL, E. W. Typhus fever in Poland, 1916-19. Proc. Boij. Soc. Med., 

1920, 13, Sect, of Epid. and State Med., 261-76. 

Grosspeld, H. Ueber Onychodystrophie nach Fleckfieber. Wicn. Jclin. 
Wchimhr., 1919, 32, 1109-10. 

HuNTEB, W. The Serbian epidemics of typhus and relapsing fever in 1915 ; 
their origin, course, and preventive measures employed for their arrest. Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Med., 1919, 13, Sect, of Epid. and State Med., 32-158. 

Jorge, R. Le typhus exanthematique a Porto en 1918-19. Bull, de Voffice 
internat. d'hyg. pub., 1920, 12, 133-44. 

Kebsten, H. E. Fleckfieber und kolloidale Silbermittel. Deutsche med. 
Wchnschr., 1920, 46, 831-2. 

Kbameb, p. H. (1). Mededeelingen over Vlektyphus, 11. Bijdrage tot de 
klinik. Nederl Tijdschr. v. Geneeslc, 1920, i, 455-72. 



200 REVIEWS 

Kramer, P. H. (2). Mededeelingen over Vlektyphus, III. (Slot). Aanteeke- 
ningen over het verloof van de Kotterdamsche epidemie. Nederl. Tijdschr. v. 
Geneesk., 1920, i, 888-93. 

Labbe, M., et HuTiiTEii, J. Deux cas de typhus exanthematique a Paris. 
Bull, et mem. Soc. mccl. d. hop. de Paris, 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 565-9. 

Lafiit, J., et Senevet, G. La reaction de Weil-Felix dans le typhus exanthe- 
matique. Faible pouvoir agglutinant du liquide cephalo-rachidien. Bull. Soc. 
path, exot, 1919, 12, 592-5. 

Legry, Courcoux, et IiERMOYEZ, J. Note clinique surquelques cas benins de 
typhus exanthematique observes a Paris. Bull, et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. deFar., 
1920, 3e ser., 44, 524-31. 

LbwY, R. tJber atypische Fleckfiebererkrankungen. Wien. med. Wchnschr., 

1919, 69, 2142-5. 

MoNZioiiS et CoiiiiXGNON. Essais de vaccinotherapie du typhus exanthema- 
tique par un vaccin iode a Proteus X 19. Bull, et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. deFar., 

1920, 3e ser., 44, 462-3. 

MoszEiK. Encephalitis epidemica nach Fleckfieber. 3Ied. Klin., 1920, 16, 

879-80. 

Netter, a., et Salanier, M. Un cas de typhus exanthematique contracts 
en Pologne. Absence de contagion dans I'entourage de la malade. Bull, et mem. 
Soc. med. d. hop. de Far., 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 804-8. 

NicoiiiiE, C, et CoNSEii., E. Prevention du typhus exanthematique au moyen 
du serum de convalescents chez les personnes contaminees par les poux des 
malades. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol, 1920, 83, 991-2. 

Ffeiffer, R. Typische Halbseitenlahmung im Verlauf eines Typhus exan- 
thematicus. Wien. klin. Wchnschr., 1919, 32, 1073-4. 

FuiiiDO, A. Lutte contre le typhus exanthematique en Espagne. Bull, de 
VOffice internat. dliyg. pub., 1920, 12, 356-9. 

BuYSCK, W. P. Lutte contre le typhus dans les Pays-Bas. Bidl. de VOffice 
internat. dliyg. puh., 1920, 12, 360-3. 

ScHWEiNBURG, E. Ueber Flecktyphus. Wien. Uin. Wchnschr., 1920, 33, 
129-30. 

Stroe, a. Streptocoque dans le liquide cephalo-rachidien des exanthematiques. 
Bull, et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. de Bucarest, 1920, 2, 144. 

Strominger, Im. Sur quelques troubles urinaires post-exanthematiques et 
recurrentiels. Fresse med., 1920, 28, 876-7. 

VAMT DER Reis. Fruhdiagnose eines Fleckfieberfalles durch die Hautreaktion 
von Friedberger-van der Keis. 3Ied. Klin., 1920, 16, 601-2. 

Vaudremer. Rapport clinique sur I'epidemie de typhus exanthematique 
d':6pire. Ann. dliyg., 1920, 5e ser., 34, 197-215. 

ZiELiNSKi, C. Traitement du typhus exanthematique par les injections du 
liquide cephalo-rachidien. Fresse med., Suppl., 1920, 28, 1182-3. 

Z1.0CISTZ, T. Zur Epidemiologie des Fleckfiebers (nach Erfahrungen aus der 
Turkeij. Ztschr. f. Hyg. u. InfeUionsliranhh., 1919, 89, 387-415. 

J. D. R. 



WHOOPING-COUGH 201 



WHOOPING-COUGH 

Aetiology. Apert and Camhess^des draw attention to the fact that 
both in France and abroad whooping-cough shows a marked predomin- 
ance among the female sex. Thus, during the year 1919 150 girls were 
admitted to the whooping-cough pavilion at tlie Hopital des Enfants 
Malades, as compared with 88 boys. The statistics for the city of Paris 
from 1894 to 1903 also show a higher whooping-cough incidence and mor- 
tality among girls than among l)oys, thougli not so pronounced as tliat found 
by the writers at. their liospital. The predilection of whooping-cough for 
the female sex is all the more remarkable as all the other infectious diseases 
of childhood, especially measles, scarlet fever, mumps, and diphtheria, are 
more frequent and severe in the male sex. 

Epidemiology. Reiche (1), of the Hamburg- Barmbeck Hospital, states 
that, according to official statistics, of the four children's diseases, measles, 
scarlet fever, diphtheria, and whooping-cough, the last has the lowest mor- 
bidity but the highest mortality. In the period 1872-1912 the medical 
statistics of the Hamburg State show that there were 60,253 cases with 7,355 
deaths, or a mortality of 12-2 percent. This figure, Reiche admits, has only 
a relative value, as by no means all cases of whooping-cough, especially 
those of a mild character, were notified. It illustrates, however, the heavy 
mortality associated with the disease, the mortality being particularly high 
in hospitals where it is mainly the serious cases that are admitted. As in 
the other diseases of children, the mortality from whooping-cough is highest 
in early life and diminishes as age advances. Thus Hagenbach estimates 
that the mortality is 26-8 per cent, in the first year of life, 13-8 per cent, in 
the second year, and 3 per cent, in the third year. Of 66 deaths from pertussis 
under six years of age, which occurred in Reiche's whooping-cough depart- 
ment between April 1, 1914, and August 1, 1920, 16 cases were due to 
tuberculosis which had been lighted up by whooping-cough, and a quarter 
of these were caused by the miliary form. Another quarter of the deaths 
was due to a severe secondary infection, such as influenza, diphtheria, and 
lobar pneumonia, while two cases of infective meningitis were caused by 
haemolytic streptococci rather than by the causal agent of pertussis. It was 
thus clear that over a third of the deaths in Reiche's cases were not due to 
whooping-cough, while in another 14 per cent, of the cases severe rickets or 
the lymphatic diathesis was a favouring cause of death. 

Symptomatology. Nasso records a case of whooping-cough in an infant 
aged 14 months in whom the paroxysms were accompanied or sometimes 
replaced by attacks of spasmodic sneezing. Death took place one morning 
during an unusually violent attack, being probably due to spasm of the 
glottis and cardiac syncope associated with spasmophilia. Nasso recommends 
that all cases of whooping-cough in infancy should undergo antispasmodic 
treatment even if there are no signs of spasmophilia present. In some 
cases subcutaneous injections of magnesium sulphate should be given. 

According to Reiche (2), little is known of the association of whooping- 
cough and influenza. He reports an outbreak of influenza which occurred in 
his whooping-cough ward during the epidemic of influenza in January 1920. 
Of 16 cases in the ward 8 contracted influenza in the course of a few days, 



202 REVIEWS 

and shortly afterwards a child was admitted with both diseases, and died 
three days later. The mortality among the nine cases was very heavy, as 
six were fatal. In three of the cases there was a slight leucocytosis (14,800- 
16^400) ; in the cases of early double infection there was the excessively high 
leucocytosis of 172,000 per c.mm., while in four children the number of 
leucocytes fell to 6,400, and even 3,000. The lymphocytosis characteristic 
of whooping-cough was rapidly replaced by a predominance of the neutro- 
phils on the supervention of influenza. With possibly one exception the 
course of influenza in these cases was less a toxic than a pneumonic one. At 
the autopsy there was a marked dilatation of the left ventricle resembling 
that seen in diphtheria. In one case which proved fatal in three days 
encephalitis was found jjost mention — a complication liable to occur in both 
whooping-cough and influenza. 

Reiclie (3), in the course of 62 months, has seen 29 cases of whooping- 
cough complicated by convulsions. With 3 exceptions, aged 2, 3, and 4 
years respectively, all the patients were infants in the flrst two years of life. 
1 case showed tuberculous meningitis ; 3 bacterial infection of the meninges 
due to streptococci, staphylococci, and pneumococci respectively; 1 thrombosis 
of the meningeal veins ; and 6 other complications. The remaining 17 were 
examples of pure whooping-cough convulsions. The spinal fluid in each case 
was sterile, but showed an abundance of cells. There was a well-marked 
lymphocytosis in the blood. Reiche considers that convulsions are due 
to a serous whooping-cough meningitis. 

Genoese examined the cerebrospinal fluid of six whooping-cough 
patients, aged from 2^-6 years, with the following results : In every 
case it was perfectly clear, under increased pressure, with a normal albu- 
min and chloride content and without a fibrinous reticulum. There was an 
absence of acetone, Boveri's reaction was negative^ and there was no increase 
in the number of cells. There was considerable increase of reducing 
substances, which was probably mainly due to meningeal congestion caused 
by the violent and repeated attacks of coughing. Experimentally, this 
hypothesis is confirmed by the fact that after spinal anaesthesia with stovain 
or cocain there is an increase in the sugar in the cerebrospinal fluid without 
hyperglycaemia. In such cases there is a marked congestion from local 
irritation without inflammation, just as in whooping-cough, in which there is 
a disturbance of the cerebral circulation and subsequent stasis. 

Hess, of the Frankfort University Children's Clinic, came to the follow- 
ing conckisions from examination of the blood in whooping-cough patients : 
Lymphocytosis in whooping-cough is essentially caused by the paroxysms. 
Each attack produces a distinct increase in the total number of leucocytes 
with predominance of the lymphocytes. When there is a long interval 
between the attacks, the increase sometimes ceases, but normal values are 
not observed, both leucocytosis as a whole and relative lymphocytosis per- 
sisting. Very high values are found in the paroxysmal stage, and the 
highest of all during convulsions. Hess attributes the lymphocytosis to the 
pressure exercised by the abdominal and respiratory muscles on the spleen 
and thoracic duct, which are the ' central depots ' for lymphocytes. 

Treatment. Intramuscular injection of ether in the treatment of 
whooping-cough is advocated by Audrain of Caen ; Weill and Dufourt and 
Gley vod of Lyons ; and Cheinisse of Paris. The injections are given in the 
upper part of the buttock. The dose is 1 c.c. up to the age of 7 or 8 months, 
and in older children 2 cc, repeated every two days. According to Weill 



WHOOPING-COUGH ^03 

and Dufourt, who ret^arcl injection of ether as far superior to any other 
treatment of pertussis, the ether acts in two ways, (1) by reducing the 
number of daily paroxysms, (2) by attenuating their violence and shortening 
theii- duration. In a few days' time, as the result of a daily injection, the 
childi-en liave only abortive attacks not accompanied by vomiting. It 
is unnecessary to continue the treatment when there are not more than four 
or five paroxysms a day. 

Gleyvod"i who reports eight cases in children aged from 2^ months to 
8 years treated by this method in Weill's clinic, states that the first injections 
always have a more striking effect than the subsequent ones, the organism 
apparently becoming habituated to the ether. He maintains that there is no 
contra-indication to the use of ether when employed in doses of 1 or 2 c.c, 
and that it acts as an energetic cardiac stimulant in febrile forms of 
whooping-cough and those associated with much general disturbance and 
severe pulmonary complications. 

From its use in 115 cases the vast majority of which were in children 
aged from a few weeks to 14 years, Macht has found that the administration 
of l)euz3l benzoate solution, either alone or preferably with small doses 
of benzaldehyde had a palliative, though not curative, effect on the violence 
and number of the whooping-cough paroxysms. 5-40 drops of a 20 per 
cent, solution of benzyl benzoate were given three or four times a day and 
oftener, according to the age of the patient and severity of the disease. 
The beneficial action of the drug is attributed by Macht to (1) its anti- 
spasmodic effect on bronchial spasm, (2) its sedative effect on skeletal 
muscle, (3) its anaesthetic effect on the larynx, (4) its expectorant properties, 
(5) its antiseptic action. 

McMurray also claims to have obtained immediate improvement in 
cases of whooping-cough by the use of benzyl benzoate in doses of 5—30 
minims every four hours without any undesirable results. 

Lederer has treated 25 cases of pertussis by painting the throat every 
two daj's with a 2 per cent, solution of silver nitrate as recommended by 
Ochsenius. In the great majority of cases good results were obtained, the 
paroxysmal stage being considerably shortened, the frequency of nocturnal 
attacks diminished and long-standing attacks rapidly cured. Lederer 
attributes the success of the treatment to suggestion and not to a specific 
bactericidal action, and recommends that the method should be reserved for 
older children of a neuropathic disposition in whom the attacks have lasted 
a considerable time but without any complications. In such cases the 
treatment maj' produce an immediate cure. 

Kleinschmidt has recently employed diathermy in a large number 
of cases of whooping-cough, and claims to have considerably shortened the 
duration of the disease thereby. The patient's age was of no importance, 
the youngest child being only nine months old, so that there could be 
no question of suggestion accounting for the success of the treatment. 

Although vaccines for the prevention or cure of whooping-cough have 
lieen in use for the past eight years. Freeman has, until lately, been 
of opinion that they did not modify the course of the disease, and he 
had never seen a case prevented by their use. Recently, however, he has 
observed good results from the use of fresh vaccines in cases where vaccines 
three weeks old had no effect. The dosage used in his cases was half 
a billion for the first dose, one billion for the second dose, and two billion 
each for the third and fourth doses. 



204 REVIEWS 

Spolverini reports the results of the prophylactic use of whooping-cough 
vaccine in 46 cases and of its curative use in 98 cases at the Paediatric Clinic 
at Rome. He found that prophylactic inoculation with a Bordet-Gengou 
vaccine, if carried out before the onset of the specific symptoms, gave excel- 
lent results, failures occurring in only 7 per cent, of the cases. Vaccine 
therapy was generally useless if employed 18-20 days after the onset, when 
typical paroxysms had already developed, and the Bordet-Gengou bacillus 
could no longer be found in the sputum. On the other hand, the treatment 
was successful if adopted within the first ten days of the disease, when the 
Bordet-Gengou bacillus could easily be found in the sputum. To ensure 
success larger doses were required, viz. two to four or even six thousand 
million per c.c, according to the age of the patient. The injections were 
repeated on alternate days. For prophylaxis three were usually sufficient, 
and for curative purposes six or seven were required. 

Apert, E., et CAMBESSEDi:s. Influence du sexe sur la frequence de la coque- 
luche. Bull, et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. de Far., 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 324-6. 

AuDBAiN, J. Le traitement de la coqueluche par I'ether. Bull, et mem. Soc. 
med. d. hop. de Par., 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 795-9. 

Cheinisse, L. Les injections intramusculaires d'ether contra la coqueluche. 
Presse med., 1920, 28, 526-7. 

Freeman, R. G. The use of fresh vaccines in whooping-cough, lied. Rec., 
1920, 98, 762-3. 

Genoese, G. Sul comportamento del liquido cefalo-rachidiano nella pertosse. 
Policlin., 1920, Sez. Prat., 27, 291-6. 

GiiEYVOD, P. Le traitement de la coqueluche a la periode des quintes par les 
injections intramusculaires d'ether. Theses de Lyon, 1919-20. 80. 
Hess, R. Zur Keuchhustenlymphocytose. Ztschr. f. Kinderheilk., 1920, Orig. 
27, 117-26. 

Kleinschmidt, K. Diathermiebehandlung der Pertussis. Med. Klin., 1920, 
16, 1206. 

Ledereb, R. Die Behandlung des Keuchhustens mit HoUensteinpinselungen. 
Wien. Jclin. Wchnschr., 1920, 33, 1049-51. 

Macht, D. I. An experimental and clinical therapeutic study of whooping- 
cough. Johns Hopkins Hasp. Bull, 1920, 31, 236-8. 

McMuRRAT, T. E. The benzyl benzoate treatment of whooping-cough. 
N. YorkM. J., 1920, 112, 122. 

Nasso, I. Morte improvvisa in un caso di pertosse. Pediatria, 1920, 28, 
365-6. 

Reiche, F.(1). Die Sterblichkeit an Keuchhusten. Med. Klin., 1921, 17, 
33-4. 

Reiche, P. (2). Keuchhusten und Influenza. Milnch. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 
67, 1352. 

Reiche, P. (3). Keuchhustenkrampfe. Ztschr. f. Kinderheilk., 1920, Orig. 25, 
28-63. 

Spolverini, L. Vaccinoprofilassi e vaccinoterapia della pertosse. Policlin., 
1920, Sez. Prat., 27, 1043-6. 
Weill, E., et Dupourt, A. Traitement de la coqueluche par les injections 

d'ether. Lyon med., 1920, 128, 562-3. 

'^ J. D. E. 



VACCINATION 205 



VACCINATION 

Reece points out that during the five years 1913-17, the number of 
children vaccinated, as shown by the L.G.B. statistics, has continued to 
decrease and the number of children exempted by statutory declaration has 
continued to increase. The percentage vaccinated in 1917 was 43-3, and the 
percentage exempted 37-9, while 12-0 per cent, of the children born in that 
year were unaccounted for as regards vaccination. The circumstances of 
the war had the effect of increasing the number of persons who had been 
revaccinated, a very large proportion of the new army and a large propor- 
tion of the women auxiliary workers having been revaccinated. It is there- 
fore certain that at the present time a greater number of the male population 
has been revaccinated than in previous years. Reece concludes that while 
the adult population is better protected against small-pox than previously, 
the proportion is unequally distributed between the two sexes, and that as 
regards the child population only about half the children under 10 years 
have been vaccinated. 

According to the report of the chief medical officer of the Ministry of 
Health, after deducting 44,693 deaths which took place before vaccination 
among the 662,900 births reported by the several vaccination officers in 
England and Wales during 1918, it appears that of the surviving 618,207 
children 44-5 per cent, were registered as successfully vaccinated, 0-2 per 
cent, as either insusceptible of vaccination or as having had small-pox, 1'9 
per cent, as under medical certificate of postponement, and 40-3 per cent, 
with certificates of conscientious objection to vaccination, leaving 13-1 per 
cent, still unaccounted for as regards vaccination. 

According to the vaccination returns for Bavaria for the year 1916, 
which are quoted by Soucek, among 12,018 primary vaccinations and 
157,577 revaccinations there were no primary infections of the vaccination 
wound, and secondary complications occurred in only a very small number. 
All the cases with any complications recovered without any sequelae. 
During the first fortnight after vaccination a large number of cases of 
primary vaccination and a few revaccinated cases developed intercurrent 
diseases unconnected with vaccination, such as pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, 
and vomiting, convulsions, and Werlhof's disease, which were the causes of 
death in 19 of the primary vaccination and 2 of the re vaccination cases. 
Th6 mortality among the primary vaccination cases in the first year of life 
was 3-9 per thousand, which was only a fraction of the mortality of the age- 
group to which the cases of primary vaccination belong. 

Groth reports that in 1917 the results of vaccination in Bavaria were 
generally satisfactory. Of 116,171 children due to be vaccinated for the 
first time 92,765 or 79-85 per cent, were vaccinated and 23,406 or 20-45 per 
cent, remained unvaccinated, of whom 15,189 or 13-07 per cent, had 
a medical certificate to justify abstention. Public vaccinators vaccinated 
86,269 successfully, 1,302 unsuccessfully, and 147 with unknown result, 
while private practitioners vaccinated 4,884 successfully, 160 unsuccessfully, 
and 3 with unknown results. In addition 4,387 were vaccinated during the 
first year of life, of whom 3,910 were vaccinated successfully, 188 unsuccess- 
fully, and 13 with unknown results by the public vaccinators, and 259 

IV. Q 



206 REVIEWS 

successfully, 16 unsuccessfully, and 1 with unknown result by private 
practitioners. Out of a total, therefore, of 97,152 cases vaccinated for the 
first time, 90,179 or 98-20 per cent, were vaccinated successfully, 1,490 or 
1-62 per cent, unsuccessfully, and 160 or 0-18 per cent, with unknown 
results by public vaccinators, and 5,143 or 96-62 per cent, successfully, 176 
or 3-31 per cent, unsuccessfully, and 4 or 0-07 per cent, with unknown 
results by private practitioners. Of 161,176 children due to be revaccinated, 
157,794 or 97-90 per cent, were vaccinated, 3,382 or 2-10 percent, remained 
unvaccinated, of whom 2,178 or 1-35 per cent, had a medical certificate. 
154,912 or 98-65 per cent, were vaccinated successfully, 1,818 or 1-16 per 
cent, unsuccessfully, and 295 or 0-19 per cent, with unknown results by 
public vaccinators, and 702 or 91-29 per cent, successfully, 65 or 8-45 per 
cent, unsuccessfully, and 2 or 0-26 per cent, with unknown results by private 
practitioners. 12 of the primary vaccination cases and one of the re vaccina- 
tion cases died. The causes of death in 5 cases was pneumonia, in 3 
diarrhoea and vomiting, in 1 convulsions, in 1 diphtheria, and in 3, including 
the revaccination case, the cause of death was not stated. The mortality 
among the primary vaccination cases in the first year of life was only 
3 per thousand. 

Mensching states that owing to an outbreak of small-pox in Hamburg 
in the late autumn of 1916 due to Wolhynian refugees (vide Medical Science, 
1920, 3, 132), 684 new-born infants were vaccinated at the Hamburg 
Obstetrical Institute between December 18, 1916, and July 14, 1917. The 
vaccination was usually performed on the day of birth or the following day, 
but never later than the third day. In 484 or 71 per cent, it was successful 
and in 200 or 29 per cent, unsuccessful. The successful cases included 12 
infants who had to be vaccinated twice. 18 infants failed to ' take' when 
the vaccination was repeated. The percentage of unsuccesvsful vaccinations 
was so high that it could not be attributed to deficient susceptibility to 
vaccinia or to the avirulent character of the lymph, but was due either to 
defective technique or to immunity acquired i)i utero. As a general rule 
the course of vaccination in the new-born showed no difference from that 
seen in older children vaccinated for the first time, typical vesicles occurring 
which reached their fullest development on the seventh to eighth day after 
vaccination. Severe constitutional disturbance hardly ever took place, 
though a loss of 50-100 grm. a day lasting for two or three days was 
frequently observed as the pocks reached their fullest development. In the 
great majority of cases vaccination had no effect on the temperature, fever, 
which is the rule in older children vaccinated for the first time, being quite 
exceptional. In 42 infants in whom fever did occur the phenomenon in 
most cases was due not to vaccination but to other factors. Among those 
vaccinated at the Institute were 82 premature infants, in 52 or 64 per cent, 
of whom the vaccination was successful, and in 30 or 36 per cent, unsuccess- 
ful, so that the percentage of unsuccessful vaccinations was 8 per cent, 
higher than in full-term infants. The local reaction was the same in the 
premature as in the full-term infants, and the general condition in almost 
all cases was not affected in any way. 

Asregardsthevaccinationstate of the mothers, 281, withasingle exception 
in which vaccination had taken place one year previously, had been vaccinated 
during pregnancy and usually in the last three months. 339 were vaccinated 
in the puerperium, in 6 vaccination was not performed, and in 58 no informa- 
t/ion was available. It was found that the number of unsuccessful vaccina- 



VACCINATION 207 

tions was larger anioni;- the children whose mothers had been vaccinated in 
pregnancy (Group I) than in those whose mothers had been vaccinated after 
delivery or not at all (Group II). 173 or 61-6 per cent, in Group I were 
successfully vaccinated, and 108 or 38-4 per cent, unsuccessfully vaccinated. 
In Group II, 261 or 75-6 per cent, of the vaccinations were successful and 
84 or 24-3 per cent, unsuccessful. The percentage of unsuccessful vaccina- 
tions was therefore 14-1 per cent, higher in the children of the mothers 
vaccinateil in pregnancy than in the othei'S. Mensching c^jnsiders it very 
probable that the failure of vaccination in these children is due to an 
immunity acquired in utero, especially- as it was found that on repetition of 
vaccination' and control tests defective technique or bad lymph was not 
responsible. 

Teclinique. Goodall of Montreal recommends vaccination by sub- 
cutaneous injection, which he has carried out in approximately 6,000 men 
and a number of officers' children. From one-half to three-quarters of 
a tube of vaccine is used per individual. Sufficient sterile water is then 
added to make each injection equal to 1 c.c. The local reaction which 
usually occurs in two or three days' time resemliles that following anti- 
typhoid inoculation, and is as variable in intensit}'. About 8 per cent, were 
negative. In 70 per cent, there was local swelling, heat, tenderness, slight 
pain and redness. In a small percentage of cases the reaction was very 
marked, causing swelling and oedema of the elbow, and in a few instances 
oedema of the whole hand and arm. In every case the local condition sub- 
sided without any signs beyond those of an intense local reaction. After 
the seventh to tenth day the local swelling and induration subsided, leaving 
a hard nodule in the subcutaneous tissue, usually ill-defined at first but 
becoming later well circumscribed and lasting for about a month. The 
advantages claimed for the method are as follows : (1) it is a clean surgical 
operation. If untoward results develop, they are due to faulty technique ; 
(2) there is no open wound and dressings are therefore not required ; (3) 
dangers of secondary infection are practically eliminated ; (4) the percentage 
of positive reactions is very high ; (5) in only a very small percentage did 
the local and general symptoms cause complete incapacity : (6) the method 
is painless as compared with scarification ; (7) children undergo it without 
any difficulty, owing to the rapidity with which the injection is carried out. 

During the last seven years, in which he has vaccinated over 500 
children, Goldberger has used the inner and back side of the arm for 
vaccination for the following reasons : (1) it leaves no visible scar ; (2) it does 
not prevent children having their daily bath while vaccination is going 
through its various stages ; (3) there is little or no exposure to infection 
from outside sources of infection ; (4) it minimizes the sources of trauma ; 
(5) no infiltration, extensive induration, sloughing, or extensive scarring 
results. The method is as follows : after the arm has been cleansed 
the forearm is flexed at right angles to the arm, and the vaccine is applied 
below a line midway between the internal condyle of the humerus and the 
anterior axillary line. The virus is allowed to dry thoroughly before 
placing over the abrasion a sterile pad of gauze held in place by strips 
of adhesive plaster. 

King believes that the balance of evidence is in favour of lanolized 
vaccine in respect to its resistance to tropical heat, and that as contrasted 
with glycerinated and desiccated vaccine the risk of injurious influence upon 
the virus is less. He gives the following comparative case success rates per 

Q 2 



208 REVIEWS 

cent., as found in Uganda, of different forms of vaccine in 1916 : desiccated 
vaccine (Lister Institute, London) 66 per cent. ; lanolized vaccine (Lister 
Institute, London) 91-32 per cent. ; glycerinated vaccine (Nairobi) 67-32 per 
cent. : arm to arm 78-09 per cent. 

Complications. From examination of thousands of persons who had been 
vaccinated or revaccinated, Gougerot has found that trichophytosis, although 
very rare, is the most frequent complication of vaccination. Trichophytosis, 
impetigo, and ecthyma, at the vaccination site were indeed the only skin 
eruptions of any frequency observed by him. Examples of ulcerative 
vaccinia, post-vaccinal eczema, psoriasis, and lichen were not seen. The 
individuals affected were of all ages, viz. soldiers, workwomen in powder 
factories, and children. The development of the lesions was usually slow. 
The following varieties were seen: (1) single and round; (2) small and 
oval ; (3) circinate ; (4) erythemato-squamous simulating psoriasis. The 
practical importance of these cases is that if their nature is not recognized 
they are improperly treated and do not heal. 

At a recent meeting of the Section of Dermatology of the Royal Society of 
Medicine, Pernet reported a case of post-vaccinal psoriasis in a girl aged 16, 
in whom the eruption appeared two months after a primary vaccination, 
while the scabs were still present on the vaccinated areas. The lesions first 
appeared round the vaccination scars, and subsequently involved the elbows 
and extensor surface of the forearms, hands, and knees. There was no 
history of a rash before the vaccination. In the subsequent discussion 
Dore remarked that j^soriasis sometimes occurred for the first time after 
slight injuries, and that this might possibly explain its occurrence after 
vaccination, and Fox reported the case of a medical man in Ceylon who had 
never liad psoriasis before, but after revaccination developed psoriasis round 
the points of inoculation, the eruption subsequently spreading down the arm 
and eventually all over the body. 

Wagner of Graz reports an unusual complication of vaccination in 
a woman aged 36, who was subject to hay fever, and had been unsuccess- 
fully vaccinated two years previously. On appearance of the vaccine pocks 
she developed generalized oedema, asthmatic attacks, and a deposit on the 
tonsils. Albumin (^ per 1,000) was found in the urine. As the lesions on 
the arm subsided, all the other symptoms disappeared. Five other cases 
among 30 who were vaccinated at the same time developed tonsillitis, 
although there was no epidemic of sore throat prevalent. Deaths and 
severe illnesses following vaccination were also reported at the same time 
(July 1919). 

Iyer records three cases of generalized vaccinia in Burmese children 
aged 2-3 years, from which it appears that the condition depends on 
personal idiosyncrasy, and not on climate, race, lymph, or the tube in which 
it is contained. 

King alludes to the liability of native races to certain skin eruptions, 
and warns against hastily attributing their occurrence in the course of 
vaccination to the impurity of the vaccine employed. Thus, in parts of 
Africa during the hot season frequent instances of vesicular dermatitis and 
impetigo having no connexion with vaccination are normally found, and 
epidemics of ' pemphigus ' are said to have occurred, though possibly such 
instances may have included the bullous form of impetigo contagiosa. 

The development of phagedaena in the vaccine pustule towards the 
third or fourth day of its evolution is described by Blanchard, at Grand- 



VACCINATION 209 

Bassam, Upper Guinea, who found a pure growth of the fuso-spirillar 
symbiosis on microscopical examination of the serum from the periphery of 
the lesions. 

According to Naunyn, who has no doubt that there is a causal connexion 
between the two events, jaundice may occur in epidemic form in adults 
after revaccination. In such cases severe gastro-intestinal catarrh, shown 
by vomiting and diarrhoea, often lasts for weeks before the appearance of 
jaundice. The latter sets in suddenly, rapidly becomes intense, and lasts for 
more than six weeks. The liver is not enlarged and there is no fever. Bile- 
pigment is always found in the urine, but bile salts are not always present. 
Slowing of the pulse, pruritus and xanthopsia have been observed. The 
condition is never fatal. The most striking feature is the length of the 
incubation stage. In none of 199 cases recorded has the jaundice appeared 
earlier than two months after revaccination, and usually it has not developed 
till much later, even as long as eight months. 

BiiANCHABD. Complications phagedeniques de la vaccine. Bull. Soc. path, 
exot., 1919, 12, 493-4. 

GOZ.DBEBGEB, I. H. A uew site for small-pox vaccination. N. York M.J. , 
1920, 112. 1035. 

GoODAZ.1., J. R. Vaccination by subcutaneous injection. Am. J. M. Sc, 1919, 
158, 721-3. 

GouoEBOT. Trichophyties post-vaccinales. Paris med., 1919, ii, 442-5. 

Gboth, a. Bericht fiber die Ergebnisse der Schutzpockenimpfung in Bayern 
im Jahre 1917. Miinch. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 488-90. 

Iter, S. R. Generalized vaccinia in Burmah. Indian M. Gaz., 1919, 54, 459-60. 
King, W. G. Vaccination in the tropics. 1920. 

Menschino, H. Beitrage zur Kuhpockenimpfung Schwangerer und Neuge- 
borener mit Berucksichtigung der Frage einer intrauterinen Immunitatsiibertra- 
gung. Arch. f. KinderheilL, 1920, 68, 24-48. 

NAVismsi, B. Ueber Ikterus und seine Beziehungen zu den Cholangien. 3[itt. 
a. d. Grenzgeh. d. Med. ic. Chir., 1919, 31, 538-600. 

Pebnet, G. Case of post-vaccinal psoriasis. Proc. Boy. Soc. Med., 1921, 14, 
Sect, of Derm., 12. 

Beece, R. J. Vaccination and Government lymph establishment. Annual 
Bep. Local Gov. Bd., 1918-19, 48, Med. Supplement, 151-4. 

SoucEK, A. Pocken und Pockenimpfung. Wien. med. Wchnschr., 1919, 69, 
2341-6. 

Vaccination. Blinistry of Health, Annual Bep. of Chief Med. Off., 1919-20, 
1920, 1, 220-5. 

Waoneb, K. Beobachtungen uber die Blatternimpfung. Wien. hlin. 
Wchnschr., 1919, 32, 1186-7. 

J. D. R. 



210 REVIEWS 



GONORRHOEA 

Aetiology. The differences in toxicity of different strains of gonococci 
have been investigated by Jotten. By means of the methods of agglutination 
and complement fixation used to differentiate the several forms of meningo- 
cocci, he was able to separate four groups of gonococci which he terms A, B, 
C, and D. The groups A and B were found to be more toxic for mice than 
groups C and D and the non-classified gonococci, and to possess greater 
resistance to the opsonic, bacteriotropic and bactericidal action of normal 
serum. It was also found that these groups were associated with severe 
and complicated cases of gonorrhoea in the human subject. No morpho- 
logical or cultural differences between the more toxic and less toxic forms 
were discovered. Jotten remarks that these results show the importance of 
using autogenous vaccines, and explain the unsatisfactory results obtained 
by stock vaccines, which often do not contain the strain corresponding 
to that in the patient. 

The two questions Lomholt has attempted to answer by a study of the 
548 cases of recent venereal disease in men attending a free dispensary in 
the period October 1, 1916-May 1, 1920 are these: (1) What proportion of 
infections of men can be traced to professional prostitutes, i. e. women who 
receive cash down? (2) What proportion of infections occur under the 
influence of alcohol 1 Lomholt found his informants remarkably candid. 
Most of them (476) suffered from gonorrhoea, the short incubation period of 
which renders it more suitable for investigating these two problems than is 
the case with syphilis. In 153 cases, i. e. 28 per cent., infection was traced 
to professional prostitutes. As Lomholt points out, this ratio is much lower 
than Fournier has found to be the case in Paris or Blaschko in Berlin, the 
corresponding figures for these two towns being 72 per cent, and 81 per cent, 
respectively. Lomholt argues from his figures that brothel prostitution is 
dying out in Copenhagen, and is giving place to a Itess systematic and more 
human form of casual sexual intercourse. While only about one-quarter of 
all the cases of gonorrhoea and syphilis could be traced to professional 
prostitutes, they were responsible for half the cases of chancroid, the com- 
parative frequency of which is greatest when the conditions of sexual 
intercourse are most degraded. 

Of the 455 men questioned as to the influence, if any, of alcohol, 
217 had taken the alcohol equivalent of two half-bottles of beer or more at 
the time of infection. In about three-quarters of these cases the men 
admitted to having been drunk. Thus, 48 per cent, contracted venereal 
disease under the influence of alcohol, and of the men infected hy professional 
prostitutes, 75 per cent, -were under the influence of alcohol. On the other 
hand, only 37 per cent, of the men infected by other than professional 
prostitutes had taken alcohol. The difference clearly shows that alcohol 
lowers the standard set by men in their choice of bed-fellows. In 72 cases, 
or 13 per cent, of the total, the men were married, and as many as 36, 
or 50 per cent., were infected by professional prostitutes. The propor- 
tion of drunkenness was also much greater among the married than the 
unmarried. 

Symptomatology. A case of gonococcal se'pticaeniia, in which the 



GONORRHOEA 211 

gonococcus was found in the blood and also in the sputum, is reported by 
Ribierre and L^obardy. The septicaemia developed a mouth after ^ono- 
rrhoeal urethritis, which still persisted. A Gram-neoative diplococcus was 
cultivated by the addition of 20 c.c. of blood, withdrawn during pyrexia, to 
a bouillon-ascites medium. Signs of pulmonary consolidation appeared at 
the right apex, with blood-stained expectoration. Examination of the 
sputum was negative for tubercle bacilli and for pneumococci, but positive 
for Gram-negative diplococci. As the pulmonary signs underwent resolu- 
tion, and the diplococci were morphologically identical with gonococci, the 
authors conclude that the case was one of gonococcal septicaemia with 
a pulmonary metastatic complication. 

A case of gonococcal septicaemia com'plicated by icterus is reported by 
Widal and May. As they remark, icterus may develop in the course 
of many infections, but is rare in gonorrhoea. The few cases hitherto 
recorded appear to have been all fatal. The case reported by these observers 
was severe, but was cured by five intravenous injections of antigonococcal 
serum, diluted 1 in 10. It is noted that beneficial effects with this serum 
have been obtained in gonorrhoeal arthritis, and the serum is recommended 
in all cases of general gonococcal infection, administered either intravenously 
or intramuscularly. 

Jagic and Schiffner are of opinion that gonococcal infection of the heart 
is more frequent than generally supposed, and that if more attention was 
paid to the heart in cases of general gonococcal infection, more instances 
would be discovered, especially of the milder forms of myocarditis. They 
also think that gonorrhoea may account for some cases of myocarditis 
of obscure aetiology. They point out that endocarditis, which is the most 
common form of gonorrhoeal infection of the heart, may be vegetative or 
ulcerative. Vegetative endocarditis may be the only localization of general 
gonococcal infection, is more common than the ulcerative form, affects the 
mitral valves generally, and often leads to mitral insufficiency. The ulcera- 
tive form generally affects the aortic valves and runs the course of pyaemia. 
Myocarditis of gonorrhoeal origin, they remark, is not so well recognized. 
They distinguish two forms : (1) acute septic myocarditis, resulting in 
multiple abscesses in the myocardium, and generally resulting in pyaemia ; 
(2) simple infective myocarditis. The latter, which is a rare condition, must 
be distinguished from functional cardiac symptoms of a vasomotor nature 
occurring during a period of pyrexia. Clinically, simple gonorrhoeal myocar- 
ditis is characterized by cardiac weakness, arhythmia, dilatation of the 
left ventricle, and mitral insufficiency. It may end in resolution or result in 
fibrosis. Two illustrative cases are given, both occurring in women, one 
compHcating gonorrhoeal urethritis and arthritis, the other gonorrhoeal 
salpingitis. In both cases the cardiac signs appeared after resolution of the 
pyrexia and acute inflammatory local conditions, and in both there were 
signs of myocarditis with dilatation of the left ventricle. 

While endocarditis is common in children in connexion with rheumatism 
and chorea, gonococcal endocarditis as a complication of vulvo-vaginitis 
appears to be rare. A case of malignant eiulocarditis due to the gonococcus, 
in a child aged 23 months, is reported by Dwyer. The symptoms included 
a vaginal discharge, pain and swelling of the left ankle and wrist, some 
degree of anaemia and jaundice, abdominal distension, and a temperature of 
104° F. The cardiac signs consisted in a rapid and irregular pulse, and 
a soft, systolic murmur at the apex conducted to the axilla. There was also 



212 REVIEWS 

a superficial abscess over the lumbo-sacral region. Microscopic examina- 
tion of the vaginal discharge showed Gram-negative intracellular diplococci. 
The same were found in the pus from the lumbo-sacral abscess. Blood 
culture on ascitic glucose broth and ascitic glucose agar resulted in a growth 
of the same diplococcus (gonococcus). The child died on the twenty-eighth 
day of her illness. The autopsy showed cauliflower vegetations on the 
mitral valve, in which gonococci were found. The other valves were normal, 
and there was no pericarditis. There was no evidence of peritonitis. The 
lumbo-sacral abscess was attributed to localization of gonococci from the 
blood-stream due to lowered resistance in the area from pressure, a condition 
analogous to a bed-sore. The case is of interest on account of the age of the 
patient, the cultivation of the gonococcus from the blood, and the rarity of 
gonococcal endocarditis in children. Satterthwaite is quoted as having 
found only one case in a hundred, and Dunn as having found none of 
gonococcal origin in 304 cases of endocarditis in children. 

Strandberg and Hedenius report a case of chronic gonorrhoeal arthritis 
compKcated by keratodermia bleiiorrhagica. The patient, a male aged 26, 
had three attacks of gonorrhoea in the course of four years. The first 
attack was complicated by arthritis of the knee, which recurred during the 
later attacks, and eventually affected the shoulders, wrists, and cervical 
vertebrae. The cutaneous lesions commenced six years after the first and 
two years after the last attack of gonorrhoea. They were situated on the 
lower part of the right leg and ankle, the upper part of the left leg 
and knee, and on the right hand. Microscopic examination showed changes 
similar in nature to those described in other cases of gonorrhoeal hyper- 
keratosis. The patient died from cachexia the following year. 

The authors remark that keratodermia blenorrhagica occurs, as a rule, 
in cases of severe gonorrhoeal infection complicated by multiple arthritis, 
bad general condition, and cachexia. The cutaneous lesions generally affect 
the lower extremities, are of an inflammatory nature, and characterized by 
a predisposition to parakeratosis, manifested by the formation of thick, 
horny patches. In many cases there is also present a hyperkeratosic balan- 
itis. Although the affection occurs in association with gonorrhoea, it may 
be partly due to secondary infection. The names keratodermia or hyper- 
keratosis are inexact, the lesions being more of the nature of a parakeratosis. 

Adamson draws attention to the resemblance between this affection and 
arthropathic psoriasis of the palms and soles, and points out that in many 
cases of gonorrhoea] hyperkeratosis there are lesions of the trunk which are 
indistinguishable from psoriasis. He suggests that psoriasis may possibly 
be due to a microbe allied to the gonococcus. 

Diagnosis. Magner reports his experience with the complement-jixatio n 
test in gonorrhoea. The technique employed was similar to Thomson's ; the 
antigens tried were Thomson's and Parke Davis & Co.'s ; the complement 
was obtained from guinea-pig serum ; the haemolytic system consisted of 
haemolytic serum, prepared by Burroughs Wellcome & Co., and sheep's cells. 
The patients' serum was heated to 60° C. for ten minutes and then diluted. 
200 cases were examined, 110 gonorrhoeal and 90 control. In the gono- 
rrhoeal cases, the test was generally negative up to 10 or 12 days after 
infection, afterwards most cases were positive; but some mild cases in 
which the urethritis was limited to the anterior urethra were negative. 
The longer the duration of the discharge the more often is a positive result 
obtained. The complications of gonorrhoea, such as epididymitis and gono- 



GONORRHOEA 213 

rrhoeal rheumatism, were always positive. A positive reaction was obtained 
for three months after gonococci were absent, so that the reaction is no test 
of cure till three months without treatment have elapsed since the last 
symptoms. 

Magner regards the test as useful in the diagnosis of cases which are 
negative microscopically. A positive result shows either that gonococci are 
still present, or that the antibodies they give rise to are still present in the 
serum. A negative result, especially after a previously positive one, is 
strong evidence of a cure. The administration of an autogenous gonococcal 
vaccine did not appear to prolong the positive stage to any great extent. 
The control" cases were all negative, except four, all of which were sj^philitic. 
and so might have been infected with gonorrhoea as well. 

The difficulty in diagnosing gonococcal infections by cultural methods, 
and the uncertainty of the complement-fixation test, led Robinson and 
Meader to apply a preci'pitiii test, similar to that used in pneumococcus and 
meningococcus infections. For this purpose they tried the reaction of 
immune rabbit serum and the autolysate of gonococcus cultures. Their 
method is described as follows : Rabbits were injected intravenously with 
single strains of gonococci in gradually increasing doses at seven-day 
intervals. Five or six injections were generally sufficient to produce a serum 
giving a marked precipitin reaction in a dilution of 1 in 20. The autolysate 
was prepared by washing otf the growth of gonococci on rabbit blood agar 
in 5 c.c. of normal saline solution and allowing it to stand in an incubator 
for six hours. This suspension was centrifuged, and the supernatant fluid 
superposed on an equal quantity of the immune serum. The tubes were 
then placed in a water bath at 37° C. for one hour. After cooling, the results 
were read. A positive reaction was indicated by a cloudy-white ring at the 
junction of serum and autolysate. All strains of gonococci gave a positive 
reaction with immune serum, and no differences were noted between homo- 
logous and heterologous autolysates, so that there appeared to be no strain 
specificity. 

For purposes of diag-nosis the autolysate is obtained by moistening 
a sterile SAvab in the material to be tested and incubatincr in 2 c.c. of normal 
saline solution for six hours. The swab is then removed and the infusion 
centrifuged. If, as occasionally happens, the fluid remains opalescent in 
spite of centrifugalization a correct reading can be obtained by comparing 
density of the precipitated ring with that of a control tube containing 
normal rabbit serum. 

The procedure is described as follows : For each specimen to be 
examined 0-25 c.c. of diluted clear serum from two immune and one 
normal rabbit are placed in test-tubes. The clear extract of the speci- 
men is superposed on an equal amount of serum. The tubes are incubated 
for one hour at 37° C. and allowed to cool. Two immune sera are used in 
order to duplicate the results, and the serum from a normal rabbit is used as 
control. 

The authors found that some sera gave a false reaction when saline 
solution was added, but obviated this difficulty by diluting the serum with 
saline (one to two) and centrifuging till clear. From their researches, they 
conclude : (1) that a positive precipitin test is obtained in all cases where the 
gonococcus is found in the discharge ; (2) that it is also obtained in many 
cases where the history and symptoms point to gonorrhoeal infection, but in 
which the gonococcus cannot be found in the secretion ; (3) that the test is 



214 REVIEWS 

of value in the diagnosis of vaginal and other specimens where the micro- 
scopical demonstration of gonococci is difficult or impossible. 

It is interesting to note that the meningococcus gave a positive reaction 
with gonococcus immune serum when a concentrated pure culture autolysate 
was used, but the gonococcus control autolysate continued to give a positive 
reaction for a considerable number of dilutions after the reaction with the 
meningococcus had become negative. Micrococcus catarrhalis, B. coli, and 
all other organisms tested gave negative reactions. 

Treatment. Miiller, having observed that concomitant gonorrhoea was 
improved in patients under treatment for sycosis by intramuscular injections 
of turpentine and ' aolan ' (a trade name for a sterilized solution of milk 
albumin), tried the same treatment in cases of gonorrhoea. These substances 
are said to have a beneficial effect in staphylococcal infections. The conclu- 
sions arrived at were : that the duration of acute anterior urethritis was 
shortened to a period of three weeks ; that acute posterior urethritis subsided 
after two or three injections, so that local treatment could be carried out ; 
that chronic posterior urethritis was also benefited ; tliat complications were 
less frequent, and that both drugs were useful in epididymitis. The dose of 
turpentine was from 0-5 to 1-0 c.c. given at intervals of three or four days; 
that of ' aolan ' from 6 to 7 c.c. In cases of cystitis and pyelitis, Muller 
recommends intravenous injections of 0-15 to 0-30 grm. neosalvarsan, which 
he thinks acts hy the formaldehyde contained in it. 

The results of the treatment of gonorrhoeal arthritis by a non-specific 
protein (usually Bacillus typhosus) have led to further experimental injec- 
tions. Stern and Ritter state they have found the intravenous injection of a 
solution of sodium iodide to produce undoubted benefit in cases of gonorrhoeal 
arthritis, epididymitis, and prostatitis. Both acute and chronic conditions 
are benefited. The results observed are claimed to be not less than those 
following the injection of a non-specific protein. The authors observe that 
the efficacy of the latter form of treatment appears to be dependent upon 
the production of leucocytosis and a marked febrile reaction. Sodium iodide 
produces no alteration in the blood-count, and no reaction effects at all ; the 
injections may therefore be employed without hesitation in the treatment of 
out-patients and in the private consulting-room. The drug was administered 
in doses of 2 grm. dissolved in 20 c.c. of water, and the injections were repeated 
every four days. All the usual therapeutic measures were employed in con- 
junction with intravenous medication. One hundred cases have been discharged 
' germ-free ' and apparently cured ; the authors estimate that the average 
stay in hospital of these patients has been reduced by one-third owing 
to this additional treatment. 

Gonorrhoea in the female. In 3,439 examinations of prostitutes 
Stevens and Heppner found chronic gonorrhoea in 43*5 per cent. The 
cervix was affected in 47, the urethra in 32, and one or both Bartholin's 
glands in 23 per cent, of the cases. The complement-fixation test was posi- 
tive in 59 per cent, of cases of cervical infection, in 23 per cent, of urethritis, 
and in 19 per cent, of bartholinitis. In the treatment of endocervicitis good 
results were obtained from the application of a 25 percent, solution of silver 
nitrate twice weekly in conjunction with hot vaginal douches. Better results 
were obtained by cauterization of the cervix. In urethritis gonococci were 
found in about one-third of the cases : other organisms present in order of 
frequency were Gram-positive diplococci, staphylococci, streptococci, diplo- 
bacilli, and other bacilli. The importance of examining Skene's and other 



GONORRHOEA 215 

glands near the meatus, which are usually attected in gonorrhoeal urethritis, 
is pointed out. In the absence of complications acute urethritis in the female 
usually clears up with sandalwood oil, alkaline drugs, and rest in bed. 
Chronicity was generally due to glandular infection or stricture. Strictures 
at the meatus or within the urethra were found in 58 per cent, of the cases. 
The treatment adopted consisted in instillations of 1 to 3 per cent, solutions 
of silver nitrate, and application of stronger solutions through a short endo- 
scopic tube. AcriHavin and mercurochrome proved of little value. Infected 
glands and ducts were destroyed by the cautery and strictures were dilated 
or incised. . With regard to Bartholin's glands, the authors point out that 
a normal gland is usually impossible to palpate, and that a palpable gland 
generally means infection. Treatment by injection of various solutions 
proved of little or no value, and the authors recommend excision of the 
gland both in acute and chronic cases. 

As Rawlins points out, in the treatment of gonorrhoea in women, 
the results will be disappointing if care is not taken that no infected part is 
overlooked, such as Bartholin's and Skene's ducts. Infection of these ducts 
is connnon and persistent, and also of the urethra. The ducts can be washed 
out with a syringe and blunt-pointed needle, and if this fails the duct can be 
incised and treated with iodized phenol or destroyed by the electric cautery. 
Urethritis usually clears up with local application of picric acid and internal 
urinary antiseptics. According to Rawlins, the most satisfactory drug for 
local treatment is 50 per cent, picric acid in glycerine, applied by swabbing 
to the vulva, vagina, and cervix two or three times a week. Sauerin 
pessaries were also found useful. Douching is not recommended unless the 
tubes are affected, when the warmth of the douche is beneficial. A douche 
at high pressure, performed by the patient herself, is considered liable 
to cause spreading of the disease to the uterus. If douching is done, the 
patient should lie on her back with the buttocks slightly raised, and 
the douche-can not more than 1^ feet above the level of the body. 

Jacoby recommends the following treatment. During the acute stage 
of urethritis, rest in bed, hyoscyamus and sandalwood oil. After the acute 
urethritis has subsided, urethral injections of 1 per cent, protargol or 20 per 
cent, argyrol every other day. In chronic cases, instillation of ^ per cent, 
protargol or 1 in 10,000 silver nitrate into the bladder three times a week ; 
the application of 5 per cent, silver nitrate to ulcerated areas of the urethral 
mucous membrane through a speculum ; injection of Skene's tubules with 
10 per cent, silver nitrate daily, or, in obstinate cases, cauterization. Of 
the more recent [remedies, 1 per cent, acriflavin or mercurochrome give 
promising results as a urethral injection. In acute endocervicitis, similar 
treatment to that for acute urethritis. In subacute and chronic endo- 
cervicitis, the application of 25 per cent, argyrol or 1 per cent, protargol to 
the cervical canal, followed by glycerine and packing the vagina with gauze 
three times a week. The packing is removed after 18 hours and followed 
by douches of permanganate of potash 1 to 5,000, tincture of iodine 1 to 
500, acriflavin or mercurochrome 1 to 5,000. Gonococcal vaccine, 500 
millions every five days is useful in chronic cases. In the treatment of 
complications conservatism is advised, operation being only resorted to 
when unavoidable. 

Before a case is discharged as cured, Jacoby insists on the following 
conditions being fulfilled : (1) Smears from the cervix, urethra, Skene's and 
Bartholin's glands, some taken just before and some just after menstruation, 



216 REVIEWS 

should be negative on six occasions ; (2) smears after provocative injection 
of the urethra should be negative ; (3) the complement-fixation test should 
be negative ; (4) all these tests should be negative when repeated a month 
after cessation of treatment. 

Having previously obtained good results from the treatment of certain 
gonorrhoeal complications, such as arthritis and epididymitis, by intravenous 
injections of arsenical compounds, Levy-Bing and Duroeux have tried this 
method of treatment in cases of acute gonorrhoeal salpiagitis, with equally 
beneficial results. In these cases the arsenical preparation used was 
sulpharsenol, administered in doses of 0*06 up to 0*18 grm. at intervals of 
two or three days. In one case, where a woman was confined to bed with 
repeated metrorrhagia, high temperature, anaemia, and pain, the haemo- 
rrhages ceased, the pain subsided, and the patient was able to get up within 
a week after the first injection. Bimanual vaginal examination also showed 
subsidence of the pelvic inflammatory condition. Three cases of chronic 
relapsing salpingitis, treated in the same way, were also reported cured 
in a few weeks. 

Borland advocates the local application of raethylene blue, 1 per cent., 
in the treatment of gonorrhoea in women. The advantages are said to be — 
powerful gonococcicidal action, absence of irritation, rapid relief of clinical 
symptoms, and disappearance of gonococci after six to twelve applications. 
According to Dorland, methylene blue, which was used some years ago in 
the treatment of gonorrhoea, was chiefly administered internally, and was 
abandoned because it appeared to undergo some change in the body which 
rendered it inert. As a local application, however, he considers it superior 
to those in general use. 

Although the value of serum treatment in gonorrhoea has been 
questioned on the grounds that the gonotoxin is an endotoxin, and, therefore, 
to be attacked by vaccines instead of serums, several observers have 
reported good effects from the use of antigonococcal serum. Ivens has 
tried antigonococcal serum in 30 cases of gonorrhoea in women, in 22 of which 
tubal infection was present. The serum used was Nicolle's, prepared at the 
Pasteur Institute, and was administered in three different ways. In one 
series of cases the serum was injected subcutaneously, usually in doses of 
20 c.c. diluted with normal saline, repeated at intervals of 2 to 3 days. In 
another series intraperitoneal injections were given. In cases of pyosalpinx 
the tube was washed out with normal saline, after being opened up if 
necessary. The serum was injected into the tubes, sometimes into the 
ovary, and the abdomen was then closed without drainage. A subcutaneous 
or rectal saline was given at the same time to avert anaphylactic shock. In 
a third series of cases of endocervicitis with profuse leucorrhoeal discharge 
the serum was used locally in the form of vaginal packs, alternating daily 
with packs of 10 per cent, saline solution and 5 per cent, carbolic acid. 
Intravenous injections of serum were not used, on account of the danger of 
anaphylactic shock. Of the 30 cases, subcutaneous injections were used in 
19, intratubal and intraperitoneal in 6, vaginal packs in 3, and serum dressings 
in 2 cases of bartholinitis. In all the cases the immediate results were good, 
and the after-histories satisfactory in most cases. Three cases relapsed, one 
possibly owing to insufficient serum being used, the other two probably 
from reinfection. In the intraperitoneal cases the results were much better 
than in cases where no serum was given at operating, and in one case preg- 
nancy was proceeding normally. 



GONORRHOEA 217 

As Daken remarks, gonorrhoeal vulvovaginitis in children is obstinate, 
owing to the foci of the disease being difficult of access and to the frequency 
of involvement of the cervix. For this reason clinical symptoms may clear 
up under treatment and relapses occur subsequently. He mentions a case, 
a girl aged seven, in which the bacteriological examination became negative 
after treatment with urinary antiseptics, vaginal irrigations, protargol 
pessaries, sitz baths, and diathermy. After provocative injections of Lugol's 
solution and ' aolan ' (milk albumin), however, gonococci were again found 
in the secretion. The case was eventually cured with vaccines (arthigon). 
As a test of cure, therefore, he recommends— after cessation of treatment 
and negative bacteriological examination for ten days— provocative injections 
of Lugol's solution and ' aolan ', repeated after a week and again after two 
weeks. If still negative for gonococci after this procedure the case may be 
considered cured. 

Patzschke recommends the addition of adrenalin hydrochloride to the 
silver solutions used for irrigation in the treatment of vulvovaginitis in 
children. By the action of the adrenalin on the hyperaemic mucous 
membrane it is claimed that stronger solutions of silver preparations can be 
used. The method of treatment is as follows : after cleansing the vulva, 
the vagina is injected with weak permanganate solution, which is retained 
for five minutes by closing the labia. A tampon soaked in 5 per cent, 
protargol solution is then placed in the vulva. Irrigations four times a day 
are then performed, commencing with 0-5 per cent, albargin solution, to 
which is added 1 in 1,000 adrenalin solution (0-5 to 2 in 20). After three 
or four days the strength of albargin is increased to 1 per cent., and in ten 
days up to 2 per cent. After a fortnight the irrigations are done once 
a day only, and a smear is tested for gonococci. If the result is negative 
the treatment is continued for another ten days. If again negative 24 
hours after cessation of treatment, the irrigations are discontinued. In 1 1 
cases treated in this way there were only two relapses. 

Adamson, H. G. Keratodermia blenorrhagica : is it a form of psoriasis ? 
Brif. J. Bermat. 4- Syph., 1920, 32, 183-7. 

Daken, J. Zur Beurteilung der Vulvovaginitis gonorrhoeica im Kindesalter. 
Miinchen. med. WcJmschr., 1920, 67, 1172-3. 

D0BI.AND, N. The problem of the efficiency of topical applications of methy- 
lene blue in female gonorrhoea. Med. Bee, 1920, 98, 268. 

DwYER, H. L. Malignant endocarditis and metastatic abscess in gonococcemia. 
J. Am. 31. Ass., 1920, 75, 1643-4. 

IvENS, F. A note on the use of antigonococcal serum. Brit. 31. J., 1921, i, 

77-8. 

Jacobt, a. Gonorrhoea in women. 31ed. Becord, 1921, 99, 14-16. 

Jagic, N., u. Schiffneb, O. Uber gonorrhorische Herzerkrankungen. 3Ied. 
Klin., 1920, 16, 976-8. 

JOTTEN, K. W. Beziehungen verschiedener Gonokokkenarten zurSchwere der 
Infektion. 3Iunchen. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 1067-9. 

Li;vY-BiNO, A., et DuBOEUX, L. Traitement des salpingites aigues d'origine 
blennorrhagique par les injections intraveineuses de sels d'arsenic. Ann. d. mal. 
ven., 1920, 15, 529-34. 



218 REVIEWS 

L0MH01.T, S. Prostitution, alkohol og venerisk sygdom. Ugesk. J. Lccger, 
1920, 82, 950-4. 

Magneb, W. The complement-fixation test in gonorrhoea. Lancet, 1920, ii, 
123-5. 

MuiiiiEB, H. Hilfstherapie der Gonorrhoe. Med. Klin., 1920, 16, 955-6. 

Fatzschke, W. Zur Thei'apie der Vulvovaginitis gonorrhoica infantum. 
Deutsche nied. Wchnschr., 1921, 47, 44-6. 

Rawliits, M. a few points in relation to the treatment of venereal diseases in 
women. Brit. M. J., 1920, ii, 194-6. 

RiBiEBBE, P., et Leobabdy, J. de. Septicemie gonococcique avec congestion 
pulmonaire. Bidl. et mem. Soc. med. d. hop. de Par., 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 862-4. 

ROBiirsoir, G. H., and Meadeb, P. D. The precipitin reaction in the dia- 
gnosis of gonococcus infections. /. Urol., 1920, 4, 551-8. 

Stebzt, M., and Ritteb, I. S. A new method of treating remote manifesta- 
tions of gonorrhoea! infections. Med. Bee., 1920, 97, 190-1. 

Stevens, W. E., and Heppneb, M. Gonorrhoea of the lower genito-urinary 
tract in women. -J. Am. M. Ass., 1920, 75, 1477-9. 

Stbandbebg, J., et Hedenius, J. Gas d'arthrite gonorrheique avec altera- 
tions caracteristiques de la peau. Contribution a la question de la keratodermie 
gonorrheique. Ark. f. inn. med., 1919, 51, 521-50. 

WiDAii, P., et May, E. Un cas d'ictere infectieux a gonocoques. 
Soc. med. d. hop. de Far., 1920, 3^ ser., 44, 1076-80. 



Bull 


et 


mem. 


C. 


F. 


M.. 


A. 


E. 


Q. 


C. 


L. 





CHANCROID 

According to Cheinisse, chancroid and its complications are more common 
than is generally supposed. Out ot" a total of 235 primary sores observed 
at the General Hospital at Rouen, 61 were syphilitic, 125 chancroid, and 49 
mixed; and out of a total of 155 primary sores observed at a military 
venereal centre 89 were syphilitic, 64 chancroid, and 32 mixed. 

Symptomatology. That all genital sores diagnosed as ulcus molle, or 
chancroid, are due to the bacillus of Ducrey is doubted by McDonagh. He 
also casts doubt on the usually accepted doctrine that a chancroid frequently 
develops into a syphilitic chancre owing to double infection. In such cases 
he regards the initial diagnosis as incorrect. 

The varieties of ulcus molle described by McDonagh are : (1) ulcus 
molle elevatum,, in which the sore is raised and often indurated, rendering it 
liable to be mistaken for a syphilitic chancre ; (2) ulcus molle milicire, 
resembling hair follicle infection and more common in w^omen ; (3) ulcus 
molle phagedaenicum, which he regards as less common than phagedaenic 
sj^philitic chancre, and due to the symbiosis of fusiform bacilli and spiro- 
chaetes similar to those found in Vincent's angina and balanitis gangrenosa; 
(4) ulcus m,olle serpiyitiosum. This last variety he considers to be more 



CHANCROID 219 

common than generally supposed, and to be usually wrongly dia<:^nosed. 
This variety resembles a furuncle, the edges of which become blue and 
break down into an ulcer. The base of the ulcer is uneven and secretes 
freely ; the edges are ragged and undermined, the overhanging portions 
being oedematous and bluish-white in colour. The periphery of the lesion 
is of a purple colour and is surrounded by a red zone of inHannnation. The 
ulcer spreads at one part while the opposite part is healing, and the lesion 
may gradually progress for years. In a case described by ]\IcDonagh the 
lesion spread from the groin up to the umbilicus and down to below the right 
knee in the course of 27 years. Ducrey's bacillus was found intraccUularly 
in this case. Ulcus molle ser]iiginosum is thus a very chronic form of 
ulceration following a chancroid, and occurs chiefly among people who have 
lived in the tropics. In some cases it develops from a bubo after the 
original sore has healed. 

Diagnosis. Teague and Deibert point out that the difficulty in diagnos- 
ing chancroid from microscopical examination of smears is due to the fact 
that the bacillus of Ducre}' in passing from the tissues into the purulent 
discharge loses its characteristic arrangement in long chains and appears in 
the form of small pleomorphic bacilli, from which it is unsafe to make 
a definite diagnosis. They therefore tried the method of adture, from 
which they report successful results. The medium used for culture was 
rabbits' blood allowed to clot at room temperature, then heated for five 
minutes at 55° C, and either used at once or kept in the ice-chest overnight. 
Tubes of this medium were inoculated with pus from the sore to be examined, 
and after 24 hours' inculcation at 37° C. the serum showed characteristic 
chains of the small Gram-negative bacillus of Ducrey, sometimes apparently 
in pure culture, sometimes mixed with Gram-positive cocci and bacilli. 
Positive results were often obtained after the application of antiseptic 
ointments, &c. Previous washing with sterile salt solution was found 
unnecessary. Human blood was tried for culture, but found inferior to 
rabbits' blood. 

By this method, Teague and Deibert examined 274 sores situated on 
the penis. As they obtained a positive result in more than 50 per cent., 
and as most of the negative cases showed no clinical evidence of chancroid, 
they conclude that a diagnosis of chancroid can be made in probably over 
90 per cent, of cases by the method of culture. The}^ attribute the failure 
of the cultural method in other hands to the use of unsuitable media. The 
bacillus of Ducrey does not grow on any of the ordinary media except 
blood agar, and on this with difficulty. 

Treatment. Cheinisse reviews the various methods of treatment 
which have been tried, including : (1) filiform drainage conibined with 
dressings of permanganate of potassium 1 in 200 ; (2) incision, followed by 
the application of a Bier's cup for ten minutes, and then injections of iodo- 
form emulsion ; (3) Goubeau's method, by injection of a 1 per cent, solution 
of arseniate of sodium before softening has occurred. In this method, if 
suppuration has occurred, the pus is evacuated by a small trochar and 1 or 
2 c.c of the arseniate solution mixed with 0-5 c.c. of ether is injected ; the 
ether, becoming gaseous at body temperature, distends the abscess cavity and 
allows more complete contact with the solution. The injections, are made 
daily or every other day ; (4) Lasserre's emulsion for injection, consisting of 
10 parts each of iodoform, guaiacol, eucalyptol, and alcohol, 30 parts of balsam 
of Peru, and 100 parts of ether. 



220 REVIEWS 

Cheinisse also mentions that a favourable influence on the evolution of 
chancroidal bubo was obtained by Kurita, a Japanese surgeon, by means of 
a vaccine prepared from the bacillus of Ducrey. 

Reenstierna claims good results from the use of a serum obtained from 
rams after intravenous injections of killed and living cultures of Ducrey 's 
bacillus. In 100 cases of chancroid with bubo the sores are said to have 
healed and the buboes to have subsided in a week, after two injections of 
10 c.c. of this serum. It is also stated that the serum had no effect on cases 
wrongly diagnosed as chancroid. 

McDonagh recommends cauterization by camphphenol or by zinc 
ionization, followed by the application of a dusting powder consisting of 
equal parts of bismuth subgallate, bismuth tribromphenolate and light 
magnesium carbonate, mixed with starch. In chronic sores he gives two 
intramuscular injections of intramine, followed by two intramuscular in- 
jections of ' trimine ' (a colloidal mixture of manganese, iron, and zinc), 
also a local dressing of intramine. The sores should be exposed to the 
air and not covered with air-tight dressings. In cases of sores con- 
cealed by a tight prepuce the latter should be slit up, but no other operative 
measure should be carried out, as the wounds always become infected and 
phagedaena often results. 

In the treatment of bubo, incision should be postponed as long as 
possible ; many cases subside under evaporating lotions, such as a mixture 
of subacetate of lead, strong solution of ammonia, rectified spirit and acetate 
of alum. If an incision is necessary it should be a small one ; a long 
incision leads to infection of the interglandular tissue, leaves a wound wliich 
takes a long time to heal, and may result in phagedaena. Puncture with 
a bistoury, expression of pus, washing out with saline solution, and dusting 
with the powder mentioned above are sufficient. According to McDonagh, 
buboes may be aborted or rapidly healed by intramuscular injections of 
'trimine' and intramine. In cases of ulcus molle serpiginosum. operative 
measures are contraindicated. McDonagh recommends colloidal iodine 
internally (three drachms thrice daily), and intravenously (100 c.c.) followed 
in two days by an intramuscular injection of intramine (3 c.c), repeated 
five days later and followed by one to three injections of trimine or an anti- 
mony salt. Locally, camphphenol and iodoform or intramine. The chronic 
case of 27 years' duration already mentioned, which had resisted all the 
usual forms of treatment, is said to have healed under local applications 
of intramine, intravenous injections of tartar emetic and intramuscular 
injections of intramine. 

Golay recommends Fontan's method of treating chancroidal buboes in 
suitable cases. This method consists in making a small puncture with 
a bistoury, evacuation of pus, injection of 10 per cent, iodoform vaseline, and 
sealing the puncture. After 48 hours the vaseline is evacuated. In 
favourable cases cure is said to take place in four or five days. According 
to Golay this method is successful under certain conditions which are briefly 
as follows : (1) The bubo must be completely softened. If there is 
a tendency for the pus to point before the gland has completely softened it 
is better to open freely and curette, because the method of Fontan will only 
express the pus of the periadenitis and leave that in the gland which will 
form a fistula afterwards. (2) There must be no involvement of the skin by 
the bacillus of Ducrey ; this requires energetic cauterization. (3) There 
must be no burrowing of pus, as Fontan's method will not distend the 



CHANCROID 221 

pockets. (4) The essentials for success are complete expression of all pus 
and distension of the cavity with the same amount of iodoform vaseline as 
the pus evacuated. The vaseline should be heated and then cooled to the 
right consistency. Tiic patient should remain in bed for 48 hours. 

Cheinisse. Traitement des Inibons chancrelleux. Presse mcd., 1920, 28 
285-6. 

GoLAT, M.J. Le traitement des bubons chancrelleux par le precede de Fontan. 
Eev. med. de la Suisse Horn., 1920, 40, 485-93. 

McDoNAGH, J. E. R. Venereal diseases ; their clinical aspect and treatment. 
1920, 261-71. 

Reenstiebna, J. The serum treatment of chancroid. Fork. Svcns. Laic- 
SalUk. Sammanh, 1920. [Lancet, 1920, ii, 144-5.) 

Teague, O., and Deibert, O. The value of the cultural method in the dia- 
gnosis of chancroid. J. Urol., 1920, 4, 543-9. 

C. F. M. 



^SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC INTESTINAL 

STASIS 

When surgical treatment is advocated for cases of constipation which 
have not been relieved by medical treatment it is objected that indications 
for the operation have not been clearly stated, that the results of operations 
have not been fully disclosed, and that there is a tendency to practice one 
and the same operation for a number of probably quite different cases. 

For an advance on these questions the first thing to do is to sharply 
distinguish the cases of constipation which are caused by some form of 
mechanical obstruction. Such causes are multifarious, their number is 
being continually increased, and the particular form of operative treatment 
depends upon the special variety. Much more experience is needed before 
it can be stated that some one procedure is the best to be applied to any 
number of cases of obstruction. 

The surgical treatment of intestinal stasis when there is no naked-eye 
mechanical cause of obstruction has its chief advocate in Arbuthnot Lane. 

The fourth edition of his work The Operative Treatment of Chronic 
Intestinal Stasis, appeared in 1918, and was reviewed in the British 
Jourmil of Surgery. The concluding paragraph of that review is as 
follows : ' The opinions ofiered by Sir Arbuthnot Lane in support of his 
views lack adequate corroboration from his own work, or from that of any 
of the contributors to this volume. Where we look for reasoned argument 
we find wild assertion ; we seek in vain for any record of mortality, or for 
any series of cases in which the previous history, the operative disclosures, 
the risk of operation, and the late conditions are set forth in a manner 
which allows a reader to form his own judgement. Our faith is tried to 
the breaking point.' 

Hurst has dealt very fully with the subject of Consti'pation and its 

IV. i^ 



222 REVIEWS 

Treatment. He commenced a chapter on ' Operative Treatment ' as follows : 
' When constipation is the result of definite organic obstruction of the 
intestine, surgical treatment is clearly indicated. But various operations 
have been recommended in the last ten years for the relief of constipation 
in the absence of this clear indication,' and he proceeds to refer unfavourably 
to the various measures. 

Since the above, Lane has published remarks on intestinal stasis in 
which he has added to the list of causes and indications a great number 
of the most various conditions which, in his opinion, combine to make the 
colon the essential cause of intestinal stasis. His remedy is the excision 
of the gut from near the end of the ileum to the end of the pelvic colon or 
siofmoid flexure, and the end to end union between the ileum and the 
junction of the colon with the rectum. But these further communications 
do not supply what the above-mentioned review desired — information as to 
results. 

Wide publicity was gained by Metchnikoff for such statements as ' It 
is not more rash to say that not only the caecal appendix with the caecum, 
but indeed the entire human large intestine is for our organism a super- 
fluous organ, the suppression of which would have very happy results. 
From the point of view of the digestive function, this part of the intestinal 
tube certainly plays no, however small, important role.' If the chapter 
from which the above quotation is taken be re-read one can but form the 
opinion that Metchnikoff" had reached his conclusion because the functions 
of the large intestine were unknown to him. 

There is an important cliapter in Lane's book contributed by Keith 
under the title ' The Great Bowel ; from an Anatomist's Point of View '. 

Keith noted the division between juice digestion in the small intestines, 
and the bacterial digestion in the large bowel, which is regulated by, and 
regurgitation prevented through, the mechanism of the ileo-caecal valve. 
The colon may become an injurious structure, but for the comparative 
anatomist the idea that nature has elaborated a great and persistent 
structure, such as the colon, for no definite and useful purpose is pre- 
posterous. 

There is something to be said for tlie proposition that the colon remains 
more suited to digest the vegetarian diet of primitive man, and has not 
become sufficiently adapted to the concentrated food of modern town- 
dwellers. But a diet of coarse vegetables notoriously produces an excess of 
flatus which demands expulsion whether upward or downward. 

The concentrated diet forced upon healthy young men under the 
exigencies of military service has set up much troublesome constipation. 
The service rations and the food substitutes in Germany have produced 
a marked increase of obstinate constipation, and this was the reason for a 
long address by Payr at the 44th Congress of the German Surgical Society 
in April 1920. 

The most difficult cases are those on the border-line between obstinate 
constipation and chronic intestinal obstruction, and the indications for 
operation, apart from those deduced from the signs of intestinal obstruction, 
are difficult to define. Payr enumerated a great number of the causes of 
intestinal obstruction, many of which are only revealed on exploration, 
but in attempting to classify them the same mechanical cause of intestinal 
obstruction appears in more than one list. After all, Paj^r ended by simply 
enumerating types of operations — the separation of adhesions and the 



SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC INTESTINAL STASIS 223 

removal of compression ; the fixation of mobile organs ; tlie reduction by- 
suture of dilated viscera ; anastomoses ; intestinal exclusions : intestinal 
excisions ; artificial fistulac, temporary or pe)-manent ; plastic operation on 
the al)dominal wall and floor of the pelvis : rectal and anal operations. 
For obstinate constipation, apart from definite signs of obstruction, the only 
procedure he emphasized was that of forcible dilatation of the anus. 

J. W. Smith described in 1913 operations for atony and prolapse of 
the large intestine, and after 7 years reported the later results, altogether, of 
32 cases, 2 of which were fatal. He had communicated with the 30 survivors 
and received reports from 26. In 5 cases of dilatation of the caecum, 
after plication and fixation of the caecum, 4 had proved complete successes. 
One continued well and had worked at munitions for four years; then 
there was recurrence of symptoms and he performed hemicolectomy, which 
after six months continued a success. Hemicolectomy was performed in 
12 cases : 1 died on the sixth day from leakage at the sutures, 3 continued 
in good health, and 8 had improved ; 3 of these had to be careful as to diet 
to avoid gastric disturbance, 1 complicated by chest disease had only 
slightly improved. The later operations, in which end to end was substituted 
for lateral anastomosis, showed better results ; 7 cases were submitted to total 
colectomy: 4 had completely recovered, 2 were much better and 1 no 
better. 

A female, aged 28, had suffered for 8 years from constipation com- 
plicated by vomiting. For two years she had become so weak as to be 
unable to stand or walk. The stomach was dilated, being dragged down 
by a distended and prolapsed colon ; the appendix was bound down and 
had a V-shaped kink. The ileum, six inches from its termination, was 
united to the pelvic colon by lateral anastomosis and all the intervening 
bowel excised. The patient replied, ' I am pleased to say the operation you 
performed has been very successful. I keep well in health, not exactly 
robust, but have been working as a glove machinist for the last three years.' 

A female, aged 42, had suffered for twenty years following the birth of 
her one child. Severe constipation was accompanied by frequent vomiting, 
uterine prolapse, and haemorrhoids. During two previous years she under- 
went four operations, the removal of piles, bilateral oophorectomy, ventri- 
fixation of the uterus, and fixation of the left kidney. Pain and constipation 
were even worse afterwards. She had been confined to bed, had attempted 
her life, and was weak, worn, and depressed. Lateral anastomosis between 
the ileum and the pelvic colon just above the rectum, followed by excision 
of the colon, was performed, and she left hospital 23 days later. The 
operation was done in 1912, and seven years later she attended a clinical 
meeting. She said she was then better than ever before in her life, she 
could eat anything and had not taken a laxative since the colectomy. She 
had started work in a cotton mill six months after, and had recently 
divided her day between cleaning offices and her own housework. 

Taylor's account of 8 cases exhibits the influence of Metchnikoff and 
Lane's prejudice against the colon by adopting for various cases of chronic 
obstruction one and the same operation, viz. the excision of the large bowel 
including the caecum and pelvic colon, followed by an end to end union of 
the ileum to the commencement of the rectum. 

Case I. Had prolapse of the ascending, transverse, and descending 
colon. Two years after the operation he reported that he was employed by 
a shipping company, and said, ' I believe the operation to be a great 

R 2 



224 REVIEWS 

success. I am in good general health. I get no pain after eating as before 
the operation.' 

Case II. Had the termination of the ileum dilated to the size of 
a normal stomach with the lumen of the caecum and first part of the 
ascending colon narrowed by being thrown into folds as the result of colitis 
polyposa. Ten weeks after the operation he was able to play football ; six 
months after his bowels moved three times a day. 

Case III. Had suffered from constipation, which was not improved 
by removal of the appendix. Four years later he began to suffer from 
ulcerative colitis, passing blood and mucus, which increased in the following 
two years until he had become very thin and weak, with 12 motions a day. 
Under caecostomy and irrigation he improved, but the caecostomy opening 
being allowed to close, he relapsed. After the operation he became fit for 
light work and continued to improve during six months after his discharge 
from the hospital. 

Cat^e I V. Had a carcinoma in the centre of the pelvic colon, which 
caused acute intestinal obstruction, and perforation of the caecum. Tem- 
porary relief was given by putting a Paul's tube into the caecum and 
draining the abdominal cavity. Three weeks later the excision and end to 
end union was carried out. The general health continued good for 18 months, 
when metastatic growth in the liver and base of tlie skull appeared. 

Case V. Was a similar one up to the recovery from the excision ; there 
was no further report. 

Case VI. With a faecal fistula following a gunshot wound of the 
transverse colon, recovered after excision of the whole colon, but there was 
no report as to his motions subsequentl3^ 

Case VII. Had been an invalid for years, just able to walk quietly 
about in her garden, as the result of indigestion. She was seized with 
acute intestinal obstruction caused by volvulus of a mobile caecum. The 
caecum, which had become gangrenous, with the ascending colon was 
excised and an end to end union made between the ileum and transverse 
colon. The patient recovered, but did not improve in health or increase in 
weight. 

Case VIII. After suffering from constipation for many years, had 
the appendix removed, when it was discovered that the colon was badly 
prolapsed. Some months later, as no improvement had followed, the 
caecum and ascending colon were excised, and the ileum joined to the 
transverse colon. She was comfortable for 18 months, after which constipa- 
tion recommenced, set up by adhesions producing a kink in the small 
intestines. The adhesions were freed and ileo-sigmoidostomy performed. 
This made the patient worse, owing to collection in the loop intervening 
between the anastomosis. Finally, Lane removed the remainder of the 
colon and joined the ileum to the upper end of the rectum. From this the 
patient was at the time of the report recovering well. 

Whilst the last case is the one most definitely in favour of complete 
colectomy, in none of the series is there any account of the number of 
motions per day consequent upon the direct communication set up between 
the ileum and rectum. 

In the opinion of Lane and his followers no less an operation than 
complete colectomy is satisfactory. Against this may be set 19 cases 
reported by Brewster, in which the ileum was anastomosed with the 
transverse colon, and only the end of the ileum, the caecum, ascending 



SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC INTESTINAL STASIS 225 

colon, and the beirinninp; of the transverse colon excised. Brewster's cases 
included a number ef epileptics suffcrino- from obstinate constipation. The 
operation relieved the constipation and improved the general health without 
materially influencing the epilepsy. 

Case I. An epileptic, aged 11, had a largely dilated caecum, chronic 
appendicitis, and adhesion about the hepatic flexure. He recovered 
vi'ell, was relieved of the constipation ; the epilepsy returned after two 
months. 

Case II. A woman, aged 40, had had appendicectomy 12 years before. 
A dilated mobile caecum was found. One year after the operation she was 
entirely free from the previous constipation and pain. 

Case III. An epileptic, aged 22, under X-ray examination presented 
stasis at the hepatic and splenic flexures. Following the right colectomy 
there was a marked improvement in the general condition, owing to 
freedom from constipation, and there was some diminution in the epileptic 
seizures. 

Case IV. Had had, two years before, a lateral ileo-sigmoidostomy, 
which was foUow^ed by persistent nausea, frequent vomiting, and the fiiUing 
of a dilated and mobile caecum with faeces. After the right colectomy, 
together with excision of the anastomosis and a closure of the opening in 
the sigmoid, she was entirely relieved, in three months she gained 15 lb, 
in weight, and seven months after underwent a normal labour. 

Case V. A woman, aged 52, had had a lateral ileo-sigmoidostomy five 
years before, after which she suffered from faecal distension of the ileum 
and caecum, below the anastomosis with the sigmoid. After the same opera- 
tion as Case IV the patient somewhat improved, but continued to suffer 
from a degree of constipation. 

Case VI. Suffered from intestinal stasis, or rather chronic obstruction, 
caused by a dilated and mobile caecum with adhesions in the region of the 
hepatic flexure. Entire relief followed the operation. 

Case VII. An epileptic girl, aged 18, with chronic constipation, was 
not improved by right colectomy. 

Case VIII. A boy, aged 3|, had had appendicectomy for intestinal 
stasis a year before. Three months after the right colectomy the mother 
reported that the child was normal. 

Case IX. An epileptic, aged 25, operated upon for constipation, after 
right colectomy resumed work, and during the subsequent three months 
there was no return of the epilepsy. 

Case X. An epileptic, aged 8, had the caecum dilated and mobile, the 
appendix inflamed, and adhesions extending over the ascending and 
commencement of the transverse colon. After right colectomy the intestinal 
stasis disappeared and the general condition improved, but the epilepsy 
continued. 

Case XI. A woman aged 30, poorly nourished and extremely con- 
stipated, had had for a year occasional attacks of nausea and vomiting. 
There was a large and mobile caecum, adhesions about the hepatic flexure, 
and scybala in the colon. Six months after the right colectomy she reported 
that the constipation had been entirely relieved. 

Case XII. An epileptic, aged 35, had been always constipated owing 
to a dilated caecum and ascending colon due to adhesions. Ten months after 
the right colectomy it was reported that the constipation was entirely cured, 
the general condition had improved, the epilepsy persisted. 



226 REVIEWS 

Case XIII. A man, aged 23, for 5 years an epileptic, had the epileptic 
attacks associated with indigestion and constipation. The right colectomy 
entirely removed the constipation and tlie general condition markedly 
improved but the epilepsy continued. 

Case XIV. An epileptic, aged 21, with a large and mobile caecum, 
a chronically inflamed appendix, enlarged mesenteric glands, and adhesions 
about the hepatic flexure, was influenced by the operation in the same way 
as the preceding case. 

Case XV. An epileptic girl, aged 12, with constipation and pain in the 
right lumbar region, had a large mobile caecum, a long mesentery, chronic 
appendicitis, vascular adhesions, and enlarged mesenteric glands. The 
constipation was markedly relieved, the epilepsy continued. 

Case X VI. An epileptic woman with constipation had a large distended 
caecum, chronic appendicitis, and adhesions about the hepatic flexure. She 
recovered from the operation but was lost sight of. 

Case XVII. A woman had severe constipation for 20 years with 
recurring pain in the upper abdomen and was poorly nourished. The 
condition found was much tlie same as in the preceding case. She reported 
a year after the right colectomy that she felt cured. 

Case XVIII. An epileptic aged 20, with constipation had a dilated 
end of the ileum, a mobile caecum and ascending colon. Along with relief 
to the constipation and general improvement, the epilep.sy continued but 
the attacks were milder. 

Case XIX. A woman aged 22, who had been an epileptic for a year, 
had marked constipation with dull pain in the right lumbar region which 
was worse after the epileptic attacks. There was a mobile caecum, chronic 
appendicitis, and adhesions over the ascending colon. Right colectomy 
removed entirely the constipation and the general condition improved but 
the epilepsy continued. 

The most noteworthy feature of Brewster's cases was the absence of 
any deaths in spite of the many cases of epileptics in bad condition. In 
nearl}^ all the constipation was quite relieved and the general condition 
improved. There was no definite improvement as regards the epilepsy even 
where the attacks seemed to be closely associated with the constipation. 
But the patients were able to bear the attacks better and in a few the 
operation coincided with a temporar}^ relief. Thus Brewster's results are 
opposed to Lane's contention as to the necessity for total colectomy. 

Schoemaker, in 68 cases, found the cause to be pericolitis membranacea. 
The general symptoms had been pain on the right side of the abdomen with 
tenderness from the region of McBurney's point upward towards the 
margin of the ribs and across towards the middle line, together with a soft 
tumour-like resistance, and signs under X-rays of stasis in the ascending- 
colon. The caecum, ascending colon, and to a variable extent the first part 
of the transverse colon were found covered by a veil of fibrous tissue. Some 
consider this membrane congenital and the stasis secondary, others hold 
that the pericolitis is secondary to the constipation, infective organisms or 
their toxins spreading through the intestinal wall to set up local peritonitis. 
In the 68 cases he excised the caecum, ascending colon, and part, about 
12 cm., of the transverse colon, joining the ileum and transverse colon end 
to end. Two patients died, one of embolism and the other with signs of 
prolonged shock, in whom a post-mortem examination was refused. Fifty 
of the patients were followed up; 32 were quite free from abdominal 



SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC INTESTINAL STASIS 227 

disturbance, 8 liad improved but still had some pain, 10 were not benefited — 
they still suffered from constipation and pain on the right side. 

The examination of the intestine excised showed no sign of colitis ; 
there were no changes in the mucous membrane, muscular or serous coats. 
The fibrous membrane could be readily raised from the serous coat and 
consisted of a cellular connective tissue with numerous thin-walled blood- 
vessels, but with no signs of leucocytes or organisms. The membrane, 
therefore, appeared to be congenital in origin. In the course of develop- 
ment, the caecum as it descends from the hepatic region tends to become 
free, whilst the ascending colon with the proximal part of the colon is fused 
witii a layer of parietal peritoneum. In the cases cited the caecum was not 
dilated or specially mobile, so as to drag on the ascending colon. Indeed, 
in some, the caecum was quite high up, covered, along with the commence- 
ment of the transverse colon, by a markedly vascular membrane. 

Short of excision a mobile caecum and ascending colon may be plicated 
in a simple fashion after appendicectomy by suturing together the anterior 
and external taeniae as far up the ascending colon as seems desirable. 
Ten Horn, of Ghent, has reported recently as to the favourable results. It 
is merely a prolongation of the suture burying in the stump of the appendix. 
Waugh, in 180 cases, adopted a more extensive operation, requiring a much 
freer abdominal incision, and with the result of rendering the caecum and 
ascending colon more fixed than is natural. Waugh incised the parietal 
peritoneum to the outer side of the caecum and ascending colon from the 
brim of the pelvis to the level of the duodenum. After raising the outer 
edge of this peritoneal incision as a flap, he cleared out fat from the front of 
the lumbar muscles, laid the caecum and ascending colon in the hollow 
so made, and sutured the peritoneal flap over the outer side to the anterior 
taenia. 

The increase of coarse vegetable food in the diet has apparently caused 
a notable increase of cases of volvulus of the sigmoid flexure. This has been 
noted by Neugebauer in Russia, by Neudorfer in Germany, by Guimbellot 
and Okinczye in France, If the case is seen whilst there is only pain and con- 
stipation, and the sigmoid flexure is merely mobile, excision and end to end 
union should be carried out without delay. If, unfortunately, volvulus has 
occurred and set up acute intestinal obstruction, then incision, with end to end 
union, together with a temporary caecostomy, is best ; failing that, the excision 
of the volvulus, after tying in a Paul's tube above and below, followed later 
by closure, which, however, is difiicult to accomplish. The proposal attri- 
buted by Neudorfer to Pachhammer in 1912, viz. to make an anastomosis 
between the proximal and distal arm of the volvulus, is likely to fail. After 
temporary relief a further twist of the volvulus may involve the anastomosis 
and set up recurrence of the obstruction. An incision of the volvulus 
is open to the danger that the orifice may be situated below the upper end 
of the obstruction. 

One of Okinczye's cases is instructive. In 1915 a man of 47 had 
an attack of intestinal obstruction which passed off spontaneously. In 
June 1916 a more prolonged attack was treated on the 12tli day by caecos- 
tomy, but as this did not relieve him, ten days later the sigmoid flexure was 
opened. From this faeces escaped regularly, but from the lower end, and a 
prolapse of 20 cm. of the sigmoid supervened. An X-ray examination then 
showed a volvulus of the sigmoid with the caecum and ascendino- colon 
much dilated. At last, in November 1920, the volvulus was excised and an 



228 REVIEWS 

end to end suture closed the opening, which was followed by an uncom- 
plicated recovery. Against the foregoing may be set the case recorded by 
Guimbellot. A woman aged 26 had been constipated since childhood, four 
to five days intervening between her stools, attended with pain, especially in 
the left hypochondrium. Acute intestinal obstruction supervened, and 36 
hours after the onset a volvulus of the sigmoid was exposed, the loop being 
distended to the size of a man's thigh. The volvulus was excised and the 
two ends united. There was a spontaneous motion on the sixth day. She 
was discharged after a month. Four months later she was well, but with 
some constipation and colicky pains, an X-ray examination discovering 
a delayed passage through the colon. 

Conclusions. When a case of chronic intestinal stasis presents difficulties 
in diagnosis, the recommendation of Greig Smith may be adapted. He 
advised that a surgeon, when in doubt as to whether a patient was suffering 
from acute intestinal obstruction calling for operation, should sit down by 
the bedside and observe the patient for an hour or more. 

After a purge has been administered the progress of its effect along the 
intestinal canal may be followed. Variations in the movements and disten- 
sion of the bowels, changes as regards cutaneous hyperaesthesia, muscular 
rigidity, reflexes, and deep tenderness may be noted and then compared with 
the patient's sensations. Similar observations may be made after the patient 
has swallowed some gruel containing bismuth or barium sulphate, the course 
of the intestinal contents may be observed through the X-ray screen, and 
photographs may be taken at other junctures than those fixed beforehand. 

Hitherto the examination of the wall of the colon removed for chronic 
constipation has often been barren of results. In a case of a caecum and 
ascending colon removed by Spencer, Keith found in the submucous tissue 
a remarkable collection of large branched cells loaded with pigment, melanin 
chromatophores. It is possible that in the future further evidence may be 
forthcoming as to pathological fine alterations in the neuro-muscular 
mechanism of the large intestine. Whether partial or total colectomy 
be done, it is not clear why it has been usual to sacrifice the ileo-caecal 
valve. The preservation of the valve might well have two advantages, the 
prevention of the ascent of bacteria so as to disturb the juice digestion in 
the ileum, and the prevention of too frequent motions. 

Bbswsteb, G. W. W. Right colectomy. Report of 19 cases. Tr. Am. Surg. 
Ass., 1918, 36, 461. 

Bbitish Journai. or Subgeby. Review of Lane's "Operative treatment of 
chronic intestinal stasis". 4th ed. Brit. J. Surg., 1919 6, 609. 

GuiMBEiiiiOT. Volvulus de rS iliaque traite avec succes en periode d'occlusion 
aigue par la resection de I'anse volvuleeavec suture intestinale immediate. Bull, 
et mem. Soc. de chir. de Par., 1920, 46, 1456. 

Neudobfeb, a. Zur Behandlung des Volvulus der Flexura sigmoidea. 
ZentraM.f. Chir., 1920, 47, 1457. 

HuBST, A. r. Constipation and allied intestinal disorders. 2nd ed. 1919, 
393. 

Keith, A. The great bowel ; from an anatomist's point of view. Lane, 
W. A., The Operative Treatment of Chronic Intestinal Stasis. 4th ed. 1918, ch. vii, 
202. 



SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC INTESTINAL STASIS 229 

ImAtste, W. a. ( 1). Cancer of the colon, its causation and treatment. Lancet, 

1920, ii, 1184. 

ImATUB, W. a. (2). Disease and chyme infection. Lancet, 1919, i, 767. 

Lane, W. a. (3). Chronic intestinal stasis. What are the indications for 
operative treatment. Lancet, 1919, i, 333. 

Lane, W. A. (4). The operative treatment of chronic intestinal stasis. 4th ed. 
1918. 

Metchnikoff, is. Etudes sur la nature humaine. 1903, ch. iv, 87. 

Neuoebauer. Spastische Obstipation und Volvulus, Med. Klin., 1919, 15, 
265. 

Okinczye, J. Sur le volvulus de I'S iliaque. Bull, et mem. Soe. tie chir. cle Par., 

1921, 47, 29. 

Payb, E. Obstipationsursachen und -formen. Konstitutionspathologie und 
Eingeweidesenkung. Uber die Anzeigestellung zu Operationen bei Obstipation. 
Arch./, klin. Chir., 1920, 114, 894. 

ScHOEMAKER, J. Pericolitis merabranacea. Arch. f. Min. Chir., 1920, 114, 
859. 

Smith, J. W. Atony and prolapse of the large intestine. Brit. M. J., 1920, 
i, 243. 

Spencer, W. G., and Keith, A. Intestinal stasis followed by cystic dilata- 
tion of the caecum without intestinal obstruction. Brit. J. Surg., 1921, 8, 452. 

TayIiOR, J. Colectomy. Lancet, 1919, ii, 197, 457, 547. 

Ten Horn. Die Plikation des Caecum als Behandlung der Obstipation. 
ZentraWl. f. Chir., 1919, 46, 354. 

Waugh, G. E. The morbid consequences of a mobile caecum and ascending 
colon, with a record of 180 operations. Brit. J. Surg., 1920, 7, 343. 

W. G. S. 



MELANIN, MELANOMA, MELANOTIC CANCER 

Recent observations have increased knowledge regarding the pigment 
melanin, a substance which has presented special difficulties under chemical 
examination. These observations have an important bearing upon questions 
relating to pigmented benign formations, melanomas, as well as to the 
malignant melanoblastomas or melanotic cancer. 

The following may be noted as some of the steps by which advances 
have been made. 

In 1887 Thormahlen originated the idea of a colourless melanogen by 
finding that the urine of a woman suffering from secondary melanotic 
cancer, when treated with sodium nitroprusside and caustic potash, turned 
blue-green. There were, however, substances in the normal urine of cattle 
and horses which gave the same reaction. Herzog and Zeller examining 
urine from a similar case at a more advanced stage, when the urine 



230 REVIEWS 

had become brown from melanin, distinguished the reaction of melanin ; 
the solution turned green with the Thormahlen test, and black with per- 
chloride of iron, whereas previously colourless melanogen turned with the 
Thormahlen test a steel blue or Berlin blue. 

In 1896 Bertrand, examining the juice of plants which are the source 
of black Japanese lacquer, found that a kind of melanin was produced by- 
oxidation through the aid of an enzyme. This enzyme being isolated acted on 
tyrosin, turning it first a violet-red, then causing a black deposit of melanin. 
The enzyme, being considered an accelerator of the oxidation of tyrosin, was 
named tyrosinase. 

Attention was also directed to the blood of those insects which turns 
black on exposure to light. Hollande demonstrated the presence of a tyro- 
sinase in the blood of such insects ; it was also found in the ink-sac of Sepia. 
In contact with air this tyrosinase accelerated the oxidation of a chromagenic 
material, melanogen, to form melanin. 

In 1 909 Meirowsky found that pieces of skin taken post mortem from 
brunettes, also frozen sections of the same, were darkened by exposure to 
a quartz lamp or by heating up to 56° C. Microscopical examination of a 
section showed that the darkening was produced by a heaping up of pig- 
ment in the basal cells of the epidermis. Portions of skin taken post 
mortem from a case of Addison's disease and kept in an incubator for 5 days 
underwent a still greater degree of darkenino-. In 1910 KoniiJ-stein, in 
order to dispose ot the objection that the above was a post-mortem effect, 
excised both adrenals from dogs. In animals which survived a pigmen- 
tation of skin occurred, similar to that taking place in Addison's disease. 
The darkened patches of skin, removed intra vitam., and placed in an incu- 
bator for 48 hours at 50° C. were made much darker, and if the sections 
were boiled in water for 5-7 minutes before being placed in the chamber, 
they became darker still. 

In 1914 Bittorf demonstrated that the frozen sections of skin from 
Addison's disease were similarly darkened by dilute solutions of tyrosin and 
of^ adrenalin, the latter being the more active. In a solution of adrenalin, 
1 in 1,000, the sections were rendered quite black in 4-5 hours ; in a solution, 
1 in 100,000, in 21 hours the sections had become distinctly darkened. In 
the case^ of a soldier who had been shot through the loin, and in whom it 
was conjectured that the adrenals might have been injured, Leschcziner 
found that exposure to a quartz lamp caused the skin so exposed to darken 
in a way which persisted after 7 months. Pieces of tliis skin, cut out into-a 
vitam from the man, darkened in the tyrosin and adrenalin solutions, like 
the skin from Addison's disease. 

Bloch discovered that 3, 4-dioxyphenylalanin — for short ' dopa ' — in an 
aqueous solution, 1 in 1,000, could be used as a test for the presence of 
tyrosinase in the protoplasm of the cells of the malpighian layer of the 
epidermis, by which pigment granules of melanin were formed. 

Melanin. Melanin is a pigment which, almost absent from the skin of 
a blonde not exposed to the Hght, is the marked characteristic of the 
stratum germinativum of the epidermis of the negro. The total quantity 
of melanin under normal conditions in the skin of a negro has been estimated 
at not more than 1 grm. In a fresh melanotic cancer the melanin may 
amount to 7-10 per cent, by weight of the whole ; the total quantity of 
melanin produced in cases of generalized melanotic cancer may reach from 
300-500 grm. The ink of a squid consists of melanin ; as the animal con- 



MELANIN, MELANOMA, MELANOTIC CANCER 231 

tiuues to dischar<^e it under repeated irritation the colour is weakened until 
finall}^ a colourless fluid is discharoed from the sac. 

Chemical examination has proved that melanin is an iron-free pigment, 
unconnected in origin with haemoglobin. As distinguished also from 
haemoglobin, it contains suli)hur ; in the material from a melanotic cancer 
as much as 10 per cent, of sul[)hur has been found, in the melanin from 
a squid as much as 12 per cent. 

The source of melanin is the proteid molecule, and the amino-acids 
concerned in its formation are probably the sulphur-containing cystin, the 
phenolic tyrosin, and the indol-derivative tryptophane. Dioxyphenyl- 
alanin, the so-called ' dopa '. is closely allied to tyrosin, but contains an 
additional phenolic hydroxy 1, being a catechol derivative. It is an amino- 
acid which has been obtained from plants readily forming black pigment 
when injured— e. g. the broad bean. It is very readily blackened by oxida- 
tion in the presence of tyrosinases, and can therefore be used as a test for 
such enzymes. 

According to Bloch, the normal as well as the pathological pigmentation 
of the skin is produced by the epithelium of the stratum germinativum, in 
deep pigmentation also by the superjacent cells of the stratum spinosum, 
also by the deep layer of the cells of the hair follicle and of the hair papilla, 
the latter determining the colour of the hair. These are the normally 
active pigment-forming cells. Under normal conditions the cells are quiescent 
and the pigment formation small. The same applies to the cells of 
a stationary melanoma. Under abnormal conditions the cells become active 
and there is more active pigment formation. The active pigment formation 
then occurs in cells which are undergoing division. Indeed in a rapidly 
growing melanotic tumour the division of cells is in advance of the 
formation of the pigment, so that some of the secondary growths are not 
pigmented. 

The formation of the melanin pigment occurs in the protoplasm of 
the cell, the nucleus does not take an obvious share in the process. The 
dioxyphenylalanin or 'dopa' solution serves as a test for the presence 
of tyi-osinase. Bloch explains that there exists in the cells of normallj'- 
pigmented skin an enzyme which blackens with 'dopa', and that thi.s 
enzyme is absent from the skin of albinos and in the non-pigmented 
patches of the skin of an animal elsewhere spotted by pigment. _ Upon 
the relative amount of this oxidizing enzyme depends the reaction to 
a stimulus such as light. Hence may be explained the variations in the 
degree of pigmentation produced by the action of rays of light on the skin 
of different individuals. Also it may be supposed that in Addison's disease 
there is a failure on the part of the suprarenals to form adrenalin from the 
mother substance. As a consequence there is an accumulation of the 
latter, which, collecting in the epidermal cells, is there converted by the tyro- 
sinase into melanin. 

Melanin pigment cells. The study of the distribution of the melanin 
pigmented cells of vertebrates and invertebrates shows that it occurs most 
commonly in cells derived from embryonic epiderm, and particular!}^ 
so in man. This includes the skin and appendages, both above and 
underneath the shell of a crustacean, and the choroid coat in the eye. 
Besides there are found pigmented cells around the abdominal cavity or 
coelom, and along the course of blood-vessels and nerves. In all of these 
places the areas of pigmentation are not strictly defined, but there are found 



232 REVIEWS 

outlying cells in addition. Besides the skin and choroid coat of the eye, 
there are melanin pigment cells in the olfactory epithelium and in that lining 
the labyrinth. Cells may be found which have apparently wandered out 
into the sclerotic. The occurrence of a melanotic tumour growing from the 
pia mater or choroid plexuses of the brain may be explained as originating 
in cells which have been derived from embryonic epiderm, or represent 
pigment cells in the sheaths of nerves and arteries in lower animals. 
A melanotic tumour of the palate may be connected with the pigmented 
patch in the mouth and throat of, e. g. some dogs. 

The pigmentation of cells around the primitive coelom may afford an 
explanation of the pigment cells of the suprarenals, melanotic patches may 
be seen on the surface of the gland ; in some birds and animals pigment 
cells have been noted in the tunica albuginea of the testes. In domestic 
animals melanotic growths arise in the retroperitoneal tissue ; a melanotic 
growth of the ovary is more often secondary, yet the above gives a possible 
explanation of a primary melanoma of the ovary. In one case it originated 
in an ovarian dermoid cyst. In the thorax, of sheep in particular, the 
endocardium and the endothelium of the large vessels are spotted with 
pigment, from which it is likely that a primary melanotic tumour may 
arise. 

In the embryo the source of the melanin pigment is not in the ovum. 
The frog's ovum is pigmented but not so the ova of tritons and salamanders, 
in which the melanin pigment appears after the formation of blood. The 
development of the melanin pigment cells can be watched in the transparent 
leptocephalidae ; also the choroidal pigment in the development of the eye 
of vertebrates ; it originates from non-pigmented cells. 

The chromatophores. Melanin pigment is contained in large cells 
with multiple branches lying amongst epithelial cells, also beneath the 
epithelium in the cutis and elsewhere. Chromatophores are seen in inverte- 
brates along the blood-vessels, having amoeboid properties, in Am^jhioxus 
along the course of the nervous system, in crustaceans around the intestines. 
In melanotic cancer the pigmented cells may be spindle-shaped or rounded. 
Such chromatophore cells contain much more pigment than any individual 
epithelial cell. 

A precisely opposite explanation to the view that the epithelial cell 
of the stratum germinativum forms the pigment is that the pigment is 
formed in these chromatophore cells, which are mesoblastic in origin. 

Those that believe that these cells are merely chromatophores, pigment 
carriers, which take up the pigment from the epithelial cells or melanoblasts, 
to carry it away along the lymphatics to the lymphatic glands, note that 
chromatophores are absent under patches of vitiligo and nonpigmented scars. 
But at any rate, when melanotic cancer is developing and the cells are 
rapidly dividing, these mobile chromatophores become capaljle of forming 
pigment in distant metastatic growths. 

That cells of mesoblastic origin in insects can form melanin in their 
protoplasm was stated by Hollande in the case of insects, the blood of which 
blackens on exposure to the air. The vacuoles of the phagocytes, into 
which particles like bacteria or inorganic granules are taken, contain plasma 
and the tyrosinase. Under the influence of light, owing to the presence of 
a chromagenic melanogen and a tyrosinase enzyme, granules of melanin are 
formed in the vacuoles. Subsequently the melanin leaves the phagocyte, 
passes away in the blood, and is taken up by other cells. 



MELANIN, MELANOMA. MELANOTIC CANCER 233 

The structure of melanomas and melanotic cancers. Passing on to 
abnormal collections of the melanin pigmented cells, melanotic moles and 
patches have two arrangements of cells which, however, may be combined. 
In one, characteristic of the pigmented moles of tlie skin, the pigmented 
cells are arranged in rows more or less vertical to the surface, somewhat 
resembling the cortex of the suprarenals ; or the cells have a somewhat 
alveolar arrangement. Outside these cells are scattered chroinatophores. 
It is especially in melanotic cancers derived from the skin that tlie alveolar 
arrangement persists and is continued in the metastatic growths, particularly 
of the lymphatic glands. This suggests an epithelial origin, and that the 
malignant growth is a carcinoma. With this accords the tendency to spread 
first to the lymphatic glands corresponding to the area. 

The other type of melanoma suggests that the chromatophores are the 
basis. If the melanomatous spot is in loose tissue, the cells are large with 
nmltiple branching processes. In new growths, especially those arising in 
the internal organs of animals, the cells resemble those of spindle-celled and 
round-celled sarcomas, as if the above mentioned cells had, in the course of 
multiplying, become compressed. 

Referring to veterinary pathology, there is clear evidence that in cats 
and dogs melanotic cancer commences primarily and almost exclusively in 
the skin and eye. In horses, especially grey horses which become white, 
the common primary growth is from the skin of the region of the anus. In 
the majority of reports concerning horses, cattle, and sheep, no attempt is 
made to note the situation of the primary growth. A source in a suprarenal 
capsule is particularly igniored. Hence there are returns of melanotic cancer 
of horses in the muscles, lymphatic glands, heart, lung, spleen, parotid, in 
cattle in the stomach, in sheep in the bones. Statistics given by Lubarsch 
illustrate the frequency of melanotic cancer in the Berlin Veterinary 
Institutions, 175,745 horses, cancer and sarcoma in 527, melanotic cancer 
and sarcoma in 226, i. e. 42-88 per cent. In grey and white horses there is 
definitely an increasing tendency with age, which is not the case in human 
beings. An old explanation of the predisposition in white horses is that 
the chromatophores overloaded by the withdrawal of pigment from the hair 
and skin fail to be excreted by way of the blood. 

Diffused melanotic pigment. Matsunga's observation is important in 
relation to the cases of melanotic cancer in which a diffuse pigmentation 
occurs. He made a post-mortem examination on a man, aged 41, in whom 
a pigmented mole on the forehead had been noted, for four years before its 
removal, to be exhibiting signs of growth. It had been removed one year 
before death, along with large glands from the neck. At the time of 
removal the primary growth had already ulcerated, and beyond the outline 
of the tumour, when excised, there appeared a diffuse brownish pigmenta- 
tion of the connective tissue. At the examination after death there were 
found numerous metastases and in addition a generalized pigmentation of 
the skin of a diffused brown colour. Much of the pigment was found in 
spindle-shaped and stellate cells, and the ' dopa '-reaction of Bloch was yielded 
both by epithelial and connective tissue cells. By this it was shown 
that fixed connective tissue cells, as distinct from wandering cells, were 
pigmented and yielded a positive reaction. Besides the fixed connective 
tissue cells, endothelial cells of blood-vessels, reticulum cells in lymphatic 
glands, also epithelial cells of the kidneys, lungs, and thyroid gland, all 
gave a positive ' dopa ' reaction. 



234 REVIEWS 

These observations indicate that a melanin-producing enzyme can be 
discharged in solution from the tumour cells, which is carried off by the 
blood, and, arriving at non-pigmented mesoblastic cells, is capable of pro- 
ducing the pigment. This brings the diffuse pigmentation in the case of 
melanotic cancer into line with that of the pigmentation following Addison's 
disease. It further points to the starting of the primary malignant 
development in a previously quiescent mole as being connected with a pro- 
duction to excess of the pigment-forming enzyme. In relation to the origin 
of cancer in general, the cause of melanotic cancer is intimately bound up 
with the melanin pigment. 

The pigmented mole on the skin. There is at any rate one established 
fact — that to prevent melanotic cancer from arising in man, au}^ pigmented 
mole or patch which shows the slightest tendency to change should be cut 
out. Moreover, a surgeon, when called upon to make an incision under an 
anaesthetic, should take the opportunity of removing a mole existing on the 
neighbouring skin. 

The danger following upon tlie irritation of a pigmented spot on the 
finger or beside the nail, the melanotic whitlow of Hutchinson, is well known. 
Yet owing to the ubiquity of these moles the possibility of comj)]ication may 
be overlooked. 

A small boy, a brunette, both the mother and father being South 
European brunettes, had, as well as his parents, many moles, including 
three on the toes of one foot. One of the black spots on a toe had become 
inflamed and commenced to ulcerate. It had been seen by several medical 
practitioners, who had all diagnosed the condition to be the result of frost- 
foite, in spite of the ulcer being at the base of the toe, the circulation of the 
feet good, and the child well cared for. When cut out the ulcer was found 
to be a commencing melanotic cancer, the other two patches quiescent 
melanomas ; the glands in the groin showed small-celled proliferation with 
some large cells containing melanin pigment. 

Even more dangerous are the moles about the genitals and anus. 

Holland, in 1908, collected 52 recorded cases of melanotic cancer of the 
vulva and the vaginal orifice. The cases had nearly all been treated too 
late, only one being known to be free from recurrence three years subsequent 
to the removal. The records were defective on important points, viz. the 
origin in a pigmented mole and the early infection of the lymphatic glands. 
A further difliculty was that some were probably metastatic in origin. 
Doran, in 1905, was the first to distinguish a melanotic growth on the vulva, 
secondary to a melanotic cancer of an adrenal, and he subsequently mentioned 
three other similar cases. 

Miescher examined enlarged crural lymphatic glands which had become 
affected from a pigmented mole on the thigh after it had turned malignant. 
The glands exhibited the alveolar t3^pe of melanotic cancer and some of the 
tumour cells gave the ' dopa ' reaction, others did not. The cells which 
gave the positive reaction were cells which could be seen to already contain 
some pigment and were of epidermal origin. 

Melanoma and melanotic cancer of the eye. Apart from the regular 
pigmentation, melanomatous spots are seen in the choroid and in its 
neighbourhood. Such patches are very common on the iris of horses. 
They also occur in non-pigmented tissue such as the conjunctiva. 

The choroid pigment in the embryo appears to develop in previously 
colourless cells derived from the epiderm, and melanotic cancer, when it 



MELANIN, MELANOMA, ]\IELANOTIC CANCER 235 

arises, starts in these pigmented cells. But histologically both the primary 
growth and the metastases have the general structure of spindle- and 
round-celled sarcoma rather than of alveolar cancer. As differing from the 
pigmented basal cells of the epidermis, the cells of the choroid fail to yield 
the 'dopa' reaction. Bloch's explanation of this is that the choroid cells 
are entirely quiescent, no pigment metabolism going on in them under 
ordinary circumstances. 

Moore has carefully described the quiescent melanomatous patches of 
the choroid as seen by means of the ophthalmoscope, and in one case he had 
the opportunity of examining the eye, after death from a totally uncon- 
nected cause. The melanomas were in four cases discovered during routine 
examination, and consisted of deeply pigmented patches of the choroid in 
the neighbourhood of the optic disk, with normal retinal vessels in front. 
In the eye examined after death there was found no essential difierence in 
histological structure from melanomas elsewhere. In the same eye, in the 
ciliary muscle, was a group of melanin chromatophores such as is met with 
in the eyes of negroes. 

The foregoing cases had presented no disturliance of vision, but Moore 
quoted previous descriptions of appearances of such patches suggestive of 
a commencement of malignant changes. A remarkable feature of melanotic 
cancer of the eyeball is the delay in the appearance of metastases, and that 
not in corresponding lymphatic glands, but especially in the liver, followed 
by melanuria. A delay of ten years or so has been many times reported, 
and Moore quoted a case which survived to die of abdominal metastasis 
17 years after the removal of an eyeball for melanotic cancer. Were it not 
for the similarity in the appearance and course, a separate new melanotic 
growth in the abdomen might seem a more likely supposition, rather than 
a metastasis so long after the primary disease. 

Andbewes, C. H. On a case of malignant melanoma of the vulva. St. Earth. 
Hosp. J., 1921, 28, 57. 

B1.0CH, Bb., u. LoffIiEB, W. Untersuchungen fiber die Bronzefiirbung der 
Haut bei der Addison'schen Krankheit. Deutsches Arch. f. Jclin. Mccl., 1916-17, 
121, 262. 

Bbahk, B., u. SCHMIDTMAWN, M. Pigmentstudien. Zur Kenntniss des 
Melaniiis und des braunen Abnutzungspigments. Arch. f. path. Anat. (&c.), 
1919, 227, 137. 

DOBAN, A. Malignant melanotic vulvar growth secondary to an adrenal tumour 

of the kidney. J. Obst. c$- Gynaec. Brit. Emp., 1905, 11, 447, and 1908, 14, 

414. 

Hackenbebg, E. Ueber einen Fall von Melanosarkom des Rektums. Zen- 

tralU. f. Chir., 1920, 47, 578. 

Eebzog, p., u. ZEI.1.EB, H. Uromelanin und Uromelanogen. Biochem. 

Ztschr., 1919, 96, 233. 

H01.1.AND, E. Malignant melanoma of the vulva. /. Ohst. 4' Gf/naec. Brit 

Emp., 1908, 14, 309. 

HOLLAWDE, A. Ch. La formation du pigment brim-noir (melanine) du cours de 
la phagocytose chez les insectes. Compt. rend. Soc. de hioL, 1920, 83, 726. 

Eben, O. Melanose. Wien. med. Wchnschr., 1919. 69, 947. 



236 REVIEWS 

LuBABSCH, O. Zur vergleichenden Pathologie der melanotischen Gewachse. 
3Ied. Klin., 1920, 16, 195. 

Matsunaga, T. Ueber diffuse Pigmentierung mit Melanin bei allgemeiner 
Melanosarkomatose. FranJcfurt. Ztschr. f. Path., 1919. 22, 69. 

MiESCHEB, G. Ein Beitrag zur epithelialen Genese der malignen Melanome 
der Haut. Centralb. f. allg. Fath. u. path. Anat., 1919, 30, 353. 

Moore, R. F. (1). Melanoma of the choroid. Roy. Loncl. Ophth. Hosp. Rep.. 
1914, 19, 411. 

Moore, R. F. (2). Proc. Roy.Soc.of3Ied. Lond., 1918-19, 12, Ophth. Sect., 60. 

Novae, I. Kritischer Beitrag zum primjiren Melanosarkom des Ovariums. 
Arch./, aynaek., 1920, 112, 183. 

SaIiEOWSEI, E. Ueber die Darstellung und einige Eigenschaften des patho- 
logischen Melanins. Arch. f. path. Anat. (&c.), 1919, 227, 121. 

ThobmahZiEIT, J. Mittheilung fiber einen noch nieht bekannten Korper im 
pathologischen Menschenharn. Arch. /.path. Anat. (&c.), 1887, 108, 317. 

W. G. S. 



ACUTE SUPPURATION ABOUT THE WRIST TREATED 
BY INCISION DIVIDING THE ANNULAR LIGAMENT 

Septic infection of the hand being neglected for a week or so, acute 
suppuration becomes established in the palm and spreads among the 
tendons into the lo^yer third of the forearm, also to the wrist and carpal 
joints. The question then is whether the patient's life can be saved, short 
of an amputation, by incisions which will arrest the septic inflammation. 
The resort to several short incisions and the insertion of drainage tubes, 
granted that the process of suppuration becomes arrested, generally renders 
the hand useless for all finer movements. A more extensive operation, 
imitating the operation for tuberculous disease introduced by Lister, has in 
the two cases quoted below, recorded by Helferich and Muraud, enabled 
much finer movement to be gained. Patients suffering from tuberculous 
disease involving the wrist, carpus, and the lower third of the forearm, after 
the Lister operation have been enabled, e. g., to write a remarkably fuie 
hand. When treating acute suppuration by making small incisions and 
inserting drains, it has been customary to pass tubes from the flexor aspect 
of the forearm, under the annular ligament, and out by the palm. The 
flexor tendons become firmly glued together and all movement of the 
tendons is completely and permanently lost. 

Chaput reported that in five cases he had removed the carpal semilunar 
and passed a tube through from the flexor to the extensor aspect. One 
man was aged 68, two men aged 65, one woman aged 60, and another 55. 
Amputation was thus avoided; the hand healed, but all the fingers were 
firmly ankylosed ' en grifie '. 

V. Saar and Schamberger recall the old names for the lines in the skin 
of the palm, the longitudinal midline continued over the wrist-joint, the 



ACUTE SUPPURATION ABOUT THE WRIST, ETC. :.'37 

so-called liiiea fortunae, the line deviating from it below the wrist to skirt 
the thenas eminence, the Unea vitalis, also the two transverse lines, the 
distal one, the llaea musalis, and the proximal, the iiiLea cephalica. These 
lines form landmarks for the structures in the palm. A lon<atudinal 
incision a few millimetres to the ulnar side of the linea fortunae has the 
ulnar nerve and artery to one side and the median nerve to the radial side. 
If tlie incision begins above the linea cephalica the arteries of the palmar 
arch may be avoided, and no tendon is injured when the incision is con- 
tinued up through the annular ligament. 

Helferich's case. A man aged 32 injured the little finger of his right 
hand. Acute swelling of the hand and lower two-thirds of the forearm 
followed, and the axillary glands became enlarged to the size of hazel-nuts. 
Seven days later, under general anaesthesia, and after applying a tourniquet, 
an incision was made to the ulnar side of the middle line longitudinally 
through the annular ligament, without injuring the ulnar nerve or artery or 
the deep palmar arch. Pus was found among botli the superficial and deep 
flexors, also along the interosseous ligament to above the middle of the 
forearm. The whole was cleaned with the aid of a 0'6 per cent, salt 
solution ; after loosening the tourniquet, bleeding-points were tied, and 
then the wound was filled with iodoform gauze. The gauze remained in 
situ for ten days. The temperature at the operation was 39-1° C, on the day 
after 37-3-39*5° C, and on the second day 37-6-38-8° C, it became normal 
on the third day and remained so. Twelve days after the operation, again 
under a general anaesthetic, and, after applying a tourniquet, granulations 
were scraped away, the margins of the skin undermined, the long incision 
sutui'ed. There remained the primary lesion of the little finger where 
the flexor tendon had sloughed. The patient was discharged healed after 
two months. 3^ months after healing the man was examined : he had 
been some time at work, he could flex all his fingers well except the 
little finger. The united incision was firm, there was no weakness of the 
annular ligament, the state of the muscles of the forearm was equal to 
that of those on the left side. 

Mnrand's case. Muraud reported that a nurse, aged 52, punctured 
her left thumb whilst dressing the stump after an amputation through the 
thigh for multiple wounds infected by streptococci. A small whitlow 
formed, which was aggravated two days later by the left hand and fore- 
arm being accidentally squeezed. Eight days after the puncture acute 
suppuration had extended to the palm and above the wrist, also to the 
dorsal aspect. Above streaks of inflamed lymphatics stretched upward to 
inflamed axillary glands. A long median incision was made, extending 
from the palm through the annular ligament to the junction of the lower 
and middle third of the forearm. A large quantity of pus escaped from 
over and amono; the tendons. Another longitudinal incision on the dorsum 
exposed the extensor tendons, also bathed in pus. From both sides holes 
led into the wrist-joint and among the carpal bones. All the carpus was 
removed except the trapezium and pisiform bones. The pus yielded a pure 
growth of streptococci. The after-treatment by the Carrel Dakin method 
of irrigation was continued for a fortnight, after which the hand was fixed 
in plaster, with the wrist dorsiflexed and movement of the fingers begun. 
Four months after the operation the patient could use her thumb and fingers 
sufficiently to grasp a book, could dress herself, do her own hair, insert 
hairpins and hold a glass to drink with the aflected hand. Six months 

IV. s 



238 REVIEWS 

afterwards the thumb could approach to within 1 cm. of the httle finger 
and she could lift a chair with that hand. Fourteen months after the 
operation she could sew, iron, and embroider, and do many other things ; the 
thing she could not do was to button the opposite glove, owing to general 
reduction of the movement of the thumb and fingers. 

Lec^ne, in the discussion on Muraud's paper, commended the procedure 
which he had adopted since 1912 ; for such cases drainage above and below 
the annular ligament led to deplorable results. 

Chaput. Drainage translunaire des arthrites aigues suppurees du poignet. 
Bull, et mem. Soc. de cliir. de Par., 1914, 40, 109. 

Hz:i.FERiCH. Ueber die Behandlung schwerer Phlegmonen. Berl Uin. 
WcJmschr., 1892, 29, 61. 

MuRAUD, J. De la resection du carpe, combinee a la section du ligament 
annulaire, anterieur dans le traitement de I'arthrite suppuree du poignet ; com- 
plication d'un phlegmon de la gaine des flechisseurs. Bull, et mem. Soc. de chir. 
de Par., 1921, ^7,227. 

V. Saab, G. F., u. Schaubebgeb, R. Der ulnare Langsschnitt. eine Schnitt- 
flihrung fiir Operationen im Bereiche der Volarfliiche des Handgelenks und der 
Hohlhand. Zentralhl. f. Chir., 1913, 40, 993. 

W. G. S. 



I 



■-■,3' 



ABSTRACTS 



SURGERY 

Cebm-ezzi, a. Contributo alia cura radicale delle grand! ernie ombelicali e degli 
sventramenti niediani. [Treatment of large umbilical and ventral hernias.] 
Arch, ital di chir., 1920, 2, 352. 

Plastic operations for the closure of large apertures in the abdominal 
wall by means of flaps cut from the sheaths of the recti muscles were 
introduced by Nable (1897), Karewsky (1904), and Polya (1905). The 
feature common to the three methods was the formation of a more or 
less extensive flap from the anterior layer of the sheath of each muscle with 
its base towards the middle line. Nable sutured the two recti muscles in 
their whole thickness, disregarding the closure of their sheath ; Polya, who 
applied his method to comparatively small hernias only, united the two flaps 
by means of a purse-string suture and then drew together the external 
margins of the incisions in the sheaths. Karewsky extended the method to 
hernias of large size, reflecting the flaps over the aperture, suturing their 
margins, and completing the closure by suturing in strata. 

The relative ease with which the aponeurosis of the external oblique 
muscles can be approximated, and even superimposed, has led to the intro- 
duction of further modifications in these methods. In so far as these involve 
the isolation of extensive aponeurotic flaps they are regarded by Cernezzi 
as of doubtful value, since they tend to weaken the abdominal wall not only 
by reducing the vascular supply of the aponeurosis, but also by altering the 
functional relations of the abdominal muscles. The operation recommended 
Ijy Cernezzi himself is very similar to that of Karewsky, although worked 
out independently. Cernezzi noticed that in cases where suture by strata 
was impossible with any prospect of satisfactory results, the diflic\ilty 
experienced in closing the hernial aperture lay in the posterior layer of the 
rectus sheath : this powerfully resisted traction towards the middle line, 
while the anterior layers could be readily approximated. The difference in 
the behaviour of the two layers is explained by the difference in their origin ; 
the deeper layer is, in fact, merely the aponeurosis of the transversalis 
muscle reinforced by the deep layer of that of tlie internal oblique, and its 
fibres run in the direction of the traction applied ; the superficial layer is 
formed from the aponeurosis of the external obHque, and its fibres, owing to 
their oblique course, allow of a certain degree of lateral deviation. An 
elliptical cutaneous incision is made over the hernial protrusion and the sac 
dealt with in the usual way. The sheaths of the recti muscles are next 



240 ABSTRACTS 

exposed for a long distance above and below the hernial aperture, and cut 
longitudinally at about a finger's breadth from their internal edge, the 
incisions being curved obliquely inwards at the extremities. The flaps are 
reflected towards the middle line and sutured together at their margins. In 
this way the hernial aperture is closed and the united edges of the flaps 
serve as a good line of support for the subsequent superficial sutures. The 
remaining external portions of the sheaths are then brought together and 
sutured in the middle line, no difficulty occurring in their approximation for 
the reasons before mentioned. The superficial fibres of the muscles are to be 
included in the sutures, so that the muscles may be drawn together at the 
same time. The point of importance in this technique is that the plastic 
operation should extend far beyond the longitudinal diameter of the hernial 
aperture, and be proportional to the greater or less degree of diastasis of the 
recti muscles. 

Since 1907 Cernezzi has operated on 16 cases, 8 umbilical and 8 median 
ventral hernias. Of the 8 umbilical hernias 3 were recurrences in very fat 
subjects and the results were good in all, no relapses having occurred after 
periods varying from 5-11 years, and one of the patients having been 
delivered at term without inconvenience. Of the ventral hernias 3 were 
spontaneous and 5 followed laparotomy, 2 of them being recurrences which 
had been treated by other surgeons. The results were good in all cases after 
7-12 years. T. W. P. L. 



PiBONDiNi, E. Pielite larvata, cistalgica. [Pyelitis larvata cystalgica.] 
Arch, ital di cJiir, 1920, 2, 502. 

Patients with this aflection suffer from pollakuria, associated with 
extremely painful micturition. The increased frequency of micturition is 
both diurnal and nocturnal, and often presents great regularity ; the 
stimulus occurring, for instance, every hour day and night. The disease is 
very chronic, and neurasthenia results through prolonged suff^ering, disturb- 
ance of rest, and hopelessness of recovery. The urine is somewhat turbid, 
and from time to time there may be slight haematuria : pain in the region 
of the kidney is absent. The clinical picture suggests an obstinate cystitis, 
either tuberculous or insufficiently treated. Evidences of tubercle are 
absent, and there is no wasting. Objectively, the most prominent symptom 
is the extreme pain and desire to micturate produced by pressure on the 
bladder, whether applied above the pubis or per vaginam. Palpation of 
the renal regions may reveal a slight tenderness, but this is often entirely 
absent. 

The urine is always turbid, acid, and contains a small amount of 
albumin and numerous pus cells. The daily quantity may be normal ; 
there is often, however, a slight degree of polyuria. The amount of noc- 
turnal urine is little less than or equal to the diurnal urine, and the normal 
fluctuation that occurs during the day is less pronounced, the secretion 
taking place more regularly, with, however, occasional sudden increases as 
if from transitory retention. When these changes in the secretory process 
are well marked, as shown in the accompanying figures, and the other 
symptoms mentioned are present, the diagnosis of cystalgic pyelitis is 
almost certainly established. 



SURGERY 



241 



Urine Collected at Intervals of Tujo Hours. 



Normal. 



Pyelitis. 



C.C. 


c.c. 


31 


138 


43 


120 


628 


365 


845 


200 


65 


196 


80 


180 


55 


170 


156 


1275 



Normal. 



Pyelitis. 



Sp. gr. 


Sp. gr 


1022 


1013 


25 


13 


02 


06 


03 


09 


17 


11 


20 


12 


26 


12 


27 


11 



Cystoscopy and catheterization of the ureters are difficult in tliese cases, 
owing to diminution in the capacity of the bladder. In the cases in which 
Pirondini succeeded in using these measures the bladder appeared normal 
except for slight congestion of the ureteral orifices, and the ureters showed 
the signs of pyelitis. 

It appears probable that the disease may originate in two ways, either 
as a primary haematogenous pyelitis or as an infection ascending from the 
bladder, which has become subsequently cured so far as the vesical infection 
is concerned. In either case the cystalgifi is to be explained as a reflex 
symptom originating in the renal pelvis or ureter. 

With regard to differential diagnosis it has to be remembered that in 
cases of prolonged cystitis with slight or doul)tful pyelitis an obstinate 
cystalgia is more likely to be dependent on a slight residual C3'stitis of the 
neck of the bladder than on pyelitis larvata ; and that poUakuria with 
cystalgia is in some instances purely functional in origin. 

Satisfactory treatment is difficult, especially in long-standing cases. 
Distension of the bladder should be carefully avoided, and in washing out 
the bladder, which, however, is rarely indicated, the limit of tolerance should 
not be reached and the double current should be employed with the channel 
of afflux smaller than that of efflux. The treatment generally is similar to 
that adopted in vesical tubercle ; sedatives are preferable to pure antiseptics, 
and may be administered by the mouth and per rectum as well as directly 
to the bladder itself. Attempts should be made to lessen the pyelitis, and 
for this purpose the author has found instillations of collargol useful. 
Intense painful and febrile reaction follows the instillation, but distinct 
amelioration results, without, however, definite cure. T. W. P. L. 



BoBELi.!, E. Ernie inguino-superficiali e diverticoli del sacco. [Superficial 
inguinal hernia.] PolicUn., 1920, 27 (Sez. chir.), 341. 

Superficial or subcutaneous inguinal hernia, two cases of which are 
described by the author, is rare. The essential characteristic of the condi- 
tion is the situation of the sac immediately beneath the superficial fascia, 
and one of its more constant features is its association with incomplete 
descent of the testis. The sac itself is frequently bilobed, one portion 
following the usual course of the hernial protrusion beside the spermatic 
cord, the other becoming superficial in front of the aponeurosis of the 
external oblique muscle and being directed externally towards the iliac 
spine, or upward in front of the sheath of tlie rectvis, or downward into 
Scarpa's triangle, or inward and backward into the perineum. The former 
part of the sac is always narrow, empty, partly obliterated, or subdivided 



242 ABSTRACTS 

by adhesions, and extends for a variable distance into the scrotum, at 
times, especially when the testicle is not retained, reaching the bottom 
of the scrotum. The subcutaneous part of the sac contains the displaced 
viscera when hernia is present, and when empty is usually completely 
pervious and in free communication with the central portion of the sac. 
Although usually bilobed, the sac is sometimes single, a condition chiefly 
met with in cases of acquired hernia. In such cases the sac, being of 
secondary formation and meeting with some obstacle to its descent along the 
cord, is deviated in toto : in congenital herniae, if the processus vaginalis 
should offer any obstruction to the descent of the viscera, a lateral diver- 
ticulum is formed. In the former case a simple sac, in the latter a bilobed 
sac results. When superficial inguinal hernia is associated with retention 
of the testicle, this organ is usually found in the subcutaneous portion of 
the sac, either free or fixed by remains of the gubernaculum : at other times 
it is retained in the inguinal canal or immediately outside the external ring, 
and in this case, when the sac is bilobed, as in the author's two cases, the 
testis is found near the bifurcation of the sac and in a position to obstruct 
the passage of the herniated viscus into the scrotal portion. 

Various theories have been adduced to explain the occurrence of the 
lesion ; it is probable, however, that several factors are concerned, and vary 
in different cases. With a simple sac bent on itself at the external ring, and 
with the testis in its normal position, it will probably be found either that 
the external ring is abnormally large, its columns lax, and the inguinal 
canal directed more forward than normal, or that a badly-fitting truss has 
allowed the viscera to pass the external ring w^hile preventing their descent 
into the scrotum. When the sac is bilobed, the testis, usually situated at the 
point of bifurcation, offers an impediment, and the descending viscus is 
deflected accordingly ; or, when the testicle is in its normal situation, 
obliteration or stenosis of the terminal portion of the sac will be found, 
or some mechanical external cause, such as excessive pressure of a truss. 
When the testicle is present in the superficial portion of the sac the hernia 
is probably due to the testicle itself, which paves the way for the subsequent 
descent of the bowel, and this is the more probable when the abnormal 
position of the testis is due to an anomalous fixation of the gubernaculum, 
a condition met with in some cases and indicated by a band of fibrous tissue, 
containing smooth muscle and elastic fibres, retaining the testis in its new 
position. Such cases are due primarily to a congenital deviation of the 
processus vaginalis. T. W. P. L. 



NEUROLOGY 

Trotter, W. On certain clinically obscure malignant tumours of the 
nasopharyngeal wall. Brit. Med. J., 1911, ii, 1057. 

Jacod, M. Sur la propagation intracranienne des sarcomes de la trompe 
d'Eustache : syndrome du carrefour petro-spheuoidal : paralysie des 2^, 3^, 4^, 5^ 
et 6e paires craniennes. [The intracranial extension of sarcomata of the 
eustachian tube : syndrome of the petro-sphenoidal junction.] Bev. neurol, 
1921, 38, 33. 

In 1911 Trotter first drew attention to a syndrome of peculiar interest 
to neurologists, arising from the spread of and the infiltration of sur- 



NEUROLOGY 243 

rounding tissues by endotheliomata arising in the lateral wall of the 
nasopharynx. When these growths project into the nasopharyngeal 
cavity they are readily observed and give rise to no neui'ological symptoms, 
but when there is little or no external projection, diagnosis depends entirely 
on the recognition of the symptoms of infiltration of the nasopharyngeal 
wall. These are, in Trotter's experience, remarkably constant. The region 
of the pharyngeal wall particularly affected is the orifice of the eustachian 
tube and the prominent cusliion below it formed by the levator palati. 
External to the cartilaginous tube and this muscle lies the inferior division 
of the fifth nerve, and latei'al to this the internal pterygoid muscle. The 
tumour, which is commonly an endothelioma, appears to originate in the 
substance of the pharyngeal wall and early involves the eustachian tube, 
causing deafness ; the levator palati, causing defective mobility of the soft 
palate on the affected side ; and then the inferior maxillary nerve, causing 
neuralgia in the ear, the side of the head, the jaw, and the tongue. Ulti- 
mately involvement of the internal pterygoid muscle prevents proper 
closure of the jaw. 

Deafness is usually the initial symptom, it is of eustachian tube type 
and may be relieved temporarily by inflation of the tube ; it may not be 
noted unless examined for. 

The nexiralgic pain is always strictly of fifth-nerve distribution. In 
one of Trotter's cases upward extension of the growth into the spheno- 
maxillary fossa had involved the second division of the fifth nerve. Objective 
sensory change appears some weeks or months later than the pain, which is 
very severe and may, in the absence of other detected signs, give rise to a 
diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia. 

The palatal defect is due to direct involvement of the muscle, and is 
most apparent when the palate is at rest, for while the muscle may still be 
able to contract, its relaxation is imperfect or delayed. Oedema of the 
palate is a later symptom. As late symptoms, enlargement of the cervical 
glands and imperfect closure of the jaw are common. 

Diagnosis depends upon the fact that only a lesion of the lateral 
pharyngeal wall could give rise to this combination of symptoms : deafness 
of eustachian type, neuralgia of inferior maxillary division distribution, 
and defective mobility of the soft palate. Digital examination usually 
confirms the diagnosis. 

Owing to late diagnosis. Trotter has not been able to obtain by opera- 
tion a longer period of freedom from remission of symptoms than fifteen 
months. 

In a recent paper, Jacod, who is assistant in the laryngological clinic 
of Professor Lannois at Lyon, describes a symptom-complex produced by 
growths in this region of the pharyngeal wall. In his cases the tumour 
spread upward through the foramen lacerum into the cranial cavity and 
produced deafness of eustachian tube type, fifth-nerve neuralgia, and 
paralysis of the optic, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves. 

There seems little doubt that Jacod is describing the same type of 
growth as that recorded earlier by Trotter, though the paralyses in Jacod's 
cases are more extensive and seem to indicate either a terminal stage of the 
condition, or more pronounced upward extension into the skull. When 
the growth spreads up beside the body of the sphenoid we should expect 
the optic nerve and the nerves lying in the cavernous sinus to be affected, 
while it is easy to see that the seventh and eighth nerves, lying below the 



244 ABSTRACTS 

tentorium would escape. Jacod's first published series were recorded in 
1914, and since this time he has seen seven fresh cases, the symptomatology 
of which he reviews in his present paper, F. M. R. W. 

Baudoin, C. Suggestion and auto-suggestion. Trans, from the French by 
E. and C. Paul. George Allen ^- Umvin, London, 1920. 

Thoughout the period of the Freudian upheaval the Nancy school has 
continued to work in its own special province of suggestion, and it has not 
been disturbed in the pursuit of its own views by the revolutionary views 
of Vienna. It has not denied their truth, rather it has congratulated the 
Freudians that their findings coincide so well with its own ; but it has 
not thought that the new methods arre of much value in practice, though of 
undoubted theoretical interest. In this book Dr. Baudoin has described the 
developments of the Nancy school, especially as they have been elaborated 
by his friend and colleague Dr. fimile Coud. 

' There is no hypnotism, only suggestion,' said Bernheim. ' There is no 
suggestion, only auto-suggestion,' is the new dictum. ' Suggestion is the 
subconscious realization of the idea.' The meaning of this sentence is the 
theme of Dr. Baudoin's book. The realization of the idea is subconscious. 
This implies that it has nothing to do with will ; indeed, the operation of 
will is worse than useless if it comes into conflict with an opposing idea 
charged with emotional tone. The will is always defeated by the idea. 
When we are learning to ride a bicycle we see a stone in the road ; v/e try 
to avoid it and we collide with it. What has happened 1 The idea that we 
shall strike it has occurred, and this idea has been charged with the emotion 
of fear. To this we have opposed our will and assuredly it has not helped 
us. Now this is very curious. The road may have been twenty feet wide, 
the stone an inch or two. To have hit it fortuitously was unlikely, but we 
did hit it. The idea that we should do so was conscious, but the mechanism 
by which the idea was realized was concealed, was subconscious ; and if 
the hitting was not fortuitous it must be a very accurate and perfect 
mechanism whicli produced such a result. The will not only failed to help 
us, but, such is the teaching, the more it was called into play, the more 
certain would we be to hit the stone. This phenomenon of the worse than 
useless efiect of the will is called the law of reversed effort. ' So long as 
the imagination is adv^erse, so long as a counter-suggestion is at work, effort 
of the conscious will acts by contraries.' ' When the will and the imagina- 
tion are at war, the imagination iiivariahly wins the day.' 

The idea which sliould have filled the tyro's mind was that the road 
was wide and the stone small, and that it would be really difficult for so 
poor a rider to hit it. These thoughts would certainly have been true, and 
tlie beginner was as free to consider them as those which he actually did 
entertain. The importance of this in psychotherapy is obvious. The 
insomnic lies awake because he is possessed with the idea that he will not 
sleep, and this idea is charged with the fear of what will happen if he does 
not. The more he tries to go to sleep, the wider awake does he become. 
The man who cannot concentrate believes that for him it is impossible, and 
all his conscious efforts result only in further wandering from his subject. 
The task of the physician is to bring the attention of the patient to the 
opposite idea, and to teach him how to hold it there. This is most easily 
and most profitably done in times of bodily and mental relaxation ; for then 



NEUROLOGY 245 

the will is most in abeyance, and then contact with the subconscious is most 
easily obtained. Tliat a method of this kind will cure a laro;e number of 
the neuroses is certain. It has been well established that the expectation 
of symptoms is a fruitful cause of symptoms, but the claim here is that not 
only will this procedure cure those common manifestations which used to 
be called neurasthenic, but that the graver obsessional and compulsive cases 
are also restored to health by its employment. On this point it is difficult 
to give an opinion, but the question should certainly be investigated. 
Psycho-analysis is not regarded even by its devotees as a sure remedy for 
these conditions ; and, if it were, something much shorter must be found if 
more than a small ]5ercentage of neuropaths are to be relieved. 

The Nancy school goes still farther, and says that success has followed 
in certain cases of intractable organic disease, such as chronic eczema and 
varicose ulcer. We know that the regulation of internal secretions and of 
blood-supply is affected by the emotions, and it is therefore not impossible 
that emotional thought can alter the course of organic disease. This is 
a hard thought to many, but the subject should be approached with an 
open mind. The line between functional and organic is vague ; who shall 
say where the possibilities of psychotherapy must end ? 

T. A. R. 

Bbown, W. Psychology and psychotherapy. London. Edward Arnold, 
1920. 

In this book of about two hundred pages, Dr. Brown gives the impres- 
sion of having attempted to cover too much ground ; and what he has written 
lacks proportion and plan. It hardly seems necessary in a little book on 
psychology and psychotherapy to enter the unknowable land of the relation 
of mind to brain, and in some twenty pages the subject has been compressed 
to the point of being unintelligible. Thus, ' If we explain consciousness in 
terms of brain change we are also explaining intellectual processes, which 
are a part of consciousness, in this way. That is to say, we are explaining 
consciousness in terms of something which needs consciousness for its 
explanation.' As the sentences stand, surely we are only explaining 
intellectual processes in terms of brain change. It may be that Dr. Brown 
regards it as an objection to the materialistic view that we need consciousness 
to understand consciousness, but that objection must apply to any theory of 
consciousness. Whatever may be the meaning of the sentences quoted, they 
need much amplification to bring it out. In a later part of the argument, 
it is curious to find the statement that the materialistic view wipes out the 
possibility of survival after death. Psj^chology has nothing to do with such 
a subject. 

The clinical part of the work is occupied almost exclusively with war 
eases, and though he was very successful in abolishing hysterical symptoms 
taken in hand at an early stage, Dr. Brown seems to have been too easily 
satisfied in his delayed cases with immediate results, and too readily satisfied 
with odd explanations. He records a case, already described by him else- 
where, which he must therefore deem important, where a young man had 
loss of orientation so that when he was in a 'bus which turned through 
a right angle, he felt as though it had continued in a straight line. By an 
analytic investigation Dr. Brown arrived at a suppressed experience of 
a tumble in childhood, when the patient had fallen laterally to the ground 



246 ABSTRACTS 

— that is, through a right angle. Shortly after this discovery the disorienta- 
tion ceased ; and in a brief interval the patient passed finally from 
observation. This case is described by Dr. Brown to illustrate therapy by 
hypnotic recovery of lost memories ; and the more it is examined the less 
does it seem to illustrate anything at all. 

Is there any human being who has not, at various periods of infancy 
and childhood, fallen through a right angle ? Is a cure which has been 
observed for a few days only worth talking about ? 

Certain remarks made about soldiers after heavy fighting are unfortu- 
nate. Some of the men ' were keeping up with obvious effort rhythmical 
tremors which had no doubt been involuntary and irrepressible some hours 
before, but were now within the field of voluntary control. By distracting 
these cases with a rapid sequence of questions as to the origin of their 
disability, I was able to bring the tremors to an end.' The view is quite 
clear ; because their tremors were brought to an end by distraction, they 
were voluntary. This is the view of the sergeant-major ; it is also the view 
of a certain type of unimaginative doctor ; it is an astounding view to come 
from a reader in psychology. If I am sad and a friend comes in and 
distracts me, does that imply that my sadness was voluntary and that 
I could have stopped it myself ? Moreover, can rhythmic tremor be kept 
up voluntarily for any length of time 1 

On the whole, it must be said that the book is one of the many on 
psychotherapeutic subjects which had better not have been written. At 
the moment we are almost submerged beneath a flood of literature of this 
kind, disorderly both in thought and expression, and of no value. It is 
a pity that Dr. Brown has yielded to the impulse to add his quota to the 
muddy torrent. To the practitioner dealing with civilian cases the book 
wall give no help ; as a guide to modern psycho-pathology it is useless 
because of its compression and obscurity ; as an epitome of general philosophy 
it is absurd. It is diflicult to see for what class of reader it is intended. 

T. A. R. 

Andb^i-Thomas. Le reflexe pilomoteur. [The pilomotor reflex.] Bev. 
neurol, 1920, 27, 1139. 

Andre-Thomas describes the receptive field, appropriate stimuli, and the 
characters of the response in this reflex under various conditions. 

In the normal subject the pilomotor muscles may be excited directly 
by mechanical stimuli or reflexly. As a reflex it may be obtained by 
various stimuli applied to the skin, such as cold, friction, and the electric 
current. To unilateral stimuli the response is unilateral and may spread 
to the whole of the stimulated half of the body, or it may be restricted to 
one or more segmental areas. Certain cutaneous areas are particularly 
receptive, the nape of the neck and shoulders and the lower part of the 
axilla. When elicited from the neck the response is descending, and 
stronger stimuli are necessary to produce it over the head and neck. On 
the limbs, the extensor surfaces give the response more readily than the 
flexor surfaces. Bilateral stimuli produce a bilateral response. 

In lesions of the spinal cord the response is exaggerated immediately 
below the upper level of the lesion. In total divisions of the cord, there 
are two forms of response : one above the level of the section, the ' reflexe 
encephalique ', and one below, the ' reflexe spinale '. 



NEUROLOGY 247 

The spinal reflex in total divisions of the cord makes its appearance 
when the isolated portion of the cord emerges from spinal shock — that is, 
simultaneously with the mass retlex. It is elicited by the same stimuli as 
this reflex, namely, passive movements of the legs, &c. In these circum- 
stances, the factors governing the distribution of the spinal reflex are the 
same as those governing that of the reflex sweating described by Head and 
Riddoch — that is, the distribution of the thoracico-lumbar white rami. 

In partial lesions and in various diseases of the spinal cord, the response 
varies and is often diflioult of interpretation. It is normal in poliomyelitis. 
In syringomyelia, variations in the response follow the distribution of 
vasomotor" and trophic disturbances. In peripheral nerve lesions, the reflex 
response is abolished over the area of sensory changes, but, as Trotter and 
Davies showed, a local response to stimulation persists. 

The cerebral reflex, that is, the response above the level of a cord 
lesion, varies greatly in facility and distribution. It descends to the level 
of the sympathetic distribution of the isolated portion of the cord. 

In the normal subject the reflex is elicited by peripheral stimuli and 
also by various emotional states. The quality of the stimulus in both cases 
is similar and is strongly affective. In the former case, the sensations 
aroused by stimulation are of the aft'ective variety and are unpleasant. 
Hence when the skin is anaesthetic no response can be obtained from it. 
The emotions producing the reflex are also unpleasant in quality. Fright 
and horror are the most adequate stimuli, but any profound emotion, what- 
ever its quality, may be sufficient to produce it. The reflex of emotional 
origin is bilateral, that due to peripheral stimulation may be unilateral. 
The pilomotor refle.K may therefore be regarded as an aflective reflex. 

F. M. R. W. 



BiOussY, G. Les lesions du corps thyroide dans la maladie de Basedow. [The 
thyroid lesions in Graves's disease.] Bev. neuroL, 1920, 27, 918. 

Roussy distinguishes the following forms of Graves's disease : the 
common or essential form ; secondary forms associated with infections of 
the thyroid (granulomatous or non-specific), with maHgnant disease, or with 
goitre in regions where goitre is common ; and abortive forms of varying 
nature. 

The essential lesions of the disease are found in the thyroid, thymus, 
and lymphatic glands. According to Roussy, the changes in the thyroid 
are characteristic and allow of diagnosis from microscopic examination alone. 
The features of the thyroid lesion are a parenchymatous hyperplasia 
aSecting acini, epithelium, and colloid substance. The acini are smaller and 
more numerous than normal. Their form is irregular and the lumen may 
be absent. The cells are cubical and form intra-alveolar projections. Mitotic 
figures are rare, but desquamation is common. The colloid substance is 
diminished in amount, more fluid than normal, and stains feebly. Additional 
changes noted by Roussy and Clunet are clumps of eosinophil cells and of 
lymphocytes. The eosinophil clumps are found in about 50 per cent, of 
cases and are peculiar to this disease. The hyperplasia, though not 
characteristic in appearance, is so in its universal distribution throughout 
the aflected gland. 

A persistent or hypertrophied thymus is found in about 60 per cent, of 



248 ABSTRACTS 

cases, and proportional to this there may be enlargement of the lymphatic 
glands of neck, thorax, and abdomen. 

The characteristic blood-changes consist in a leucopenia with a relative 
lymphocytosis, and a delayed coagulation time. 

There are no constant lesions found elsewhere in viscera, glands, or 
nervous system. The sympathetic ganglia and trunks may show fatty 
infiltration and their cells degenerative and atrophic changes, but these 
changes are not constant or essential. 

In long-standing cases various minor degrees of change may be found 
in various organs, but these are not constant and may be agonal changes. 

The pathogenesis of the disease. While admitting that the sym- 
pathetic system probably plays a part in the symptomatology of the disease, 
Roussy thinks that this is not essential and is confined to the carriage of 
nervous impulses set up by toxic factors. 

The various pluriglandular theories he dismisses as ingenious hypo- 
theses without foundation. For him disordered thyroid function is the 
essential basis of the disease. He considers that dysthyroidism rather than 
hyperthyroidism is concerned. This would explain the association of 
symptoms of myxoedema and of Graves's disease in a single patient, and the 
fact tliat extract from the thyroid in Graves's disease may be less active than 
that from a normal gland. The relation of the thymus to the thyroid 
lesion remains obscure. In conclusion, Roussy would sum up as follows : 
that Graves's disease probably arises from an unnoticed inflammatory lesion 
of the thyroid and perhaps of the thymus also, which is followed by thyroid 
' dyshyperplasia ' and the production of an excessive and perverted secretion, 
which has a selective toxic action on certain organs or parts of the nervous 
system. 

Of methods of treatment, Roussy considers radiotlierapy the most 
efficacious, while the estimation of the basal metabolism is an important 
method of estimating the degree of thyroid activity and of controlling 
treatment. 

From his own extensive observations during the war, Roussy does not 
believe that Graves's disease follows emotional disturbance or shock. 

This abstract is taken from a report of a paper by Roussy read at the 
24th annual congress of alienists and neurologists of French-speaking 
countries, held at Strasbourg during August 1920. At the end of the paper, 
the discussion which followed it is very briefly reported. 

F. M. R. W. 

WestfhaIi, a. Uber seltene motorische Erscheinungen bei multipler Sklerose, 
nebst Bemerkungen zur Differentialdiagnose gegeniiber der Encephalitis epide- 
mica. [Unusual motor symptoms in disseminated sclerosis, with reference 
to the differential diagnosis from epidemic encephalitis.] Deutsche Ztschr. 
f. NervenheUTi., 1921, 68-9, 128. 

Westphal records three cases of disseminated sclerosis, two of which 
were confirmed by autopsy, in which unusual motor symptoms occurred 
suggesting the presence of encephalitis. 

(1) A man of 35, who came under observation with widespread 
choreiform movements of limbs, grimacing movements of the face, and 
general restlessness. Speech was unintelligible, and standing and walking 
were impossible on account of the persistent involuntary movements. The 



NEUROLOGY 249 

tendon-jerks were increased, the abdominal reflexes alisent, and tlie plantar 
responses both extensor. It was not possible to determine the condition of 
the fundus oculi, nor the presence of nystagmus. The involuntary move- 
ment persisted during rest, but was grossly aggravated during movement, 
so that co-ordinated movement was impossible. During the six weeks 
before the patient died, the general unrest steadily increased. Speech 
remained practically unintelligible. The patient's mental state appeared 
normal, and he was perfectly oriented. It appeared that he had been ailing 
for three years. The picture was one of severe chorea with signs of 
pyramidal tract lesion. Examination of the brain revealed the characteristic 
lesions of disseminated sclerosis in great number involving all parts of